Umas - All Combat

PSD - Progressive Self Defense/ALL-COMBAT

LOCKS

NECK LOCKS

Dislocation necklocks

 

Mount kubi-hishigi or neck crack

Mount osae-kubi-hishigi, dislocation in immobilization (gordel)

Standing tate-hishigi or guillotine

Gyaku-hishigi, dislocation by elongation

Tomoe-hishigi, dislocation in cercle

Kesa-gatame-kubi-hishigi, dislocation of neck in scarf hold

 

Variation

Dislocation standing of neck with turning the jaw

VERWURGINGEN / STRANGULATIONS

Strangling is compression of the neck that leads to unconsciousness or death by causing an increasingly hypoxic state in the brain.  Fatal strangling typically occurs in cases of violence, accidents, and as the mechanism of suicide in hangings. Strangling does not have to be fatal; limited or interrupted strangling is practiced in erotic asphyxia, in the choking game, and is an important technique and in many combat sports and self-defense systems.

Strangling can be divided into three general types according to the mechanism used:

  • Hanging — Suspension from a cord wound around the neck.
  • Ligature strangulation — Strangulation without suspension using some form of cord-like object
  • Manual strangulation — Strangulation using the fingers or other extremity

The list of strangulation techniques below also attempts to categorise some of the techniques. Any similar techniques or derivatives (variations, etc.) are indented beneath the parent technique.

  • ASHI JIME - Leg Strangle
  • DOJIME - Body Squeeze
  • GYAKU JUJI JIME - Reverse Cross Strangle
  • HADAKA JIME - Naked Strangle
    • EBI GARAMI - Lobster Entanglement
    • KAMI SHIHO ASHI JIME - Upper Four Quarters, Leg Strangle
    • KUBI JIME - Neck Strangle
    • USHIRO JIME - Rear Strangle
  • HASAMI JIME - Scissor Strangle
    • KAMI SHIHO JIME - Scarf Strangle
  • HIZA JIME - Knee Strangle
  • KAESHI JIME - Overturn Strangle
  • KAKATO JIME - Heel Strangle
  • KAMI SHIHO BASAMI - Upper Four Quarters Scissors
  • KATA ERI JIME - Single Collar Strangle
    • USHIRO KATA HA JIME - Rear Single Collar Strangle
  • KATA HA JIME - Single Collar Strangle
  • KATA JUJI JIME - Single Cross Strangle
    • URA JUJI JIME - Back Cross Strangle
    • KATSUGI JIME - Shoulder Carry Strangle
      • HINERI JIME - Twisting Strangle
  • KATA TE JIME - Single Hand Strangle
  • KATA TE KATA ASHI JIME - Single Hand, Single Leg Strangle
  • KENSUI JIME - Hanging Strangle
  • MIGI / HIDARI ASHi JIME - Right / Left Leg Strangle
  • NAMI JUJI JIME - Standard Cross Strangle
    • SODE GARUMA JIME - Sleeve Wheel Strangle
      • SODE JIME - Sleeve Strangle
  • OBI JIME - Belt Strangle
  • OKURI ERI JIME - Sliding Collar Choke
    • GYAKU OKURI ERI JIME - Reverse Sliding Collar Choke
    • JUGOKU JIME - Hell Strangle
    • KOSHI JIME - Hip Choke
    • OTEN JIME - Barrel-roll Strangle
    • TAWARA JIME - Rice-Bale Strangle
  • RYOTE JIME - Double-hand Strangle
    • ERI JIME - Collar Strangle
    • KANI JIME - Crab Strangle
  • SANGAKU JIME - Triangle Strangle
    • KATA JIME - Shoulder Strangle
  • SUSO JIME - Skirt Strangle
  • TSUKI KOMI JIME - Thrusting Strangle

TEKENINGEN / DRAWING

www.freewebs.com/fightingpictures/technics.htm

 

CHINESE / FILIPINO TERM

TERMINOLOGIE DES DIFFERENTS TERMES EN KALI

   Arnis de mano  -  Armour of the hands /  Fencing art developed in the Philippine
Escrima / Eskrima  -  Fencing art developed in the Philippines
Escrimador  -  A practitioner of Escrima (un pratiquant en Kali)
Guru  -  Teacher (un professeur)
De fondo  -  To anchor or plant oneself (s’ancrer ou se planter)
Retirado  -  To retreat (se retire)
Corto  -  Close Range (distance courte)
Medio  -  Medium Range (distance moyenne)
Largo  -  Long Range (distance longue)
Primero  -  Strike held at target (Beginners) (frapper une cible)
Lobtik  -  To hit through the target (traverser)
Witik  -  To rap the target (frapper une cible)
Dungab  -  Thrust (coup)
Abaniko  -  Fanning motion (mouvement en éventail)
Redondo  -  Tightening circular strike / Flywheel (coup circulaire se resserant)
Songkiti   -  Hooking thrust (crochet)
Panastas   -  To slash(casser)
Palasut   -  To scoop (prendre avec les mains)
Agaw  -  Disarm (desarme)
Kunsi  -  Lock / Submission (clé/ soumission)
Higot  -  To tie (tordre)
Hubud  -  To untie ( défaire)
Lubud  -  To blend (mélanger)
Sabayan  -  Simultaneous attack & defence (attaque et defence simulmtanée)
Tapi  -  Checking (contrôle)
Kaw-it  -  Clipping (attaché)
Estokada  -  Long blade drills (exercice avec une longue lame)
Juego todo  -  Full contact sparring
Kurbada  -  Curving strike (coup incurve)
Hagbong  -  Cut down (couper en bas)
Saka  -  Cut up (couper en haut)
Plansa  -  Horizontal
Bartikal  -  Vertical
Hayang  -  Open / palm up
Kulob  -  Closed / palm down
Media  -  Short horizontal backhand slash  (coupcourt revers horizontal)
Sumbrada / Contra sumbrada  -  Counter for Counter (contre pour contre)
Amarra  -  Striking pattern / fighting combination (combinaison de combat)
Patuyok  -  Twirling
Anyo / Sayaw  -  Set form
Dumog / Buno  -  Filipino Grappling (lutte)
Arko  -  Arcing strike
Olisi / Baston  -  Stick (baton)
Doble Olisi / Baston  -  Double stick (double baton)

Sinawalli  -  Double stick etc. in an interweaving pattern
Pingki-Pingki  -  Double stick coordination drills (exercice de coordination au baton double)
Espada-y-Daga  -  Stick / Sword & Dagger (baton et couteau)
Daga / Baraw  -  Dagger / knife (couteau)
Bukas  -  Open guard position (forehand) (garde ouverte)
Serrada  -  Closed guard position (backhand) (garde fermée)
Dumaloy  -  Flow (drill) (exercice)
Payong  -  Umbrella
Kalasag  -  Shield
Abesedario  -  Basic block & counter (contre basique)
Sak-Sak / Langit  -  Hammer / sabre grip (knife) grip du sabre (couteau)
Pakal / Lupa  -  Ice-pick grip (knife) grip (couteau)
Cadena  -  Chain (chaine)
Tuo  -  Right (droit)
Wala  -  Left (gauche)

