Last Updated: 06/01/07
Nahuatl symbol for Jalisco.
Jalisco comes from the word Xalixco which is Nahuatl from the words Xalli, which means sand/gravel, and Ixtli, which means face or by the extension/plane and Co means place.
The Tolteca once ruled over Xalisco. In 1112, the natives of this region rose in rebellion, separating itself from the Tolteca nation.
The main native tribes living in Mexico when the Spanish entered Jalisco were the Caxcane and the Huicholes.
The Caxcane lived in the Northern area near Teocaltiche and Lagos de Moreno.
The Huicholes lived in the Northwestern area near Huejucar and Colotlan.
The Guachichile lived in Zacatecas also lived in Los Altos near Tepatitlan and Arandas.
The Cuyuteco lived in the western part of Cuyutlan and Mixtlan. The Cuyuteco spoke Nahuatl
The Coca lived near Guadalajara.
The Tecuexes lived near Guadalajara and extended all the way to the northeast to Lagos de Moreno.
The Guamare lived in the far east.
Huichol still exist in Jalisco. They are believed to have most of the culture and religion unchanged after the arrival of Europeans.
The Otomi who are from Zapotitlan and Colima were brought by the Spaniards as Christian Natives to convert the natives of Jalisco.
In the 12th century, families from the Coca tribe migrated which were lead by Huehuetztlatzin who founded Cocollan which means ondulated place which is now Acatlan de Juarez. In the 16th century, Cocollan was destroyed. They later tried to rebuild which is now Tlajomulco, but the local tribes did not want them to move there. In 1520, they became their independent city. During this time their ruler was named Citlali. Their tribute towns were Acatlan, Tizapanito, Xilotepetque and Tecolotlan. In 1521, Alonso el Avalos with a Spanish Army conquered Cocollan and later became his property. In 1532, the Franciscans relocated the Coca to where modern day Cocula is at.
Chapala is named after the last Nahua chief of Jalisco, Chapalac.
In the 13th century, the Tepehuan founded the town Azquetlan means ?Place of the Ants? in the Tepehuan (which means mountain dwellers) dialect which is in the middle of Huichol territory. The Spanish arrived in 1534. The two Tepehuan towns Totatiche and Temastian were turned into a Spanish colony. The Tepehuan who lived in Azquetlan kept their culture and language.
SIXTEENTH CENTURY INDIGENOUS JALISCO
by John P. Schmal
Jalisco is La Madre Patria (the Mother Country) for millions of
Mexican Americans. Given this fact, it makes sense that many sons and
daughters of Jalisco are curious about the cultural and linguistic
roots of their indigenous ancestors. The modern state of Jalisco
consists of 31,152 square miles (80,684 square kilometers) located in
the west central portion of the Mexican Republic. However, the
Jalisco of colonial Mexico was not an individual political entity but
part of the Spanish province of Nueva Galicia, which embraced some
180,000 kilometers ranging from the Pacific Ocean to the foothills of
the Sierra Madre Occidental.
Besides the present-day state of Jalisco, Nueva Galicia also included
the states of Aguascalientes, Zacatecas, Nayarit, and the northwest
corner of San Luis Potos??. Across this broad range of territory, a
wide array of indigenous groups lived before 1522 (the first year of
contact with Spanish explorers). Domingo L??zaro de Arregui, in his
Descripci??n de la Nueva Galicia - published in 1621 - wrote that 72
languages were spoken in the Spanish colonial province of Nueva
Galicia. But, according to the author Eric van Young, "the extensive
and deep-running mestizaje of the area has meant that at any time
much beyond the close of the colonial period the history of the
native peoples has been progressively interwoven with (or submerged
in) that of non-native groups."
As the Spaniards and their Indian allies from the south made their
way into Nueva Galicia early in the Sixteenth Century, they
encountered large numbers of nomadic Chichimeca Indians. Philip Wayne
Powell - whose Soldiers, Indians, and Silver: North America's First
Frontier War is the definitive source of information relating to the
Chichimeca Indians - referred to Chichimeca as "an all-inclusive
epithet" that had "a spiteful connotation." The Spaniards borrowed
this designation from their Aztec allies and started to refer to the
large stretch Chichimeca territory as La Gran Chichimeca.
Afredo Moreno Gonz??lez, in his recent book Santa Maria de Los Lagos,
explains that the word Chichimeca has been subject to various
interpretations over the years. Some of these suggestions
included "linaje de perros" (of dog lineage), "perros altaneros"
(arrogant dogs), or "chupadores de sangre" (blood-suckers). In any
case, it was apparent that the Mexican Indians of the south did not
hold their northern counterparts in high regard. However, in time,
they learned to both fear and respect many of these Indians as brave
and courageous defenders of their ancestral homelands.
