My experience of (functional) auditory hallucinations and the need to understand.

 Some of the soundfiles I have used in my attempts to understand:

Nonverbal illusions

1.) To try to further confirm the assumption that memories guided my attention towards external sounds I first recorded a couple of notes coming from a violin in a certain sequence and after that I played them all together with white noise to see if I could single them out with the help of a short term memory. This actually worked and I heard the "melody" from the beginning of the tape over and over again. I am not satisfied with this soundfile, but it will have to do for now on. (Maybe if it´s quiet, you use earphones, increase the volume to maximum and listen when you remember the three notes from the beginning it will work. To make sure that the short term memory doesn´t fade away it is important that you recall the "melody" immediately after you have heard it. If you hear it more than one time it is an illusion.)

http://www.freewebs.com/stefan661/3tones.wav

2.) Normally if a tone is interrupted by noise (biib-noise-biib-noise...) the tone will be heard as if it is going on continuously (biiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiib). This is not always the case when you are diagnosed with schizophrenia and hear voices.

http://www.freewebs.com/stefan661/continuous.wav 

Verbal illusions

3.) When I listen to a recorded sound like this played in intervals with short breaks and synchronize my thoughts by reading or thinking something syllable by syllable when the sound is heard (sometimes in a couple of minutes) I end up hearing "my own" voice. The voice I hear when I do like this is very distinct and clear. (Mostly it sounds like a synthetic and gender neutral voice.) If I increase the volume of the sound behind my own voice in this test the illusion of hearing a voice is lost.

http://www.freewebs.com/stefan661/fast.wav                    

To read how I´m trying to understand an integration disorder referred to as "schizophrenia" go to lingforum.com

Post subject: Speech perception and some symptoms of schizophrenia

http://www.lingforum.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=512

  

Stefan Andersson  nemo661@yahoo.se 



 

" SCHIZOPHRENIA " (an integration disorder) - the price we pay for language?

I find it very challenging to live with something which has a negative impact on my life without understanding and this is an ongoing attempt to understand an illness most people know very little about. Approximately one percent of the world's population (almost 70 million people) are at some point in their lives just like me right now (several voices are commenting on what I write and think) forced to somehow cope with what they experience due to what can best be described as an integration disorder which depend on both environmental and genetic factors. (I write in a forum like this to inspire people who better than I can use this illness to understand how we in response to a verbal message are able to generate the event we call perception. What can we learn from people who hear their own thoughts as alien voices and in response to non-verbal environmental sounds are able to generate the perception of an external voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal"? Was Alvin M. Liberman more than 50 years ago correct in his assumption that “the articulatory movements and their sensory effects mediate between the acoustic stimulus and the event we call perception”?)

Characteristic symptoms (DMS-IV): 1.) delusions 2.) hallucinations 3.) disorganized speech (e.g., frequent derailment or incoherence) 4.) grossly disorganized or catatonic behaviour 5.) negative symptoms, i.e., affective flattening, alogia, or avolition

Diagnostic criteria (DMS-IV): Two (or more) symptoms, “…each present for a significant portion of time during a 1-month period (or less if successfully treated)… …Only one Criterion A symptom is required if delusions are bizarre or hallucinations consist of a voice keeping up a running commentary on the person's behavior or thoughts, or two or more voices conversing with each other…” Social/occupational dysfunction and the possibility to exclude something else are also taken in consideration!

Diagnosis (DMS-IV): 1.) Paranoid Type 2.) Catatonic Type 3.) Disorganized Type 4.) Undifferentiated Type 5.) Residual Type

Source: Counselling Resource

http://counsellingresource.com/distress/schizophrenia/dsm/schizophrenia.html

The following quotations on schizophrenia are from Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General, Table 4-7. Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia

http://mentalhealth.about.com/library/sg/chapter4/blsec4.htm#table4_6

Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia

Delusions
are firmly held erroneous beliefs due to distortions or exaggerations of reasoning and/or misinterpretations of perceptions or experiences. Delusions of being followed or watched are common, as are beliefs that comments, radio or TV programs, etc., are directing special messages directly to him/her.