Sungab  -  Finger thrust (coup avec les doigts)
Punyo  -  Butt of stick (bout du stick du côté de la main)
Punta  -  Point of stick (pointe du stick)
Kamot  -  Body or hand (as in KA-li)
Lihok  -  Motion (as in ka-LI)
Enganio  -  Angle changing (P.I.A) (changement d’angle)
Tenador  -  Split entry (lit. fork)
Handa  -  Ready (prêt)
Yuko  -  Salutation
Sablet  -  Quick release (disarm) (désarmer)
Tresello  -  Lobtik, Witik, Lobtik motion
Ankab-Pagkusi / Kinomutai  -  Biting & pinching
Hampak  -  To hit (frapper)
Gunting  -  Scissors
Gununting  -  Scissor motion
Siko  -  Elbow (coude)
Sipa  -  Low stomp / oblique kick
Sikod  -  Push kick
Paglibot  -  Round kick
Tuhod  -  Knee (genou)
Likos / Puter kepala  -  Circle throw
Tabak Toyok  -  Flail (Nunchaku)
Bangkaw  -  Spear
Sibat  -  Staff (baton long)
Siko-Siko  -  Trident (Sai)
Oliso Palad / Tabak Maliit  -  Pocket stick / palm stick(baton de poche) (stick de poche)
Pangamot  -  Unarmed fighting(combattre sans arme)
Panuntukan  -  Filipino boxing (Pan=multi / suntukan=punching)
Sikaran  - Filipino Kicking (plus exactement le sikaran est le travail des pieds et des poings
)

 

KUNG FU TERMINOLOGY

Trapping Hand Terms

  • Lop Sao  Grappling Hand
  • Lin Lop Sao  Cross Grappling Hand
  • Jut Sao  Jerking Hand
  • Pak Sao  Slapping Hand
  • Gum Sao  Pinning Hand
  • Jao Sao  Running Hand
  • Huen Sao  Circling Hand
  • Man Geung Sao  Neck Pulling Hand
  • Lan Sao  Bar Arm

 

Technique Terms

  • Chung Chuie  Vertical Fist
  • Biu Jee  Finger Jab
  • Qua Chuie  Backfist
  • O'ou Chuie  Hooking Fist
  • Choap Chuie  Knuckle Fist
  • Jik Chung  Straight Blast
  • Jik Tek  Front Kick
  • Juk Tek  Side Kick
  • O'ou Tek  Hook Kick
  • Hou Tek  Back Kick
  • Juen Spin  Kick
  • So Tek  Sweep Kick
  • Dum Tek  Stomp Kick
  • Qua Tek  Inverted Hook Kick
  • Jeet Tek  Foot Obstruction, Stop Kick
  • Jeet Da  Stop Hit, Intercepting Hit
  • Sut Da  Knee Strike

 

       Defensive Movement Terms

      • Tan Sao  Palm Up Hand
      • Pak Sao  Slapping Hand
      • Wu Sao  Protecting Hand
      • Man Sao  Inquisitive Hand
      • Goang Sao  Lower Outer Wrist Block
      • Boang Sao  Raised Elbow Deflection
      • Fook Sao  Bent Arm Elbow In Parry
      • Kwun Sao  Rotating Arm Parry
      • Guan Sao  Splitting Parry

      JAPANESE TERMINOLOGY

      WOORDENBOEK
      A
      Age // Oplichten
      Ago // Kin
      Aikido // Zelfverdediging
      Arashi //Storm
      Ashi // Voet, been
      Atama // Hoofd
      Atemi // Slag
      Ayumi ashi // Normaal judolopen

      B
      Barai // Vegen
      Basami // Schaar
      Budo // Krijgskunsten
      Bushido // Erecode van de Japanse ridder

      C
      Chiisai // Klein
      Chikara // Kracht
      Chusen // Door loting

      D
      Daki // Omarmen
      Dan // Klas, graad
      De // Vooruitkomen
      Do // Weg
      Dojo // judozaal
      Dori // Nemen

      E
      Ebi // Kreeft
      Eri // Revers, kraag

      F
      Fusengashi // Winnaar door forfait

      G
      Gaeshi // Tegenaanval
      Gake // Haken
      Garami // Oprollen
      Gari // Maaien
      gatame // Houden , controle
      Geiko // Oefening
      Go // vijf
      Geza // Shuin-revers van kleding boeddhistische
      Gokyo // Vijf groepen
      Gonosen no kata // Vorm van tegenworpen
      Goshi // Heup
      Goshinjitsu kodokan // Kodokan zelfverdedigingsvorm
      Guruma // Rad, wiel
      Gyaku // Omgekeerd

      H
      Hane // vleugel
      Hantei // Oordeel
      Harai // Vegen
      Henka // Verandering
      Hiki // Trekken
      Hikiwake // Gelijk
      Hiji // Elleboog
      Hadaka // Naakt
      Hajime // Begin
      Hansokumake // Verlies door overtreding van de regels
      Hara // Buik
      Hasami // Schaar
      Hidari // Links
      Hishigi // Klem, ontwrichten
      Hon // Fundamenteel

      I
      Ichi // Een
      Ippon // Een punt, een zijde
      Idori // Geknielde ziet
      Itsutsu no kata // Vorm van vijf

      J
      Jigo // Verdediging
      Jikan // Tijd
      Jitsu // Techniek, kunst
      Ju // Zacht
      Judoka // Judobeoefenaar
      Ju no kata // Vorm van soepelheid
      Jigotai // Verdedigingshouding
      Jime // Wurgen
      Joseki // Ereplaats in dojo
      Judogi // Judokleding
      Juji // Gekruist

      K
      Kachi // Winnen door verwonding, ziekte of ongeval
      Kagami-biraki // Nieuwjaarsceremonie
      Kakae // Omaarmen
      Kake // Uitvoeren
      Kamiza // Ereplaats in dojo
      Kani // Kreeft
      Karate // Lege hand
      Kataha // Vleugel
      Katame no kata // Controle naar vorm
      Kaeshi // Tegenaanval
      Kai // Gemeenschap
      Kakari geiko // Trainingsmethode
      Kami // Bovenop
      Kan geiko // Wintertraining
      Kansetsu // Gewricht
      Kata // Schouder, type, een kant
      Katame // Houden, controle
      Katsu // Reanimatiemethode
      Keikogi // Judokleding
      Keiko // Oefening
      Kesa // Shuin, revers van kleding
      Kime no kata // zelfverdedigingsvorm
      Kio // Beginsel,groep
      Ko // Klein
      Kohaku shiai // Competitie rood en wit
      Kiai // Roepen, Kreet
      Kimono // Kleding
      Kiri // Splijten
      Koshi // Heup
      Kotoen shiai // Vorm van competitie
      Kodokan // Judocentrum in Tokio
      Komi // Tegen, binnen
      Koshiki no kata // Antieke vorm
      Kubi // Hals
      Kuzure // Variatie
      Kuatsu // Reanimatiemethode
      Kumikata // Manier van vastpakken
      Kuzushi // Evenwicht verbreken
      kwai // Gemeenschap
      Kwatsu // Reanimatiemethode
      Kwansetsu // Gewricht
      Kyu // Klas, graad
      Kyudo // Boogschietkunst

      M
      Ma // Recht
      Maitta // Ik geef op
      Makikomi // Oprollende worp
      Matte // Wacht
      Mochi // Met de handen nemen
      Mune // Borst
      Mae // Van voren
      Maki // Oprollen
      Mata // Dij
      Migi // Rechts
      Morote // Met twee handen
      Mundansha // Een kyu graadhouder