Unfortunately, the widespread displacement that took place starting
in 1529 prevents us from obtaining a clear picture of the indigenous
Jalisco that existed in pre-Hispanic times. Four primary factors
influenced the post-contact indigenous distribution of Jalisco and
its evolution into a Spanish colonial province. The first factor was
the 1529-30 campaign of Nu??o Beltr??n de Guzm??n. In The North
Frontier of New Spain, Peter Gerhard wrote that "Guzm??n, with a
large force of Spaniards, Mexican allies, and Tarascan slaves, went
through here in a rapid and brutal campaign lasting from February to
June 1530??? Guzm??n's strategy was to terrorize the natives with
often unprovoked killing, torture, and enslavement."
Once Guzman had consolidated his conquests, he ordered all of the
conquered Indians of Jalisco to be distributed among Spanish
encomiendas. The individual receiving the encomienda, known as the
encomendero, received free labor and tribute from the Indians, in
return for which the subjects were commended to the encomendero's
care. It was the duty of the encomendero to Christianize, educate
and feed the natives under their care. However, as might be expected,
such institutions were prone to misuse and, as a result, some Indians
were reduced to slave labor. Although Guzman was arrested and
imprisoned in 1536, his reign of terror had set into motion
institutions that led to the widespread displacement of the
indigenous people of Jalisco.
The second factor was the Mixtan Rebellion of 1541-1542. This
indigenous uprising was a desperate attempt by the Cazcanes Indians
to drive the Spaniards out of Nueva Galicia. In response to the
desperate situation, Viceroy Mendoza assembled a force of 450
Spaniards and some 30,000 Aztec and Tlaxcalan supporting troops. In a
series of short sieges and assaults, Mendoza gradually suffocated the
uprising. The aftermath of this defeat, according to Peter Gerhard,
led to thousands of deaths. In addition, he writes, "thousands were
driven off in chains to the mines, and many of the survivors (mostly
women and children) were transported from their homelands to work on
Spanish farms and haciendas."
The third factor influencing Jalisco's evolution was the complex set
of relationships that the Spaniards enjoyed with their Indian allies.
As the frontier moved outward from the center, the military would
seek to form alliances with friendly Indian groups. Then, in 1550,
the Chichimeca War had began. This guerrilla war, which continued
until the last decade of the century, was primarily fought by
Chichimeca Indians defending their lands in Zacatecas, Guanajuato,
Aguascalientes, and northern Jalisco.
The Chichimeca conflict forced the Spaniards to rely heavily upon
their Christian Indian allies. The result of this dependence upon
indigenous allies as soldados (soldiers) and pobladores (settlers)
led to enormous and wide-ranging migration and resettlement patterns
that would transform the geographic nature of the indigenous peoples
of Nueva Galicia. In describing this phenomenon, Mr. Powell noted
that the "Indians formed the bulk of the fighting forces against the
Chichimeca warriors As fighters, as burden bearers, as interpreters,
as scouts, as emissaries, the pacified natives of New Spain played
significant and often indispensable roles in subjugating and
civilizing the Chichimeca country."
By the middle of the Sixteenth Century, the Tarascans, Aztecs,
Cholultecans, Otomis, Tlaxcalans, and the Cazcanes had all joined
forces with the Spanish military. By the time the Chichimeca War had
begun, the Tarascans and Otom??es, in particular, had already
developed "considerable experience in warfare alongside the
Spaniards." As a result, explains Mr. Powell, "they were the first
important auxiliaries employed for entradas against the Chichimecas."
The employment of Tarascans, Mexicans, and Tlaxcalans for the purpose
of "defensive colonization" also encouraged a gradual assimilation of
the Chichimecas. In the 1590s Nahuatl-speaking colonists from
Tlaxcala and the Valley of Mexico settled in some parts of Jalisco to
serve, as Mr. Gerhard writes, "as a frontier militia and a civilizing
influence." As the Indians of Jalisco made peace and settled down to
work for Spanish employers, they were absorbed into the more dominant
Indian groups that had come from the south. By the early Seventeenth
Century, writes Mr. Powell, most of the Chichimeca Indians had
disappeared as distinguishable cultural entities.