Hallucinations
are distortions or exaggerations of perception in any of the senses, although auditory hallucinations (“hearing voices” within, distinct from one’s own thoughts) are the most common, followed by visual hallucinations.

Disorganized speech/thinking, also described as “thought disorder” or “loosening of associations,” is a key aspect of schizophrenia. Disorganized thinking is usually assessed primarily based on the person’s speech. Therefore, tangential, loosely associated, or incoherent speech severe enough to substantially impair effective communication is used as an indicator of thought disorder by the DSM-IV.

Grossly disorganized behavior includes difficulty in goal-directed behavior (leading to difficulties in activities in daily living), unpredictable agitation or silliness, social disinhibition, or behaviors that are bizarre to onlookers. Their purposelessness distinguishes them from unusual behavior prompted by delusional beliefs.

Catatonic behaviors are characterized by a marked decrease in reaction to the immediate surrounding environment, sometimes taking the form of motionless and apparent unawareness, rigid or bizarre postures, or aimless excess motor activity.

Other symptoms sometimes present in schizophrenia but not often enough to be definitional alone include affect inappropriate to the situation or stimuli, unusual motor behavior (pacing, rocking), depersonalization, derealization, and somatic preoccupations.

Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia

Affective flattening
is the reduction in the range and intensity of emotional expression, including facial expression, voice tone, eye contact, and body language.

Alogia, or poverty of speech, is the lessening of speech fluency and productivity, thought to reflect slowing or blocked thoughts, and often manifested as laconic, empty replies to questions.

Avolition
is the reduction, difficulty, or inability to initiate and persist in goal-directed behavior; it is often mistaken for apparent disinterest.


Professor Tim Crow's theory suggests that schizophrenia is the price we pay for language and I wonder if the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message or interpret what subjectively seems to be a verbal message can have such a profound effect that some people develop a mental illness.

Quote:"...classical conditioning is far more subtle and relevant to complex human cognitive-emotional behavior than one might first realize..." (p. 4) Source: The Imbalanced Brain: From Normal Behavior To Schizophrenia (2000) by Stephen Grossberg

http://www.cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/Gro.BioPsy2000.pdf

Quote: "T. J. Crow suggested that the genetic variance associated with the evolution in Homo sapiens of hemispheric dominance for language carries with it the hazard of the symptoms of schizophrenia. Individuals lacking the typical left hemisphere advantage for language, in particular for phonological components, would be at increased risk of the typical symptoms such as auditory hallucinations and delusions." (My remarks: To restore a verbal message or interpret what subjectively seems to be a verbal message will generate the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies and I wonder if the lack of hemispheric dominance for language somehow can increase the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) -stimulus (verbal) contingencies like these... How were they able to differentiate between the cause and the effect? ) Source: Angrilli A, Spironelli C, Elbert T, Crow TJ, Marano G, et al. (2009) Schizophrenia as Failure of Left Hemispheric Dominance for the Phonological Component of Language. PLoS ONE 4(2): e4507. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004507

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0004507#abstract0

My attempts to understand some of what I with this illness experience started off several years ago with a metacognitive approach and this is what I now ask myself:

1.) What can we learn from people who hear their own thoughts as alien voices and in response to non-verbal environmental sounds are able to generate the perception of an external voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal"


The alien voices I often hear in response to non-verbal environmental sounds such as traffic noise or the pitch and timbre of a distorted maybe distant voice are no doubt just like when I hear and with awareness control my inner voice verbal thoughts heard out loud.

One of the most influential cognitive models of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) acknowledge the fact that people are able to hear their own thoughts as alien voices and I have tried to understand what this model refers to as "a failure to adequately monitor the production of one’s own inner speech" in an attempt to reveal how people who hear their own thoughts as alien voices are able to generate the perception of an external voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal".

A failure to adequately monitor the production of one’s own inner speech may cause the lack of voluntary control (the lost ability to inhibit the gesture you are about to produce as long as it takes to generate an act of will?) and the lost ability to generate an act of will with which you are able to consciously control covert speech with regards to a certain goal could be as essential to our ability to restore and better distinguish a verbal message as it can be devastating to people with an integration disorder referred to as schizophrenia!

Are people who hear their own thoughts as alien voices forced to divide their attention between two similar task?