      N
      Nage // Werpen
      Nage waza // Werptechniek
      Ne // Liggend
      Nage no kata // Werpen naar vorm
      Nami // Normaal, Gewoon
      Ne waza // Grondtechnieken

      O
      O // Groot
      Okuri // Zenden
      Osae komi toketa // Houdgreep verbroken
      Obi // Gordel
      Osae komi // Houdgreep
      Otoshi // Laten vallen

      R
      Randori // Vrij oefenen
      Renraku waza // Techniek van combinaties
      Rio // Twee, beide
      Ryu // School,methode
      Rei // Buiging, goet
      Renzoku waza // Vervolgtechnieken
      Ritsu rei // Staande houding

      S
      Sabaki // Draaien
      Samurai // Blokkeren
      Saika // Onderbruik
      Sankaku // Driehoek
      Schochu geiko // Zomertraining
      Seoi // Op de rug nemen
      shiaijo // Competitieoppervlakte
      Shime // Wurgen
      Shintai // Verplaatsing zonder draaien
      Shisei // Houding
      Shobu // Gevecht
      Sono mama // Beweegt niet meer
      Soto // buitenwaarts
      Sukiu // Lepel, opscheppen
      Sumo // Japans worstelen
      Sensei // Leraar
      Shiai // Competitie
      Shihan // Meester
      Shinpan // Scheidsrechter
      Shiho // Vier punten
      Shizentai // Normale houding
      Sode // Mouw
      Soremade // Einde
      Sukoshi // Een beetje
      Sumi // Hoek
      sutemi // opoffering

      T
      Tachi ai // Staande Positie
      Tai sabaki // Draaiende beweging van het lichaam
      Tanden // Buik
      Tani // Vallei
      Tate // In de lengte, verticaal
      Te // Hand
      Tokui // Voorkeurtechniek
      Tori // Hij die uitvoert
      Tsugi ashi // Wijze van verplaatsing
      Tsukkinami shiai // Gradencompetitie
      Tsukuri // Voorbereiden
      Tsuri komi // Trekken en oplichten
      Tachi // Rechtstaande
      Tai // Lichaam
      Taisho // Ploegleider
      Tandoku renshu // Allen oefenen
      Tatami // //Tapijt
      Tawara // Rijstbaal
      Toketa // Verbroken
      Tomoe // Boog, cirkel
      Tsugi // achtereenvolgende
      Tsuki // Een stoot
      Tsukkomi // Duwen
      Tsuri // Opheffen, vissen

      U
      Uchi komi // Herhaald Inkomen
      Uke // Hij die ondergaat
      Uki // Drijven
      Ushiro // //Van achteren
      Uchi // Binnenwaarts
      Ude // Arm
      Ukemi // Valbreken
      Ura // Tegengesteld
      Utsuri // Wisselen

      W
      Wakare // Sheiden
      Waza ari // Bijna punt
      Waza // Kunst, Techniek
      Waza ari awasete ippon // Tweemaal bijna punt


      Y

      Yaku soku geiko // Studieoefening in beweging
      Yoko // Zeide
      Yudansha // Dangraaddrager
      yama // Berg
      Yoshi // Hierneemt, gaat
      Yusei gashi // Winnaar door superioriteit

      Z
      Za // Zitplaats
      Za zen // Meditatiezit
      Zori // sandalen
      Zarei // Geknielde groet
      Zen // Religieuze meditatie


      Beenworpen (ashi waza)
      Ashi guruma: beenrad
      De ashi barai: vooruitkomende voet vegen
      Harai tsuri komi ashi: vegen van de voet al trekkend en oplichtend
      Hiza guruma: knierad
      Ko soto gake: kleine buitenwaartse haakworp
      Ko soto gari: kleine buitenwaartse maaiworp
      Ko uchi gari: kleine binnenwaartse maaiworp
      O guruma: groot rad
      Okuri ashi barai: vegen van beide voeten
      O soto gari: grote buitenwaartse maaiworp
      O soto guruma: groot buitenwaarts rad
      O soto otoshi: grote buitenwaartse worp
      O uchi gari: grote binnenwaartse maaiworp
      Sasae tsuri komi ashi: blokkeren van de voet al trekkend
      Uchi mata: binnenwaartse dijworp

      Heupworpen (koshi waza)
      Hane goshi: springende heupworp
      Harai goshi: vegende heupworp
      Koshi guruma: heuprad
      O goshi: grote heupworp
      Ko tsuri goshi: kleine heffende heupworp
      O tsuri goshi:: grote heffende heupworp
      Tsuri komi goshi: heupworp al trekkend en oplichtend
      Sode tsuri komi goshi: mouw trekkend en oplichtend heupworp
      Uki goshi: vlottende heupworp
      Ushiro goshi: achter heupworp
      Utsuri goshi: omkerende heupworp
      Yama arashi: bergstormworp

      Handworpen (te waza)
      Ippon seoi nage: een punt over de rug werpen
      Kata guruma: schouderrad
      Morote gari: met beide handen maaien
      Morote seoi nage: met twee handen rug werpen
      Seoi otoshi: rug vallen
      Sukiu nage: lepel werpen
      Sumi otoshi: hoekworp
      Tai otoshi: lichaam werpen
      Uki otoshi: vlottende worp

      Offerworpen (sutemi waza)
      Hane maki komi: vleugel oprollen
      Kani basami: vliegende schaar
      O soto maki komi: grote buitenwaartse rol
      Soto maki komi: buitenwaartse rol
      Sumi gaeshi: in hoek omkantelen
      Tani otoshi: worp in de vallei
      Tawara gaeshi: zak omver kantelen
      Tomoe nage: werpen in cirkel
      Uchi maki komi: binnenwaartse rol
      Uki waza: vlottende techniek
      Ura nage: tegenovergestelde kant werpen
      Yoko gake: zijdelings haken
      Yoko guruma: zijdelings rad
      Yoko otoshi: zijdelings werpen
      Yoko wakare: zijdelings scheiden

      Houdgrepen (osae-komi-waza)
      Keza gatame
      Hon geza gatame: fundamenteel flank houden
      Kuzure geza gatame: variatie flank houden
      Makura geza gatame: hoofdkussen flank houden
      Ushiro geza gatame: achterwaarts flank houden
      Kata gatame: schouder houden

      Shiho gatame:
      Yoko shiho gatame zijdelings 4 punten houden
      Kami shiho gatame: bovenop 4 punten houden
      Kuzure kami shiho gatame: variatie bovenop 4 punten houden
      Tate shiho gatame: recht / verticaal 4 punten houden


      Verwurgingen (shime waza)
      Nami juji jime: normaal gekruist verwurgen
      Gyaku juji jime: omgekeerd gekruist verwurgen
      Kata juji jime: tegenovergesteld gekruist verwurgen
      Hadaka jime: naakt verwurgen
      Okeri eri jime: met beide revers verwurgen
      Katate jime: verwurging met een hand
      Ryote jime: met twee handen verwurgen
      Sode guruma jime: verwurgen door te draaien met de mouwen
      Tsukkomi jime: duwend verwurgen
      Sankaku jime: in driehoek verwurgen

