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Medical Glossary


 

Heart Disease Categories
 
Arrhythmia - Any variation from the normal rhythm or rate of the heart beat.
  • Arrhythmia, Sinus - Irregularity of the heart rate related to functioning of the sinoatrial node.
  • Atrial Fibrillation - Disorder of cardiac rhythm characterized by rapid, irregular atrial impulses and ineffective atrial contractions.
  • Atrial Flutter - Rapid, irregular atrial contractions due to an abnormality of atrial excitation.
  • Bradycardia - Excessive slowness in the action of the heart, usually with a heart rate below 60 beats per minute.
  • Tachycardia - Excessive rapidity in the action of the heart, usually with a heart rate above 100 beats per minute. 
 
Heart Failure, Congestive - A complication of HEART DISEASES. Defective cardiac filling and/or impaired contraction and emptying, resulting in the heart's inability to pump a sufficient amount of blood to meet the needs of the body tissues or to be able to do so only with an elevated filling pressure.
 
Myocardial Ischemia - A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERIOSCLEROSIS), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
  • Coronary Disease - An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the coronary vessels to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
  • Myocardial Infarction - Gross necrosis of the myocardium, as a result of interruption of the blood supply to the area.
  • Pericarditis - Inflammation of the pericardium.
Muscular Diseases Categories
  • Mitochondrial Myopathies - A group of muscle diseases associated with abnormal mitochondria function.
  • Muscle Spasticity - A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS.
  • Muscle Weakness - A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases.
  • Muscular Disorders, Atrophic - Disorders characterized by an abnormal reduction in muscle volume due to a decrease in the size or number of muscle fibers. Atrophy may result from diseases intrinsic to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY) or secondary to PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that impair innervation to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL). 
  • Myopathies, Structural, Congenital - A heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by the early onset of hypotonia, developmental delay of motor skills, non-progressive weakness. Each of these disorders is associated with a specific histologic muscle fiber abnormality.
  • Myositis - Inflammation of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL). Infectious, autoimmune, and paraneoplastic processes represent some of the more common conditions that may be associated with myositis.
  • Rhabdomyolysis - Necrosis or disintegration of skeletal muscle often followed by myoglobinuria. 
  • Tendinitis - Inflammation of tendons and of tendon-muscle attachments.
Vascular Diseases Categories
  • Aneurysm - A sac formed by the dilatation of the wall of an artery, a vein, or the heart.
  • Angioneurotic Edema - Recurring attacks of transient edema suddenly appearing in areas of the skin or mucous membranes and occasionally of the viscera, often associated with dermatographism, urticaria, erythema, and purpura.
  • Arterial Occlusive Diseases - Diseases in which arterial vessels are partially or completely obstructed or in which the blood flow through the vessels is impeded.
  • Arteritis - Inflammation of an artery.
  • Embolism and Thrombosis - A collective term for diseases characterized by the formation, development, or presence of a thrombus (THROMBOSIS) and the blocking of a vessel by the thrombus brought to its site by the blood current (EMBOLISM).
  • Hypertension - Persistently high arterial blood pressure. Currently accepted threshold levels are 140 mm Hg systolic and 90 mm Hg diastolic pressure.
  • Hypotension - Abnormally low blood pressure seen in shock but not necessarily indicative of it.
  • Ischemia - Blood deficiency in an organ or tissue caused by a constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels.
  • Peripheral Vascular Diseases - General or unspecified diseases of the blood vessels outside the heart. It is for diseases of the peripheral as opposed to the cardiac circulation.
  • Superior Vena Cava Syndrome - Obstruction of the superior vena cava caused by neoplasm, thrombosis, aneurysm, or external compression and causing suffusion and/or cyanosis of the face, neck, and upper arms.
  • Vasculitis - Inflammation of a blood vessel.

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