People who are trying to hear the voice they are about to produce may lose their ability to consciously control covert speech in response to non-verbal environmental sounds like white noise (broad spectrum noise) because they are forced to monitor the production of the voice they are about to produce while they are paying attention to all features matching the voice they are trying to hear! Some frequencies will probably match whatever voice you are trying to hear and bottom-up sensory signals like these are attended while you are forced to monitor the production of the voice you are about to produce... (Two in some way similar tasks will often interfere with each other more than two different tasks and a well known experience many people share can be used in an attempt to make it easier to understand the lack of voluntary control!)

The gestures you are about to produce during covert speech can like the gestures you intend to produce during overt speech determine (subliminally prime) what you expect to hear and a top-down sensory expectation like this can be used to select all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce.

Quote: "...This article suggests how brain mechanisms of learning, attention, and volition may give rise to hallucinations during schizophrenia and other mental disorders... ...Top-down motor expectations are also proposed to exist (Bullock and Grossberg, 1988;Bullock et al., 1998). For example, they can code the desired final, or target, position of a limb, such as an arm, during a reaching movement (see Figure 3). Such expectations can also be readout as priming events that do not, in themselves, cause a movement (Georgopoulos et al., 1986)... ...Top-down sensory expectations help to unitize the contents of bottom-up sensory signals, whereas top-down motor expectations help to unitize the motor gestures that are used to read-out articulatory movements. Under normal conditions, sensory expectations of self-generated sounds are subliminally primed when motor expectations are used to produce speech. With a hyperactive volitional system, these subliminal primes can become suprathreshold..." Source: How hallucinations may arise from brain mechanisms of learning, attention and volition (1999) by Stephen Grossberg

http://cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/Gro99.hall.pdf

To understand how you are able to select and then integrate some features that were present in the original signal (generate the perception of an external voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal") you must first realize the fact that action selection is “the outcome of competition between response tendencies" and that several top-down sensory expectations simultaneously are available when the gesture you are about to produce is selected! (The gestures you select between will each determine its own top-down sensory expectation... )

Incentive motivational signals ("a type of motivationally-biased attention") may shift the allocation of processing resources from what generates the ability to consciously control covert speech to what you are able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and the gesture you need to use (the one with the most equivalent sensory consequence you are able to produce) can be selected when what you are able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation (a competing task), more than what you are able to attend with any other to a lesser extent matching top-down sensory expectation, suppress the ability to control covert speech!

Quote: "...Attention is controlled by sensory and cognitive expectations which are matched against sensory inputs. Attention is also controlled by emotional and motivational expectations, which are regulated by learned feedback between cognitive and reward and punishment centers..." Source: The Imbalanced Brain: From Normal Behavior To Schizophrenia (2000) by Stephen Grossberg

http://www.cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/Gro.BioPsy2000.pdf

Incentive motivational signals, the fact that more ambiguous input are more demanding to process (may serve the purpose of sensitizing all the gestures you select between in response to a slightly distorted verbal message) and a similarity between two tasks may all contribute to the more or less lost ability to consciously control covert speech...

To lose the ability to generate an act of will with which you are able to consciously control covert speech is to lose the ability to inhibit the gesture you are about to produce and what you are able to attend when several top-down sensory expectations simultaneously are available will affect “the outcome of competition between response tendencies"! (Each top-down sensory expectation can in parallel be used to attend what more or less suppress the ability to inhibit a specific gesture (the one which generates a corresponding sensory consequence)... )

Quote: “…Inhibition, thus, allows us a measure of control over our attention and our actions, rather than simply being controlled by external stimuli, our emotions, or engrained habitual tendencies…” Source: Metropolitan State College of Denver. Tools of the Mind

http://www.toolsofthemind.org/extendedcampus/toolsofthemind/curriculum/inhibitory.shtml

Bottom-up sensory signals corresponding to a more or less distorted verbal message can be assumed to suppress the ability to inhibit a context dependent gesture with the most equivalent sensory consequence you are able to produce and the lost ability to inhibit a verbal response as long as it takes to generate an act of will may serve the purpose of not letting an act of will interfere with the ability to select the gestures you need to use in response to a verbal message!