      Armklemmen (kansetsu waza)
      Ude garami: arm oprollen
      Ude hishigi sankaku gatame: arm klemmen door in driehoek te houden
      Ude hishigi juji gatame: arm klemmen door gekruist te houden
      Ude hishigi ude gatame: arm klemmen door met de arm je houden
      Ude hishigi hiza gatame: arm klemmen door met de knie te houden
      Ude hishigi waki gatame: arm klemmen door met de oksel te houden
      Ude hishigi hara gatame: arm klemmen door met de buik te houden
      Ude hishigi ashi gatame: arm klemmen door met het been te houden
      Ude hishigi te gatame: arm klemmen door met de hand te houden

      KOREAN TERMINOLOGY

      Korean Counting

      There are two different numbering systems that are used by Koreans. The first numbering system is used when counting, or when only speaking of the numbers themselves. The first ten numbers in this system are as follows:

        1 : hanah
        2 : dool
        3 : set
        4 : net
        5 : dasot
        6 : yasot
        7 : ilgop
        8 : yadol
        9 : ahop
        10 : yool

      The stress in "hanah", "dasot", and "yasot" is on the first syllable, in "ilgop", "yadol", and "ahop" on the second. In counting cadence in TaeKwonDo, this is so emphasized that the other syllable frequently almost disappears (e.g., "han", "das", "yos", "lgop", "hop", etc.).

      The other numbering system (which is of Chinese origin) is used in most other cases and is often used where Americans would use ordinal numbers (such as "first", "second", etc ...). For example, this second numbering system is used when describing a person's rank: a first degree black belt would be an "il dan". The first ten numbers in this numbering system are as follows:

        1 : il
        2 : ee
        3 : sahm
        4 : sah
        5 : oh
        6 : ryook
        7 : chil
        8 : pal
        9 : koo
        10 : ship

      The final `l' in "chil" and "pal" isn't rounded, like an American `l' .... It's a much shorter sound, sort of like the initial `l' in "let", but even shorter. It's not like the `l' in "ball".

      When pronouncing the word "ship", you must not emphasize the "sh" sound. It's almost more like "sip" with a sort of a lisp. If you pronounce it like "sh" in "shell", then you are referring to sexual intercourse.

      Even though this second numbering system may correspond to ordinal numbers in English in some cases, these are not ordinal numbers. Koreans use a separate set of words for ordinal numbers.

       

      Basic Body Parts

        mom : body
        kwanjeol : joint
        ulgool : face & head
        muh ree : head
        noon : eye
        gui : ear
        ko : nose
        in joong : philtrum
        eep : mouth
        tuhk : chin
        mokoomeong : throat
        mok : neck
        ouka : shoulder
        myung chi : solar plexus
        pahl : arm
        pahlkup : elbow
        pahlmahk : forearm
        ahn pahlmahk : inner side of forearm
        bahkat pahlmahk : outer side of forearm
        meet pahlmahk : palm side of forearm
        wi pahlmahk : back side of forearm
        deung pahlmahk : back of forearm
        sahnmahk : wrist
        sahn : hand
        sahnkal : outside edge of hand (knifehand)
        sahnkal deung : inside edge of hand (ridgehand)
        sahn deung : back hand
        joomok : fist
        sahnkahrak : finger
        sahnkeut : fingertip
        momtong : trunk (middle section)
        huri : waist
        ahrae : lower body (low section)
        noolro : groin
        dahree : leg
        mooreup : knee
        ahp jung kang yi : shin
        bahl mahk : ankle
        bahl : foot (or feet)
        bahldung : instep
        bahlbong oh ri : arch of foot
        bahl nahl : outside edge of foot
        an bahl nahl : inside edge of foot
        bahl badak : sole of foot
        ahp chook : ball of foot
        dwi koomchi : heel
        dwi chook : bottom of heel
        bahlkeut : toes

          Body Movements

            mom omgigi : movement of the body
            mahki : block
            chagi : kick
            chirugi : thrust (or punch)
            chigi : strike (with the hand)
            jeek gi : strike (with the foot)
            bahk gi : strike (with the head)
            sahn ki sool : hand technique
            bahl ki sool : foot technique
            kyorugi : sparring
            bituro : twisting
            gamya : stepping (also "omkyuh didigi")
            kuht neun : walking
            uro : moving in a particular direction (e.g. "ahp uro gamya" - stepping forward)
            bang hyang bakoogi : changing direction
            bitkyuh surgi : escaping
            tdwim yu : jumping
            dora : to turn
            dolmyo : spinning
            mee keul myu : sliding (also "mee kul gi")
            jupgi : holding/grabbing
            donzigi : throwing
            goorugi : rolling/tumbling
            pyihagi : dodging
            hecho : spreading
            moyo : gathering
            bojoo : covering

              Directions

                oo : right (also "oh-ruen")
                joa : left (also "wen")
                ahp : front
                ahn : inner
                bahkat : outer
                bahndae : reverse
                dwi : back
                ahnuro : inward
                bahkuro : outward
                whee : high (up)
                whee uro : upward
                guande : middle
                ulgool : high section (also "sahngdahn")
                momtong : middle section (also "chungdahn")
                ahrae : low section (also "hahdahn")

                Hand Positions

                  sahnkal : knifehand
                  sahnkal jecho : knifehand with palm up
                  sahnkal deung : ridgehand (also "oppun sahnkal")
                  sahn bahtong : palm heel (also "bahtong sahn")
                  sahn deung : back hand (also "deung sahn")
                  ah keum sahn : arc hand
                  galkwi sahn : ripping (or raking) hand
                  jipke sahn : pincers hand
                  joomok : fist
                  deung joomuk : back fist
                  yup joomuk : side fist
                  me joomuk : hammer-fist
                  inju joomuk : forefinger one-knuckle fist
                  bamchu joomuk : middle-finger one-knuckle fist
                  doo bam joomuk : two-knuckle fist
                  pyun joomuk : flat (or open) fist
                  omji joomuk : thumb-knuckle fist
                  kwan soo : spearhand (also "pyun sahnkeut")
                  sahnkeut : spearfinger
                  gawi sahnkeut : scissors-shaped spearfingers

           

          Hand Attacks

            bahro chirugi : straight (return) punch
            bahndae chirugi : reverse punch
            gullgi chirugi : hook punch
            yung seuk chirugi : combination (consecutive) punch
            doo bun chirugi : double punch
            sae bun chirugi : triple punch
            sahnkeut chirugi : spearfinger thrust
            sewo chirugi : vertical punch
            gotjang chirugi : vertical fist punch
            dolrya chirugi : round punch
            dwijubo chirugi : upset punch
            soteum chirugi : spring punch
            nehryuh chirugi : downward punch
            chi chirugi : uppercut punch
            jae chuh chirugi : upper punch (also "jae chin chirugi")
            doo joomuk chirugi : doublefist punch
            dikootja chirugi : `U' (or `C') shaped punch (hi-lo)
            sosum chirugi : double uppercut punch
            keumgang chirugi : diamond-shaped punch
            nalgeh chirugi : wing-shaped punch