The fourth cause of depopulation and displacement of the Jalisco
Indians was contagious disease. The physical isolation of the Indians
in the Americas is the primary reason for which disease caused such
havoc with the Native American populations. This physical isolation
resulted in a natural quarantine from the rest of the planet and from
a wide assortment of communicable diseases. When smallpox first
ravaged through Mexico in 1520, no Indian had immunity to the
During the first century of the conquest, the Mexican Indians
suffered through 19 major epidemics. They were exposed to smallpox,
chicken pox, diphtheria, influenza, scarlet fever, measles, typhoid,
mumps, influenza, and cocoliztli (a hemorrhagic disease). Peter
Gerhard has estimated the total native population of Nueva Galicia in
1520 at 855,000 persons. However, in the next two decades, the
populous coastal region north of Banderas Bay witnessed the greatest
population decline. "The unusually brutal conquest," writes Mr.
Gerhard, "was swiftly followed by famine, further violence and
dislocation, and epidemic disease."
By the late 1530s, the population of the Pacific coastal plain and
foothills from Acaponeta to Puficaci??n had declined by more than
half. Subsequently, Indians from the highland areas were transported
to work in the cacao plantations. When their numbers declined, the
Spaniards turned to African slaves. By 1560, Mr. Gerhard wrote, the
320,000 indigenous people who occupied the entire tierra caliente in
1520 had dropped to a mere 20,000. A plague in 1545-1548 is believed
to have killed off more than half of the surviving Indians of the
highland regions. By 1550, it is believed that there were an
estimated 220,000 Indians in all of Nueva Galicia.
The author Jos?? Ramirez Flores, in his work, Lenguas Indi?genas de
Jalisco, has gone to great lengths in reconstructing the linguistic
map of the Jalisco of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. It
must be remembered that, although Jalisco first came under Spanish
control in the 1520s, certain sections of the state remained isolated
and under Amerindian control until late in the Sixteenth Century. The
diversity of Jalisco's early indigenous population can be understood
more clearly by exploring individual tribes or regions of the state.
The following paragraphs are designed to provide the reader with some
basic knowledge of several of the indigenous groups of Jalisco:
The Cazcanes. The Cazcanes (Caxcanes) lived in the northern section
of the state. They were a partly nomadic people, whose principal
religious and population centers were at Teul, Tlaltenango,
Juchipila, and Teocaltiche. According to Se??or Flores, the languages
of the Caxcanes Indians were widely spoken in the northcentral
portion of Jalisco along the "Three-Fingers Border Zone" with
Zacatecas. It is believed that the Caxcanes language was spoken at
Teocaltiche, Ameca, Huej??car, and across the border in Nochistl??n,
According to Mr. Powell, the Caxcanes were "the heart and the center
of the Indian rebellion in 1541 and 1542." After the Mixton
Rebellion, the Cazcanes became allies of the Spaniards. For this
reason, they suffered attacks by the Zacatecas and Guachichiles
during the Chichimeca War. A a cultural group, the Caxcanes ceased
to exist during the Nineteenth Century.
Cocas. The Coca Indians inhabited portions of central Jalisco, in the
vicinity of Guadalajara and Lake Chapala. When the Spaniards first
entered this area, the Coca Indians, guided by their leader Tzitlali,
moved away to a small valley surrounded by high mountains, a place
they named "Cocolan." Because the Cocas were peaceful people, the
Spaniards, for the most part, left them alone. Jos?? Ram??rez Flores
lists Cuyutl??n, San Marcos, Tlajomulco, Toluquilla and Poncitl??n as
towns in which the Coca language was spoken.
The Coras. The Coras inhabited what is most of present-day Nayarit as
well as the northwestern fringes of Jalisco. The word "mariachi" is
believed to have originated in their language. Today, the Coras,
numbering up to 15,000 people, continue to survive, primarily in
Nayarit and Jalisco. The Cora Indians have been studied by several
historians and archaeologists. One of the most interesting works
about the Cora is Catherine Palmer Finerty's In a Village Far From
Home: My Life Among the Cora Indians of the Sierra Madre (Tucson:
University of Arizona Press, 2000).