Do I use what I remember to imitate a voice when I in my mind with the same voice repeat what he or she uttered and can this be confirmed by detecting a motor signal?

I am able to use covert speech to remember a voice (!) and what I subjectively remember when I use covert speech in response to a more or less distorted verbal message is what I refer to as the sensory consequence of covert speech. The ability to use a sensory buffer of earlier auditory events (an echoic memory) to generate a top-down sensory expectation (or several in response to more ambiguous stimuli) may contribute to a tendency to imitate whatever voice you hear (or expect to hear) if what you are able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation, more than what you are able to attend with any other to a lesser extent matching top-down sensory expectation, suppress the ability to control covert speech!

Most people are able to restore a word in the middle of a sentence with the information they get later in that sentence and I´m able to change a short term memory of nonverbal sounds about the length of a syllable by integrating my inner voice with an earlier auditory event. (A verbal illusion can be referred to as a false memory of an earlier auditory event.)

Quote: "... It has long been thought that echoic memory plays an important role in speech perception, both in supporting non-categorical comparison among spoken materials (Crowder, 1983; cf. Pisoni and Tash, 1974), and in providing an auditory record that permits the processing of longer-lasting, supra-segmental structures in connected speech (Frankish, 1989). In line with this proposal, we suggest that ongoing maintenance of auditory information, at multiple levels of representation, plays an important role in permitting topdown information to influence perceptual processing of speech..." Source: Hearing speech sounds:Top-down influences on the interface between audition and speech perception. Hearing Research 229 (2007) 132-147

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1892 (abstract)

The ability to restore and better distinguish a verbal message may depend on that you are able use a sensory buffer of earlier auditory events to generate a highly context dependent top-down sensory expectation (or several in response to more ambigious stimuli), lack the ability to inhibit the the gesture you need to use (the one with the most equivalent sensory consequence you are able to produce) and with a short delay hear the sensory consequence of covert speech in integration with what you were able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation! (We hear what we remember and covert speech can be used to change a short term memory of an earlier auditory event... )

Quote: “...the articulatory movements and their sensory effects mediate between the acoustic stimulus and the event we call perception...” (p. 122) Source: Liberman, A. M. (1957). Some results of research on speech perception. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 29, 117-123.

http://www.haskins.yale.edu/Reprints/HL0016.pdf

To with an act of will synchronize covert speech by reading or thinking something syllable by syllable when I listen to a recorded sound played in intervals will generate the perception of an external voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal" (what I experience as "my own voice" can also be generated in response to more continuous tinnitus like or environmental sounds of a very low volume) and to without an act of will be able to synchronize covert speech with the real environmental sounds I hear can be assumed to generate the alien voices I sometimes hear in response to a distorted maybe distant voice!

Quote: "...In schizophrenia, functional hallucinations are defined as those that occur when a patient simultaneously receives a real stimulus in the perceptual field concerned (e.g., hallucinated voices heard simultaneously with—and specific to—the real sound of running water)... ...The most salient hallucinated voice was perceived solely when Mr. A simultaneously heard real engine sounds from motor vehicles. The engine sounds and the voice were perceived as "in parallel." The "engine voice" spoke to him in the second person, uttering frightening statements such as, "I’ve got hell for you." The timbre of this voice was mechanistic, like the accompanying engine sounds, and lacked human characteristics, such as gender or accent. Another hallucinated voice occurred simultaneously with actual speech uttered by television announcers. The semantic content was the same as that of the "engine voice," but the "television voice" sounded human, exactly like the real voice of the television announcer who was speaking at the same time. For example, the "television voice" was often described as sounding like an adult woman with a northern British accent and "serious" emotional prosody. A third variant of Mr. A’s functional auditory hallucinations occurred when he played his electric guitar. Single hallucinated words accompanied the playing (and perception) of each individual musical note. These words were in a seemingly random order, without apparent semantic features. Like the "engine voice," the "guitar voice" lacked human attributes but instead sounded like an electric guitar. For example, if Mr. A played a musical scale, then he would hear hallucinated words whose pitch matched the simultaneously perceived guitar notes... ...In this patient, we observed a direct relationship between the timbre, prosody, and pitch of real environmental sounds and simultaneously perceived auditory hallucinations... ...This case suggests a further hypothesis: normal activation in the auditory system, which corresponds to neural encoding of natural-sound object and location characteristics, may be misinterpreted, leading to the false perception of functional auditory hallucinations that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal..." Source: Letter to the Editor, Characteristics of Functional Auditory Hallucinations by Michael D. Hunter, M.R.C.Psych., and Peter W.R. Woodruff, Ph.D., M.R.C.P., M.R.c.Psych. Sheffield, U.K. Am J Psychiatry 161:923, May 2004