            Blocks

              bahkat palmahk mahki : outer forearm block
              ahn palmahk mahki : inner forearm block
              sahng palmahk mahki : twin forearm block
              ahnuro mahki : inward block
              bahkuro mahki : outward block
              ahrae mahki : low block
              cho kyo mahki : rising block
              daebi mahki : guarding block
              bituro mahki : twisting block
              gahwi mahki : scissors block
              keumgang mahki : diamond-shaped (Hercules) block
              gutjha mahki : `9'-shaped block (cross block)
              yeot pero mahki : `X'-shaped block (also "kyo cha mahki")
              santeul mahki : mountain-shaped block (also "osanteul mahki")
              weh santeul mahki : part mountain-shaped block
              utgallruyuh mahki : cross block (also "utgiruh mahki")
              hechuh mahki : scattered block (or wedge block)
              hwang so mahki : ox (or "bull") block
              bahtangsahn nooluh mahki : pressing down block
              deuluh oll ryu mahki : upward scooping fist block

                Kicks

                  cha olligi : stretching kick
                  jillo chagi : thrusting kick
                  ahp chagi : front kick
                  yup chagi : side kick
                  dolrya chagi : round (roundhouse) kick
                  dwi chagi : back kick
                  bahndae dolrya chagi : reverse round kick ("hook kick" for some styles)
                  dwi dolrya chagi : back round kick ("hook kick" for some styles)
                  gullgi chagi : hook kick (also "golcho chagi" or "golro chagi")
                  bahndall chagi : crescent kick (literally "half moon kick")
                  hoohrio chagi : wheel kick
                  beet chagi : slant (or instep) kick
                  bahn dolrya chagi : half round kick (also "instep kick")
                  beakya chagi : slap kick
                  nehryuh jeek gi : ax kick; literally "downward foot strike"
                  hwe jun chagi : swing kick
                  mil a chagi : pushing kick (also "mil gi chagi")
                  gokwang i chagi : pickax kick
                  pyojuk chagi : target kick
                  dolmyo chagi : spinning kick
                  tdwim yah chagi : jumping kick
                  yung seuk chagi : combination (consecutive) kick
                  meekulmyu chagi : sliding kick (also "mikulgi chagi")
                  goollruh chagi : rolling kick
                  natgeh tdwim yu chagi : hopping kick
                  nalla chagi : flying kick (also "goong jung chagi")
                  gahwi chagi : scissors kick
                  illja chagi : linear kick
                  japgo chagi : holding (grasp) kick
                  ohpo chagi : falling kick (leg sweep)
                  nachu oh chagi : stooping kick

                  Stances

                    sohgi : stance
                    jah seh : posture (or stance) [used instead of "sohgi" in some styles]
                    ahnjun sohgi : sitting stance
                    ahp sohgi : front stance
                    ahp koo bi sohgi : front bent knee stance (also just "ahp koo bi")
                    dwi sohgi : back stance
                    dwi koo bi sohgi : back bent knee stance (also just "dwi koo bi")
                    beom sohgi : cat (or tiger) stance (also "goyang-i sohgi")
                    kuht neun sohgi : walking stance
                    juchoom sohgi : horseback riding stance ("kima sohgi" in some styles)
                    mot sohgi : fighting stance
                    kyorugi sohgi : sparring stance
                    choon bi sohgi : ready stance (also "pyeonhi sohgi")
                    gibon sohgi : basic stance
                    guande sohgi : middle stance
                    naranhee sohgi : parallel stance
                    niun ja sohgi : `L'-stance
                    gojang sohgi : fixed (lower-back) stance
                    sa sun sohgi : diagonal stance
                    gyuttari sohgi : fixed balance (or bent knee) stance
                    koh ah sohgi : crossed foot stance
                    kyo cha sohgi : `X'-stance
                    mo ah sohgi : close stance
                    joong-rib sohgi : neutral stance
                    dong yuk sohgi : dynamic stance
                    cha yun sohgi : natural stance
                    chagi sohgi : kicking stance
                    hahktari sohgi : crane stance (also "ue bal sohgi")

            MUAY BORAN

            MUAY THAI / MUAY BORAN / MUAY CHAIYA / MUAY KORAT / MUAY LOPBURI

            Het Muay (vechten) Boran (oud) is de ongewapende vechtskunst die vroeger in Thailand werd gebruikt voor het verdedigen van hun land. Deze technieken zijn heel effectief en realistisch maar op de achtergrond geraakt door het invoeren van regels en bescherming in het moderne Muay Thai. Het juiste ontstaan van Muay Boran is niet bekend maar het zou ongeveer 2000 jaar oud zijn. Het is de verzameling van kennis en ervaring van thai martial arts meesters door de eeuwen heen. Het Muay Boran heeft zoals andere martial arts verschillende stijlen uit verschillende regios, de 3 voornaamste hoofdstijlen waren:

            MUAY CHAIYA (deze stijl stond bekend voor het snel bewegen, sterke ellebogen en het locken en breken van lichaamsdelen)

            MUAY KORAT ( deze stijl maakte gebruik van sterke voorarm technieken en grappling)

            MUAY LOPBURI (deze stond bekend voor de harde stoten)

            In 1990 kwamen al de groot meesters uit Thailand samen om de verschillende Muay Boran technieken vast te leggen en zo tot een officieel programma te komen. Vroeger werd Thailand herhaaldelijk bedreigd en het land was veel in oorlog met Birma en China. Het Thaise leger leerde zichzelf te verdedigen in zowel het gewapende gevecht, gekend als krabi krabong als het ongewapende gevecht. Veel geschiedschrijvers zeggen dat het Thaiboksen uit krabi krabong is ontstaan. Zo werden de wapens vervangen door de natuurlijke wapens. Men gebruikte dus de lichaamsdelen als een wapen in het korte afstandsgevecht: Vuisten werden speren, ellebogen en knieën dienden om te hakken als bijlen en de scherpe scheenbenen werden een vechtlans of een zwaard. Verder leerde men ook de onderarmen te gebruiken om te breken en te ontwrichten. Voor het gevecht van heel dichtbij werd het grijpen, clinchen, worstelen en werpen, gekend als chap-ko muay en muay plam heel belangrijk. De gevechtstechnieken ontwikkelden zich verder. Gedurende bepaalde periodes waren er belangrijke personen zoals koningen en generaals die zoveel van het muay thai hielden dat ze de sport transformeerden. Er werden wedstrijden georganiseerd en zij namen er zelfs aan deel. Men noemt het Thaiboksen ook “ de sport der koningen” omdat vroeger soms conflicten tussen verschillende koningen met een gevecht werden beslist. De gevechten waren heel brutaal: De vuisten en de onderarmen werden omwikkeld met hennepkoorden. Bovendien werden er kleine knoopjes in de touwen gelegd zodat het oppervlak rond de vuisten ruwer was. Het vechten met gebonden handen noemde men “Muay Kaat Chueak”. Om het nog harder te maken werden soms de omwikkelde touwen in lijm gedoopt en daarna in gemalen glas of steengruis geduwd. Terwijl de lijm droogde en hard werd kon de bokser zich mentaal en fysiek voorbereiden op het gevecht met meditatie en het uitvoeren van zijn wai kru en ram muay. Men vocht door totdat een persoon te heftig bloedde of k.o. ging. Later werd er een tijdslimiet ingevoerd. Hiervoor gebruikte men een holle kokosnoot met een gaatje in geboord. Men gooide de kokosnoot in water. Als de kokosnoot onder ging was de tijd over. Bovendien waren er geen gewichtscategorieën zodat een kleine persoon soms vocht tegen een veel grotere en zwaardere persoon. (Behendigheid, snelheid, strategie en goed voetenwerk waren dan heel belangrijk voor de lichtere en kleinere vechter!  Thaiboksen werd heel populair. Boksers probeerden titels te behalen zoals bv. “majoor Thaiboksen. Dit was toen een heel gerespecteerde titel en men kreeg een hoge rang in het leger. Er zijn veel personen van toen die tot de dag van vandaag legendarisch zijn, zoals bv. Prachao Sua, de Tijgerkoning die incognito deelnam aan dorpskampen en vele kampioenen versloeg. Ook Nai Khanohm Tom, die als oorlogsgevangene in Birma 10 van de beste Birmaanse vechters 1 voor 1 had verslagen is een heel bekende naam. Hij werd vrijgelaten uit respect voor zijn vechtkunde en werd de grootste held van Thailand; hij staat symbool voor het traditionele Thaiboksen.  Muay Kaat Chueak  kennen de mensen vandaag vooral als gevechten die doorgingen rond de jaren 1920. Deze manier van vechten werd door de overheid verboden in 1929 doordat er een bokser stierf aan zijn verwondingen. Toch wordt het nog steeds beoefend en er vinden soms gevechten ondergronds plaats.  Muay Thai ontwikkelde later tot een echte sport en het gebruik van beschermmateriaal werd ingevoerd. Er werden meer reglementeringen toegevoegd en gewichtsklassen ingevoerd en Thaiboksen werd de vechtsport die we vandaag kennen.