Cuyutecos. The Cuyutecos - speaking the Nahua language of the Aztecs -
settled in southwestern Jalisco, inhabiting Atenquillo, Talpa,
Mascota, Mixtlan, Atengo, and Tecolotlan. The population of this
area - largely depleted by the epidemics of the Sixteenth Century -
was partially repopulated by Spaniards and Indian settlers from
Guadalajara and other parts of Mexico. It is believed the Cuyuteco
language may have been a late introduction into Jalisco. Other Nahua
languages were spoken in such southern Jalisco towns as Tuxpan and
Guachichiles. The Guachichiles, of all the Chichimeca Indians,
occupied the most extensive territory. The Guachichile Indians - so
well known for their fierce resistance towards the Spaniards in the
Chichimeca War (1550-1590) - inhabited the areas near Lagos de
Moreno, Arandas, Ayo el Chico, and Tepatitl??n in the Los Altos
region of northeastern Jalisco. Considered both warlike and brave,
the Guachichiles also roamed through a large section of the present-
day state of Zacatecas.
The name of "Guachichile" that the Mexicans gave them meant "heads
painted of red," a reference to the red dye that they used to pain
their bodies, faces and hair. Although the main home of the
Guachichile Indians lay in Zacatecas, they had a significant
representation in the Los Altos area of Jalisco. After the end of the
Chichimeca War, the Guachichiles were very quickly assimilated and
Christianized and no longer exist as a distinguishable cultural
Huicholes. Some historians believe that the Huichol Indians are
descended from the nomadic Guachichiles, having moved westward and
settled down to an agrarian lifestyle, inhabited a small area in
northwestern Jalisco, adjacent to the border with Nayarit. The
Huicholes, seeking to avoid confrontation with the Spaniards, became
very isolated and thus we able to survive as a people and a culture.
The isolation of the Huicholes ??" now occupying parts of
northwestern Jalisco and Nayarit ??" has served them well for their
aboriginal culture has survived with relatively few major
modifications since the period of first contact with Western culture.
Even today, the Huichol Indians of Jalisco and Nayarit currently
inhabit an isolated region of the Sierra Madre Occidental. Their
language was spoken in the northern stretches of the Three-Fingers
Region of Northern Jalisco, in particular Huejuquilla, Tuxpan and
The survival of the Huichol has intrigued historians and
archaeologists alike. The art, history, culture, language and
religion of the Huichol have been the subject of at least a dozen
books. Carl Lumholtz, in Symbolism of the Huichol Indians: A Nation
of Shamans (Oakland, California: B.I. Finson, 1988), made
observations about the religion of the Huichol. Stacy B. Schaefer and
Peter T. Furst edited People of the Peyote: Huichol Indian History,
Religion and Survival (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press,
1996), discussed the history, culture and language of these
fascinating people in great detail.
Otom?ies. The Otomies were a Chichimeca nation primarily occupying
Queretaro and Jilotepec. However, early on, the Otom??es allied
themselves with the Spaniards and Mexica Indians. As a result, writes
Mr. Powell, Otom?? settlers were "issued a grant of privileges" and
were "supplied with tools for breaking land." For their allegiance,
they were exempted from tribute and given a certain amount of
autonomy in their towns. During the 1550s, Luis de Velasco (the
second Viceroy of Nueva Espa??a) used Otom?? militia against the
Chichimecas. The strategic placement of Otom?? settlements in Nueva
Galicia made their language dominant near Zapotitl??n, Juchitl??n,
Autl??n, and other towns near Jalisco's southern border with Colima.
Purepecha Indians (Tarascans). The Purepecha Indians - also
referred to as the Tarascans, Tarscos, and Porh?? - inhabited most of
present-day Michoac??n and boasted a powerful empire that rivaled the
Aztec Empire during the Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Centuries. As
recently as 1990, the Pur??pecha numbered 120,000 speakers. This
language, classified as an isolated language, was spoken along the
southern fringes of southern Jalisco, adjacent to the border with
Tecuexes. The Tecuexes Indians occupied a considerable area of
Jalisco north of Guadalajara and western Los Altos, including
Mexticacan, Jalostotitlan, Tepatitilan, Yahualica, Juchitl??n, and
Tonal??n. The Tecuexes also occupied the central region near Tequila,
Amatlt??n, Cuquio, and Epatan. The Tecuexes have been studied by Dr.
Phil Weigand, who wrote articles on them. They no longer exist as a
Tepehuanes. In pre-Hispanic times, the Tepehu?n Indians inhabited a
wide swath of territory that stretch through sections of present-day
Jalisco, Nayarit, Durango and Chihuahua. However, their territory was
gradually encroached upon by the Spaniards and indigenous migrants
from central Mexico. After they were crushed in their rebellion of
1616-1619, the Tepehu??n moved to hiding places in the Sierra Madre
to avoid Spanish retaliation.