http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/161/5/923

Each and every one of us are in response to a distorted verbal message able to restore an entire syllable and some people are syllable by syllable able to hear their own thoughts as alien voices in response to non-verbal environmental sounds corresponding to the sounds Warren and Warren used in their attempt to "isolate and clarify some fundamental processes that normally lead to accuracy of perception and appropriate interpretation of ambiguous sources"...

Quote: "...These failures of perception are studied because they isolate and clarify some fundamental processes that normally lead to accuracy of perception and appropriate interpretation of ambiguous sources... ...When this doctored sentence was played to listeners, we found that we had created an extremely compelling illusion: the missing speech sound was heard as clearly as were any of the phonemes that were physically present. We called this phenomenon “phonemic restoration.” Even on hearing the sentence again, after having been told that a sound was missing, our subjects could not distinguish the illusory sound from the real one. One might expect that the missing phoneme could be indentified by locating the position of the cough, but this stategy was of no help. The cough had no clear location in the sentence; it seemed to coexist with other speech sounds without interfering with their intelligibility. Phonemic restoration also occurred with other sounds, such as a buzz or tone, when these sounds were as loud as or louder than the loudest sound in the sentence. Moreover, phonemic restorations were not limited to single speech sounds. The entire syllable “gis” in “legislatures” was heard clearly when it was replaced by an extraneous sound of the same duration... ...PHONEMIC RESTORATION is an illusion that shows the importance of context determining what sound is heard..." Source: Warren, R.M., & Warren, R.P. (1970). Auditory illusions and confusions. Scientific American, 223, 30-36.

http://step.psy.cmu.edu/articles/WarrenWarren70.pdf

Read more about the phonemic restoration effect in Wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonemic_restoration_effect

To expect to access a verbal message in response to a slightly distorted maybe distant voice can be assumed to motivate a highly context dependent behaviour which makes it possible to restore and better distinguish a verbal message and to more frequently reward a behaviour which generates the exposure to stimulus (more ambiguous non-verbal environmental sounds) – stimulus (the sensory consequence of what I refer to as alien covert speech can be heard in integration with what you were able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation) contingencies can be assumed to establish a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore! (What you learn to expect or predict in response to a signal that consistently precedes a reinforcer can motivate an operant behaviour which has been established and fine tuned because it satisfies the need to access what you learn to expect! The ability to reveal a verbal illusion while you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce may prevent this from happening by blocking the voice you are about to produce... )

I assume that people more often expect to access a verbal message in response to non-verbal environmental sounds like the pitch and timbre of a distorted maybe distant voice than in response to environmental sounds with no connection to a verbal message (not coexisting with or corresponding to a distorted verbal message) and early on in the prodromal fase of this illness often experence the insidious voices I am able to hear subjectively in response to a distorted maybe distant voice. (I succeeded to simulate the circumstances needed to induce verbal illusions like these in one of my attempts to understand this better. This was done with the help of a soundfile with a lot of white noise used to mask distant voices talking in the background. An objective perception was hereby prevented, but I could still hear them talk and in real life you only need to hear a couple of words to start and fuel false beliefs... Common sense should in my opinion always be given a fair chance and M.D Hunter is a scientist who gives a more diversified and clear picture of verbal auditory hallucinations!)