             KRABI KRABONG

             

            Krabi Krabong is a simple but effective thai martial art. Buddhaiswan Institute of swordmanship it teach's there're just four drills (3, 8, 7 and 9 count). You can use these drills with each Krabi Krabong weapon like the daab (sword), plong (long stick), ngau or hawk....
            The footwork in KK allows the practioner to develope a very effective forward pressure. Of course you use your other weapons (fists, ellbows, knee etc.). For this there is a little part of Muay Boran (traditional Muay Thai) at the Krabi Krabong curriculum.

             

             

            THAI TECHNICS AND TERMINOLOGY

             

            PUNCHING TECHNICS / CHOK 

             

            English Thai Transliteration
            Straight Punch Mud Dhrong
            Hook Mud Wjang San
            Swing Mud Wijang Yao
            Spinning Backfist Mud Wjang Glab
            Uppercut Mud Seuy
            Jump Punch Kra-dod Chok
            Overhead Punch

            Mud Khouk

             

             

            ELBOW TECHNICS / DHEE SORK 

            English

            Thai

            Transliteration

            Elbow Slash

             

            Sork Dhee

            Horizontal Elbow

             

            Sork Dhad

            Uppercut Elbow

             

            Sork Ngad

            Forward Elbow Thrust

             

            Sork Poong

            Reverse Horizontal Elbow

             

            Sork Wjang Glab

            Spinning Elbow

             

            Sork Glab

            Elbow Chop

             

            Sork Sap

            Double Elbow Chop

             

            Sork Glab Koo

            Mid-Air Elbow Strike

             

            Gra-dode Sork

             

            KICKING TECHNICS / DHE

            English

            Thai

            Transliteration

            Straight Kick

             

            Dhe Dhrong

            Nutcracker Kick

             

            Dhe Paa Maak

            Roundhouse Kick

             

            Dhe Dhad

            Diagonal Kick

             

            Dhe Chiyang

            Half-Shin, Half-Knee Kick

             

            Dhe Krueng Kheng Krueng Kao

            Spinning Heel Kick

             

            Dhe Glab Lang

            Down Roundhouse Kick

             

            Dhe Kod

            Axe Heel Kick

             

            Dhe Khouk

            Jump Kick

             

            Gra-dode Dhe

            Step-Up Kick

             

            Yiep Dhe

             

            KNEE STRIKES / DHEE KAO

            English Thai Transliteration
            Straight Knee Strike Kao Dhrong
            Diagonal Knee Strike Kao Chijang
            Curving Knee Strike Kao Kouwng
            Horizontal Knee Strike Kao Dhad
            Knee Slap Kao Dhob
            Knee Bomb Kao Youwn
            Flying Knee Strike Kao Loy
            Step-Up Knee Strike Kao Yiep

             

            FOOT THRUST TECHNICS / TEEP

             

            English Thai Transliteration
            Straight Foot-Thrust Teep Dhrong
            Sideways Foot-Thrust Teep Kang
            Reverse Foot-Thrust Teep Glab Lang
            Slapping Foot-Thrust Teep Dhob
            Jumping Foot-Thrust Gra-dode Teep

             