Today, the Tepehu??n retain elements of their old culture. At the
time of the Spanish contact, the Tepehuanes language was spoken
in "Three Fingers Region" of northwestern Jalisco in such towns as
Tepec, Mezquitic and Colotl??n. The Tepehuanes language and culture
are no longer found in Jalisco, but more than 25,000 Tepehuanes still
reside in southern Chihuahua and southeastern Durango.
The revolt of 1616 was described in great detail by Charlotte M.
Gradie's The Tepehu??n Revolt of 1616: Militarism, Evangelism and
Colonialism in Seventeenth Century Nueva Vizcaya (Salt Lake City:
University of Utah Press, 2000). The author Campbell W. Pennington
also wrote about the Tepehu??n people in The Tepehu??n of Chihuahua
(Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1969).
The indigenous nations of Sixteenth Century Jalisco experienced such
enormous upheaval in the space of mere decades that it has been
difficult for historians to reconstruct the original homes of some
native groups. Peter Gerhard, in The Northern Frontier of New Spain,
has done a spectacular job of exploring the specific history of each
colonial jurisdiction. Anyone who studies Mr. Gerhard's work comes to
realize that each jurisdiction, and each community within each
jurisdiction, has experienced a unique set of circumstances that set
it apart from all other jurisdictions. A brief discussion of some of
the individual districts of Jalisco follows:
Tequila (North central Jalisco). The indigenous name for this
community is believed to have been Tecuallan (which, over time,
evolved to its present form). The inhabitants of this area were
Tecuexe farmers, most of who lived in the Barranca. North of the R??o
Grande were the Huicholes, who were the traditional enemies of the
Tecuexes. Although Guzm??n and his forces passed through this area in
1530, the natives of this area offered stiff resistance to Spanish
incursions into their lands. The Huicholes north of the R??o Grande
raided the Tecuexes settlements in the south before 1550. According
to Gerhard, "the Indians [of this jurisdiction] remained hostile and
uncontrolled until after the Chichimec war when an Augustinian friar
began their conversion."
Lagos de Moreno (Northeastern Los Altos). The author Alfredo Moreno
Gonz??lez tells us that the Native American village occupying this
area was Pechitit??n. According to Mr. Gerhard, "most if not all of
the region was occupied at contact by Chichimec hunters-gatherers,
probably Guachichiles, with a sprinkling of Guamares in the east." It
is also believed that Tecuexes occupied the region southwest of
Lagos. When Pedro Alm??ndez Chirinos traveled through here in March
1530 with a force of fifty Spaniards and 500 Tarascan and Tlaxcalan
allies, the inhabitants gave him a peaceful reception.
Jalostotitl?n (Northern Los Altos). This town was called a parish of
San Juan de Los Lagos and Encarnaci??n de D??az (Northern Los Altos).
The indigenous people of these districts were called "Chichimecas
blancos" because of the limestone pigments they used to color their
bodies and faces. The indigenous name for San Juan was Mezquititl??n.
La Barca (East central Jalisco). La Barca and the shores of Lake
Chapala were the sites of three indigenous nations: Poncitl??n and
Cuitzeo - which ran along the shores of Lake Chapala - and Coinan,
north of the lake. The people of these three chiefdoms spoke the Coca
language. Guzman's forces traveled through here in 1530, laying waste
to much of the region. By 1585, both Coca and N??huatl were spoken at
Ocotl??n, although Gerhard tells us that the latter "was a recent
Tlaxmulco (Central Jalisco). Before the contact, the Tarascans held
this area. However, they were later driven out by a tribe from
Tonal??n. At the time of contact, there were two communities of Coca
speakers: Tlaxmulco and Coyotlan. The natives here submitted to
Guzm??n and were enlisted to fight with his army in the conquest of
the west coast. After the Mixt??n Rebellion, Cazcanes migrated to
Tonal?? / Tonallan (Central Jalisco). At contact, the region east of
here had a female ruler. Although the ruling class in this region was
Coca speakers, the majority of the inhabitants were Tecuexes. Coca
was the language at Tlaquepaque, while Tzalatitlan was a Tecuexe
community. In March 1530, Nu??o de Guzm??n arrived in Tonal??n and
defeated the Tecuexes in battle.
San Cristobal de la Barranca (North central Jalisco). Several native
states existed in this area, most notably Atlemaxaque, Tequixixtlan,
Cuauhtlan, Ichcatlan, Quilitlan, and Epatlan. By 1550, some of the
communities were under Spanish control, while the "Tezoles" (possibly
a Huichol group) remained "unconquered." Nine pueblos in this area
around that time boasted a total population of 5,594. After the
typhus epidemic of 1580, only 1,440 Indians survived. The migration
of Tecuexes into this area led historians to classify Tecuexe as the
dominant language of the area.