Quote: "...A tendency to extract spurious, message-like meaning from meaningless noise was assessed as a risk factor leading to shizophrenia-spectrum disorders by assessing word length of speech illusions elicited by multispeaker babble in 43 people with prodromal symptoms..." Source: Extracting spurious messages from noise and risk of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in a prodromal population written in British journal of psychiatry (2007), 191, 355-356 by Ralph E. Hoffman and his colleagues

http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/full/191/4/355

Quote: “Recently, it has been proposed that exaggerated top-down processing may generate spontaneous perceptual output, and that this may constitute a cognitive predisposition toward hallucinations. In this experiment, we investigated whether hallucination proneness would be associated with increased auditory-verbal perceptual expectations, and at which processing level this occurs... ...We conclude that aberrant top-down processing, particularly in the form of strong semantic expectations, may contribute to the experience of auditory-verbal hallucinations.” (My remarks: To expect to access a verbal message in response to a slightly distorted maybe distant voice can be assumed to motivate a highly context dependent behaviour which makes it possible to restore and better distinguish a verbal message and to frequently be forced to restore a verbal message may generate a tendency to expect to hear a verbal message in response to what people normally ignore... Hearing impairments are, as expected, important risk factors for schizophrenia... ) Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin (2010) 36 (1): 151-156. Semantic Expectations Can Induce False Perceptions in Hallucination-Prone Individuals by Ans Vercammen and André Aleman

http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/content/36/1/151.full

2.) What if each and every one of us are able to use covert speech to generate the perception of an external voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal" when we need to restore and better distinguish a verbal message


Alien covert speech may operate on the environment to generate the voices you hear (the lost ability to control an operant behavior like covert speech may serve the purpose of not letting an act of will interfere with the ability to select the gestures you need to use in response to a verbal message) and I am personally convinced that Alvin M. Liberman more than 50 years ago was correct in his assumption that “the articulatory movements and their sensory effects mediate between the acoustic stimulus and the event we call perception”.

Quote: "These findings indicate that motor circuits controlling production of speech sounds also contribute to their perception. Mapping acoustically highly variable speech sounds onto less variable motor representations may facilitate their phonemic categorization and be important for robust speech perception." Source: The Journal of Neuroscience, August 5, 2009, 29(31):9819-9825; doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6018-08.2009 Motor representations of articulators contribute to categorical perception of speech sounds.
Möttönen, Riikka and Watkins, Kate E

http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/full/29/31/9819

3.)
Can the gestures you are about to produce during covert speech like the gestures you intend to produce during overt speech determine what you expect to hear and can a top-down sensory expectation like this be used to select (attend) all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce when you are motivated to access a verbal message

Quote: "...Attention is controlled by sensory and cognitive expectations which are matched against sensory inputs. Attention is also controlled by emotional and motivational expectations, which are regulated by learned feedback between cognitive and reward and punishment centers..." Source: The Imbalanced Brain: From Normal Behavior To Schizophrenia (2000) by Stephen Grossberg

http://www.cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/Gro.BioPsy2000.pdf

4.) Are you able to hear the sensory consequence of covert speech in integration with what you were able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation


Quote: “...the articulatory movements and their sensory effects mediate between the acoustic stimulus and the event we call perception...” (p. 122) Source: Liberman, A. M. (1957). Some results of research on speech perception. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 29, 117-123.

http://www.haskins.yale.edu/Reprints/HL0016.pdf

5.) How are people able to hear their own thoughts out loud in response to un-patterned noise of a very low volume
(what normally is unattended and below awareness)


6.) Is Treisman´s attenuation model correct in its claim that "paying attention to a message means increasing its subjective loudness"


7.) Can a previous exposure to a tone enable the perception of the same tone at a lower volume than otherwise would have been possible
(Hemisfärernas musik, s.53, Jan Fagius) because you expect to hear the tone you were exposed to and are able to use what you expect to hear to select (pay attention to) all features matching the tone you were exposed to

To try to further confirm the assumption that memories guided my attention towards external sounds I first recorded a couple of notes coming from a violin in a certain sequence and after that I played them all together with white noise to see if I could single them out with the help of a short term memory. This actually worked and I heard the "melody" from the beginning of the tape over and over again.