            INDONESIAN PENCAK SILAT TERMINOLOGY

            Adat = to show respect.
            Akang = Older brother.
            Ales = Body evasion from Pamur Silat.
            Aliran = School. Different from Sasaran which is the training area itself.
            Amerindo Silat = A combination of silat styles but mostly Mustika Kweetang silat and taught in the U.S. by Guru James Ingram.
            Apa Khabar/Apak Khabar = Greeting: What's the news?
            Asideci Silat = A Silat system created by Guru David Jennings and accepted by IPSI as an authentic silat system. Primarily of Balinese descent.
            Ayam = Chicken
            Ayam Lawan = Rooster Claw the name for the larger version of "kerambit".
            Ba Pak = Father but also used to show respect for ones teacher. Usually shortened to Pak. For instance Pak Roedy, Pak Bruno, Pak Sean.
            Bagimana? = How are you?
            Baik-baik sekali. Dan anda? = Very fine. And you?
            Baju Melayu = The Malaysian silat uniform.
            Bangau = crane.
            Beladiri = Self-Defense.
            Belakang = back.
            Berbelah Bagi = Half-hearted.
            Beset = A block/check which is performed by moving the leg backwards. Often thought of as a rear sweep but that is a misnomer.
            Bintang = Star.
            Biru = Blue.
            Buah = Fruit - In silat it is used to refer to applications or techniques found in the jurus.
            Bunga = Flower - In silat it is used to refer to the artistic movements of the style and sometimes as fake Buah to mislead and opponent.
            Cabang = Branch - In silat it is usually used in reference to a branch location of a given style and also as a weapon similar to the Japanese Sai with larger and wider spaced tines. Can also be used as a reference to certain Tankgapan.
            Cekik = To strangle.
            Celurit = Similar to a scythe or grass hook.
            Cepat = fast.
            Cikalong = A style of Silat from Java.
            Cikgu = A teacher.
            Cimande = A style of Silat from Java.
            Cinkrik = A style of Silat from Java.
            Dalam = Inside.
            Dapuan = Front sweeping kick.
            Datuk Maha Raja Diraja = King of Kings
            Debawa = low.
            Delapan = Eight.
            Depan = Front, but in Gaja Putih and Jati Wisesa it is used to define the upward elbow strike.
            Depok = When the rear leg steps in front of the front leg in a cross stance.
            Diri = body.
            Dorong = Impel; urge into being interested; motivate. In many Sumatran styles it is the name given to the straight punch.
            Dua = Two
            Duduk = Sitting with legs not crossed. Sometimes used for kneeling as well.
            Empat = Four
            Enam = Six
            Gaja Putih = White Elephant Silat known for its excellent use of elbows at close range. From Java.
            Garak Garik = Strategy that basically means for every action there is an appropriate counter.
            Garuda = Bird. Sometimes used to describe an eagle.
            Gelek = Turning into a cross stance. Weight either equal or mostly on the front leg.
            Genggam = To grasp in the fist.
            Gerak = To Move
            Gerakan Dua = Vertical Movement.
            Gerakan Empat = Inside Circle.
            Gerakan Lima = Four Corners Slapping.
            Gerakan Satu = Horizontal Gunting Movement.
            Gerakan Tiga = Outside Circle.
            Gerakan = Specific Movement. In Raja Sterlak these movements are used during the training of Bunga and stalking an opponent.
            Golok = A type of machete.
            Gunting = Scissors.
            Guru = Teacher of many things. Can include spiritual training as well as fighting.
            Guru Bruno Cruicchi = Garrote Larense and Raja Sterlak teacher from Caracas Venezuela
            Guru Muda = New/Young Teacher
            Guru Roedy Wiranatakusumah = Teacher of Jati Wisessa Silat.
            Guru Silek = Teacher of Silat.
            Harimau = Generally used to describe ground fighting in silat. Also a style of Silat that specializes in ground fighting to include: prone, sitting, kneeling and standing.
            Harimau Duduk = Sitting Tiger. A kneeling posture of Pamur Silat
            Hijo = Green.
            Hitam = Black.
            Hormat = Culturally acceptable behavior as defined by the culture itself.
            Hormat Saya = Greeting: My Respects.
            Ibu = Wife.
            Ikat = A bandana worn in various ways depending on the area of Indonesia a person is from. Javanese generally where it with the pointed part of the bandana covering the neck and the knot tied on the forehead. Sumatrans generally where it with the point of the bandana covering the head.
            Ilmu = Magic
            IPSI = Nomenclature for the Indonesian Governing body of International Pencak Silat. Most U.S. practitioners and teachers do not belong to it.
            Jari = Finger.
            Jari Dua Tunjal = Two Finger Poke.
            Jari Tunjal = Finger Poke.
            Jati Wisesa Silat = A style of silat that is almost identical to Gaja Putih. The only difference is the inclusion of Panafersan.
            Jatuh = Falling.
            Jurus = Upper body patterns of movement mainly, although they can contain kicks and stepping methods as well.
            Jurus Bintang = The 5 angles of attack: straight, from right side, from left side, downward and upward. Pencak Silat Serak uses a 9 angle system as does Hok Kuntao, although the angle numbers are different.
            Jurus Celurit = Jurus that define the use and movements of the Celurit. See Celurit.
            Jurus Duduk = Jurus that are done while sitting. Purpose it to isolate upper body defense. Usually used in beginning stages of training.
            Jurus Harimau = Jurus of Harimau Silat or relating to Harimau movements within another style.
            Jurus Jati Wisesa = Jurus of Jati Wisesa Silat.
            Jurus Kerambit = Jurus that define the use and movements of the Kerambit. See Kerambit.
            Jurus Kombinasi = A combination of jurus much like a kata or kuen.
            Jurus Pamur = Jurus of Pamur Silat.
            Jurus Pisau = Jurus that define the use and movements of the Pisau. See Pisau.
            Jurus Raja Sterlak = Jurus of Raja Sterlak Silat.
            Jurus Tangan = Jurus that are specific to empty hands.
            Jurus Tongkat = Jurus that define the use and movements of the Tongkat. See Tongkat.
            Jurusan = Two man set of attacks and counters based on the movements found in the jurus.
            Kabau/kerbau = Waterbuffalo
            Kakak = Older sister.
            Kaki = leg/foot.
            Kaki Ayam = Barefoot.
            kala = Scorpion
            Kanan = right.
            Kapala = Head.
            Kebatinin = Inner Self. In silat it is usually a reference to spiritual training sometimes including the use of Ilmu.
            Kembali = You're Welcome.
            Kendang = Musical Drum.
            Kendang Penca = Music specifically for silat created mostly with kendang.
            Kendang Tarompet = Music specifically for silat created mostly with Tarompet.
            Kerambit = A small hand sickle originally intended for use as a tool to harvest rice and later converted into a weapon. Of Sumatran origin.
            Kilat = Lightening.
            Kinjit = Body throw usually using the elbow.
            Kiri = left.
            Kucing = cat.
            Kuda Kuda/Kudo Kudo = Horse stance
            Kuda Kuda Tinggi = High kuda kuda training. Mostly for offense.
            Kuda Kuda Menengah = Medium height kuda kuda training. Mostly for defense.
            Kuda Kuda Rendah = low kuda kuda training. Used mostly for ground fighting.
            Kujang = A type of knife.
            Kumango = A style of silat from Sumatra.
            Kunci = To lock.
            Kunci Mati = Dead lock. Putting a pesilat into a position where they are unable to continue.
            Kuncian = Specific locks.
            Kuning = Yellow.
            Langka = Step, steps or stepping.
            Langka Bintang = A two man drill where one person lies on the ground and the other uses various stepping methods to maneuver around the persons outspread limbs delivering knees, punches and elbows.
            Langka Empat Dalam = Stepping method that is defined by the four corners of a square. Devised as an individual training method for the various stepping methods found in Raja Sterlak.
            Langka Empat Luar = Stepping method that is defined by the four corners of a square but with four steps to each side of the square. Each corner uses Gelek/Depok to turn. Also to enter to the Langka Empat Dalam do so from the corner in an aggressive, larger step.
            Langka Empat Kembar = Name for the double square of Langka Empat.
            Langka Empat Orang Dua = Two man Langka Empat drill where opponents move in mirror like fashion around the Langka Empat Dalam. Can also be used to train hands, forearms, and Bunga.
            Langka Jalan = Stepping method for walking on a straight line.
            Langka Silang = Stepping method for learning how to turn in all four directions using a cross pattern.
            Langka Tiga = Used in some styles. This stepping method represents the use of the three corners of a triangle.