Colotl?n (Northern Jalisco). Colotl?n can be found in Jalisco's
northerly "Three-Fingers" boundary area with Zacatecas. This heavily
wooded section of the Sierra Madre Occidental remained beyond Spanish
control until after the end of the Chichimeca War. It is believed
that Indians of Cazcan and Tepecanos origin lived in this area.
However, this zone became "a refuge for numerous groups fleeing from
the Spaniards." Tepehuanes Indians - close relatives to the
Tepecanos - are believed to have migrated here following their
rebellion in Durango in 1617-1618.
Cuqu??o (North central Jalisco). When the European explorers reached
Cuqu??o in north central Jalisco they described it as a densely
populated region of farmers. The dominant indigenous language in this
region was Tecuexe. Guzm??n's lieutenant, Alm??ndez Chirinos, ravaged
this area in February 1530, and in 1540-41, the Indians in this area
were among the insurgents taking part in the Mixt??n Rebellion.
Tepatitl?n (Los Altos, Eastern Jalisco). Tecuexes inhabited this
area of stepped plateaus descending from a range of mountains, just
east of Guadalajara. In the south, the people spoke Coca. This area
was invaded by Guzm??n and in 1541 submitted to Viceroy Mendoza.
Guadalajara. When the Spanish arrived in the vicinity of present-day
Guadalajara in 1530, they found about one thousand dispersed farmers
belonging to the Tecuexes and Cocas. But after the Mixton Rebellion
of the early 1540s, whole communities of Cazcanes were moved south to
the plains near Guadalajara.
Purificaci?n (Westernmost part of Jalisco). The rugged terrain of
this large colonial jurisdiction is believed to have been inhabited
by primitive farmers, hunters, and fisherman who occupied some fifty
autonomous communities. Both disease and war ravaged this area, which
came under Spanish control by about 1560.
Tepec and Chimaltitl?n (Northern Jalisco). The region surrounding
Tepec and Chimaltitl?n remained a stronghold of indigenous defiance.
Sometime around 1550, Gerhard writes that the Indians in this area
were described as "uncontrollable and savage." The indigenous
inhabitants drove out Spanish miners working the silver deposits
around the same time. A wide range of languages was spoken in this
area: Tepehu??n at Chimaltitl??n and Tepic, Huichol in Tuxpan and
Santa Catarina, and Cazcan to the east (near the border with
Copyright ?? 2004 by John P. Schmal. All Rights under applicable law
are hereby reserved. Material from this article may be reproduced for
educational purposes and personal, non-commerical home use only.
Reproduction of this article for commercial purposes is strictly
prohibited without the express permission of John P. Schmal.
John Schmal is an historian, genealogist, and lecturer. With his
friend Donna Morales, he coauthored "Mexican-American Genealogical
Research: Following the Paper Trail to Mexico" (Heritage Books, 2002)
and "The Indigenous Roots of a Mexican-American Family" (Heritage
Books, 2004). Most recently, he coauthored "The Dominguez Family: A
Mexican-American Journey" (Heritage Books, 2004), which is available
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Unidad Editorial, 1980.
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Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1982.
Afredo Moreno Gonz??lez, Santa Maria de Los Lagos. Lagos de Moreno:
D.R.H. Ayuntamiento de Los Lagos de Moreno, 1999.
Jos?? Antonio Guti??rrez Guti??rrez, Los Altos de Jalisco: Panorama
hist??rico de una region y de su sociedad hasta 1821. Mexico: Consejo
Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes, 1991.
Donna S. Morales and John P. Schmal, My Family Through Time: The
Story of a Mexican-American Family. Los Angeles, California, 2000.
Jos?? Mar??a Muri??, Breve Historia de Jalisco. Mexico: Fondo de
Cultura Econ??mica, 1994.
Philip Wayne Powell, Soldiers Indians and Silver: North America's
First Frontier War. Tempe, Arizona: Center for Latin American
Studies, Arizona State University, 1975.
Eric Van Young, "The Indigenous Peoples of Western Mexico from the
Spanish Invasion to the Present: The Center-West as Cultural Region
and Natural Environment," in Richard E. W. Adams and Murdo J.
MacLeod, The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas,
Volume II: Mesoamerica, Part 2. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University
Press, 2000, pp. 136-186