To access three of the soundfiles I have used in an attempt to understand verbal and nonverbal illusions better go to:

http://www.freewebs.com/stefan661/

8.) Can excessive attentional focus on all features matching a top-down sensory expectation substantially increase the subjective loudness of what you are able to select
(peripheral features not otherwise brought to awareness) when you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce and will the subjective loudness of what you are able to select determine the subjective loudness of the voice you are about to produce


I would like to ad that many of the voices I hear in response to environmental or tinnitus like sounds of a very low volume are heard without reaching the loudness with which a voice can be heard more objectively.

9.) Is it harder to reveal a verbal illusion in response to un-patterned noise below a certain threshold and will this sometimes result in a tendency to interpret environmental or tinnitus-like sounds of a very low volume


To be able to reveal a verbal illusion in response to un-patterned noise above a certain threshold, but totally lack the ability to reveal a verbal illusion in response to un-patterned noise of a much lower volume may result in a tendency to expect to hear a verbal message in response un-patterned noise bellow a certain threshold and to expect to hear a verbal message in response to un-patterned noise bellow a certain threshold can be assumed to motivate a highly context dependent behavior which normally satisfies the need to restore a verbal message! (I assume that you are able to reveal a verbal illusion because an increase in attention (incentive motivational signals) takes the sound you interpret out of its peripheral existence without generating a match between a top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals! )

Incentive motivational signals ("a type of motivationally-biased attention") may shift the allocation of processing resources from what generates the ability to consciously control covert speech to what you are able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation while they increase the subjective loudness of what you are able to select when you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce!

The ability to interpret environmental or tinnitus-like sounds of a very low volume may depend on that you lack the ability to inhibit a verbal response and with a short delay hear the sensory consequence of covert speech in integration with what you were able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation!

Ford and colleagues suggest that patients with auditory hallucinations may have excessive attentional focus toward internally generated events and because of this overinterpret the kind of internal noise (spontaneous sensory activity) people normally ignore.

Quote: “…Recent advances in the neurosciences provide clues to why patients report an auditory experience in the absence of any perceptual input. Spontaneous activity in the early sensory cortices may in fact form the basis for the original signal. Early neuronal computation systems are known to interpret this activity and engage in decision-making processes to determine whether a percept has been detected. A brain system that is abnormally tuned in to internal acoustic experiences may therefore report an auditory perception in the absence of any external sound. Ford and colleagues recently suggested that patients with auditory hallucinations may have excessive attentional focus toward internally generated events—the brains of persons who have auditory hallucinations may therefore be overinterpreting spontaneous sensory activity that is largely ignored in healthy brains…” (My remarks: The voices you hear in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation will in response to certain sounds include acoustic features which characterize what you are able to hear more objectively and to sometimes be able to reveal a verbal illusion by locating the source of some environmental sounds can like when you are able to silence a voice by blocking what you are able to hear more objectively make it very easy to understand that you are able to interpret external stimuli. However to block what I hear with my fingers can only give a temporary relief from the voices I hear and I am also like expected able to hear my own thoughts in integration with the tinnitus sounds I hear (become more aware of) during silence.) Source: Auditory Hallucinations in Psychiatric Illness from the march 2010 issue of Psychiatric Times by Flavie Waters

http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/cme/display/article/10168/1534546

10.) Why do people lose the ability to generate an act of will with which they are able to consciously control covert speech


11.) Are people who hear their own thoughts as alien voices forced to divide their attention between what normally generates their ability to control covert speech and what they are able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation


12.) Do people more easily lose the ability to control covert speech and hear their own thoughts as alien voices because they are forced to divide their attention between two similar tasks


13.) Why am I the only one who uses a well known experience many people share
(two similar tasks will often interfere with each other more than two different tasks) in an attempt to make it easier to understand the lack of voluntary control

What you are able to select, when you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce, will automatically correspond to some features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce and the attention you devote to a competing task can be assumed to more effectively suppress the ability to control how you respond due to a similarity!