            Latihan = Any of the many drills that are used for training.
            Lawan = Adversary or attacker.
            Lima = Five.
            Lintau = A style of silat from Sumatra.
            Luar = Outside.
            Lutut = Knee.
            Ma Ha Guru Abdul Muthalief = Guru Cruicchi's teacher of Raja Sterlak and Selembam.
            Maaf = Forgiveness.
            Macan = Also Tiger.
            Macan tutul = Panther
            Maha Guru = Master Teacher
            Main Silek = To play silek or silat. Equivalent to light sparring where the goal is to learn but not hurt your opponent.
            Main Terus Menerus = Continuous silat play. More similar to sparring.
            Mande Muda = A prominent family form of silat in the US which means "New Cimande". The late Pendekar Herman Suwanda was system head. Died in car crash September 2000. Oldest sister (Ibu Rita) is now the head of the Cabang.
            Mas = Friend.
            Masukan = Similar to Langka but used to teach bridging or entries in Pamur Silat.
            Masukan Kaki = Term used to differentiate between leg entries and Masukan Tangan (hand entries) in Combat Silat.
            Masukan Tangan = Hand entries of Combat Silat.
            Mati = Dead. Used to describe the end of a technique or lock in silat.
            Mekar = Rising.
            Melangkah = The consideration of how to step.
            Merah = Red.
            Minangkabau = The most prominent people group of West Sumatra who are known for the low fighting styles. Raja Sterlak is related to one of the 10 major styles of the area.
            Monyet = Monkey.
            Murid = Student
            Murid Mati = Dead student. A method of training where the training partner does not resist. One part of the statue drill.
            Naga = Dragon
            Olah Raga = Competition fighting.
            Pamur Silat = A Madurese silat style.
            Pangianan Langka Empat Silat = A Sumatran silat style.
            Papisau<SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt"> = Knife hand strike.
            Pasan = The name given to all welcoming postures of Pamur.
            Pauh = A style of silat from Sumatra.
            Peci/Songkat = The name for the velvet hat that is worn by silat practitioners.
            Pelan = slow
            Pembasmian = A series of methods in Pamur Silat that are designed to eradicate the opponent. Only used as a last resort.
            Pendekar = A hero or great master of silat.
            Pentjak/Pencak = The "artistic" side of silat. Beauty. See also Seni.
            Perhatian = attention
            Pesilat = Person who practices silat.
            Picut = Flick.
            Pijak Baru = Light step. Seeing with your feet in essence.
            Pisau = Any type of straight blade Knife.
            Pitinggua = "Crane Stance" with the raised foot in front of the supporting leg.
            Pukul = To beat or hit.
            Pukulan Terus = Straight Punch.
            Pukulan Terus Orang Dua = Two man punching drill. 2 count with Gunting.
            Pukulan = Usually used in reference to street fighting systems of silat and kuntao. However, it can mean a specific punch.
            Pukulan Tedung = Cobra Fist
            Pukulan Tukul = Hammer Fist
            Pukulan Macan tutul = Panther Fist
            Pusaka/Pusako = An heirloom or something of value. Usually old.
            Putar Kepala/Puter Kepala = Head turning throw.
            Putih = White
            Rahsia = Secret.
            Raja = A King.
            Rasa = Feeling, emotion.
            Rencong = A type of knife used by the Aceh people of Sumatra which is sometimes held between the toes.
            Sakalipan Gaja Menlintang, Gaja Raba! = Sterlak motto meaning "An elephant gets in my way, I knock it down."
            Salam Hormat = Greeting: Hello with respect.
            Sambut = Similar to Buah. Basic applications of the jurus.
            Sapu = To sweep.
            Sapuan = A sweeping kick backward. Can be performed low but can also be done while standing.
            Sarung/Sarong = A piece of fabric, usually batik cloth, that is worn around the waist or around the shoulder. It can be one tube shaped piece of fabric that is woven or a single piece of flat cloth. Can be used as a weapon but more commonly used as part of the Indonesian dress for both male and female. Related to Islamic prayer times and the need to be covered to the ankles during prayers.
            Sasaran = Training area.
            Satu = One
            Sekali lagi = Do it again.
            Sikap = Demeanour; attitude
            Selamat = General greeting. Actually means safe.
            Selamat Datang = Greeting: Welcome.
            Selamat Jalan = Greeting: Goodbye.
            Selamat Malam = Greeting: Goodnight.
            Selamat Pagi = Greeting: Good morning.
            Sembilan = Nine.
            Sempai Hati = Having the heart to do something.
            Sempok = A crossing step where the lead leg steps behind the rear leg, often into a sila position.
            Seni = Art or skill.
            Senjata = Weapons.
            Sepak Kadam = Kick with sole of foot.
            Sepok = To slap. To kick.
            Sepok Bundar Lompat = Jumping Crescent Kick.
            Sepok Cakeng = Roundhouse kick.
            Sepok Depan = Front Kick.
            Sepok Depan Orang Dua = Two man drill for front kick where one kicks and the other slaps the kick down then immediately kicks.
            Sepok Kaki Rusuk = Edge of foot kick.
            Sepok Sodok = Shovel kick.
            Sepok Tundik = Intercepting kick.
            Sepuluh = Ten.
            Sera = Owl.
            Serak = Hoarse throat.
            Sewar = Sumatran knife that is narrow, has about a 10 inch blade with a slight curve and a handle that fits in the palm of your hand.
            Siku Datar = Horizontal Elbow.
            Siku Jatuh = Falling Elbow.
            Siku Mekar = Rising Elbow.
            Siku/Sikut = Elbow.
            Sikup = Posture. Demeanor, attitude.
            Sila/Silo = Sitting cross legged.
            Silahkan tolong = Please help.
            Silat Macan = Also, another tiger style of silat. Mostly upright.
            Silat Monyet = Monkey style silat. AKA Pamonyet.
            Silat Tempuran = The Indonesian term for Combat Silat. Primary systems of input are Pamur, Hok Kuntao and Sterlak.
            Silat Serak = The name of a Javanese Silat style prominent in the U.S. and brought by Dutch-Indonesians.
            Silat Syahbandar = A style of silat that uses a shuffling motion but contains no langka per-say. Moves close to opponent by shuffling feet but without taking a "step".
            Silat Tapak Suci = A style of silat.
            Silek Baru = A style of silat from Sumatra.
            Silek Tuo = A style of silat from Sumatra.
            Silek/Silat = Fighting. Often used by itself to describe certain indigenous styles of martial arts from Malaysia, Indonesia, Borneo, Phillipines, Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, etc. The addition of the term Pencak is recent. Only within the last 50 years or so was that term used by IPSI.
            Sitaralak = Another way of saying Sterlak.
            Slaverse = Term Guru Cruicchi uses to describe the Jurus Kombinasi of Raja Sterlak.
            Sterlak = No known meaning even by the Indonesians. Could have been derived from the Dutch Staart Lag meaning "to render below".
            Stralak = Another way of saying Sterlak.
            Sumatra = Island of origin for Sterlak Silat.
            Sumpah = Oath, solemn promise.
            Sumpit = To shoot with a blow-pipe
            Sumpitan = Blow-pipe
            Syahbandar = Harbour-master.
            Tanaga Dalam = Inner Force. Can be thought of a persons will but other mystical ideas are also attached to this term. Similar in idea to Chi or Ki.
            Tangan = arm/hand.
            Tangkap = To catch. Used in reference to grabbing a punch. In Jati Wisesa it is called Daywak.
            Tangkapan = The locking techniques of Silat Pamur.
            Tapak = Palm.
            Tarompet = Musical Horn.
            Tedung = Cobra.
            Tendangan = Kick.
            Terima Kasih = Thank you.
            Terlak = Another way of saying Sterlak.
            Tiga = Three.
            Timbilan = Term used for the throws and takedowns of Pamur Silat.
            Tinggi = high
            Tiralak = Another way of saying Sterlak.
            Tongkat = A pole or staff.
            Tralak = Another way of saying Sterlak.
            Tujuh = Seven.
            Tulup = Blow Dart Gun.
            Ular = Snake.
            Ular sawa = Python
            Ular Sendok = Another name for Cobra.

            TAI CHI / 5 ELEMENTS

            An elemental perspective is a productive cycle of five elements.   Creating this productive cycle of elements we see that:

            ·         Wood burns producing Fire.

            ·         Fire leaves behind Earth.

            ·         Earth is the source of Metal.

            ·         Metal liquefies into flowing liquid like Water (or another explanation is that Metal when cooled it creates condensation, such as a car left out on a cool night).

            ·         Water then becomes the nourishment for the Wood.