14.) Can two in some way similar tasks compete with each other more than two different tasks because the available attention capacity is set
(limited) as if you were to perform only one task and can this be assumed to depend on the way in which "recurrent competitive networks" tend to normalize their total activity


15.) Can two in some way similar tasks interfere with each other more than two different tasks because the neurons involved in executing one task tend to resonate with the group of neurons that are involved in executing another in some way similar task


The ability of neurons to respond selectively to inputs at preferred frequencies can be compared to how tuning forks resonate selectively to inputs at preferred frequencies. Some of the energy with which you make one object like a tuning fork resonate can be transferred to another object which has the capacity to resonate with the same frequency (resonate selectively to inputs at preferred frequencies) and I wonder if some of the attention you devote to one task (like monitoring the production of the voice you are about to produce) thanks to a mechanism like this passively can be transferred to another task (like paying attention to all features matching the voice you are about to produce)... The way in which "recurrent competitive networks" tend to normalize their total activity?

16.) Can incentive motivational signals
("a type of motivationally-biased attention") shift the allocation of processing resources from what generates the ability to consciously control covert speech to what you are able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation


17. ) Is one of the most influential cognitive models of auditory verbal hallucinations correct in its claim that “a failure to adequately monitor the production of one’s own inner speech leads to verbal thought being misidentified as an alien voice”


A self-monitoring mechanism (or “corollary discharge” mechanism) like this generates an act of will and can be assumed to attenuate and "tag" a self produced experience with the help of a prediction.

Quote: “...Before someone talks, a neural signal travels from speech production areas to auditory cortex. It carries a prediction of the speech sounds based on a copy of the motor command and triggers a “corollary discharge.” If the corollary discharge matches what the speaker hears, as it should when the sound is self-produced, the sensory experience is reduced. The sensory experience thus carries a tag declaring it “self-produced,”... ” Source: Schizophreniaforum.org

http://www.schizophreniaforum.org/new/detail.asp?id=1343

Irwin Feinberg was the first scientist to propose that these discharges "are themselves conscious" and "correspond to nothing less than the experience of will or intention"!

Quote: "...motor commands are monitored and evaluated as they occur, before the effector have been actuated... ...Whereas internal feedback associated with simpler motor act is below the level of consciousness, one might postulate that the corollary discharges accompanying conscious thought are themselves conscious. If so, the subjective experience of these discharges should correspond to nothing less than the experience of will or intention..." Source: Schizophrenia bulletin (VOL. 4, NO. 4, 1978) Efference copy and corollary discharge: implications for thinking and its disorders, Irwin Feinberg

http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/4/4/636.pdf

For whatever it's worth, my own attempt to understand: To consciously control covert speech with regards to a certain goal by adequately monitor the production of one’s own inner speech may in competition for limited attentional resources attenuate all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce. ("...motor commands are monitored and evaluated as they occur, before the effector have been actuated...") The effect when you are forced to divide your attention between two similar tasks can, sustained for a short period of time, be assumed to attenuate the sensory consequence you produce while an act of will tags a self produced experience with the help of a corresponding prediction! (All features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce (exafference) and the sensory consequence you produce (reafference) are attenuated!) Incentive motivational signals ("a type of motivationally-biased attention") can be assumed to shift the allocation of processing resources from what generates the ability to consciously control covert speech to what you are able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation...

I am currently reading the following article which deals with how somatosensory signals affect our ability to attenuate a self produced experience in an attempt to understand this better:

Quote: "We have found strong evidence to suggest that attenuation of self-generated tactile sensation results from a predictive mechanism. When one finger made a tapping movement above a finger of the other hand, sensation in the passive finger was attenuated only when contact was expected between the fingers. The level of attenuation observed when contact was expected was the same whether or not the contact actually occurred… …The absence of attenuation in participants in group B, who experienced taps in the passive finger, but never experienced a contact event in the active finger, is an important result for several reasons. First, it serves as a control for effects of divided attention. Participants in group A had to attend to two different tasks at the same time: generating a tap with the active finger and judging a sensation in the passive finger. This division of attention may be less pronounced in delay trials, where the two tasks were separated by 500 ms, than in contact and no-contact trials, where the two tasks were simultaneous. This difference in attentional demand could conceivably be responsible for the difference in magnitude judgment between these trial types. However, group B was essentially identical to group A with respect to attention: participants had to generate tapping movements with amplitudes and velocities matched to those made by participants in group A, and the judgment task in the passive finger was identical in both groups. If divided attention were responsible for the differences in magnitude judgment between trials with and without a delay in group A, the same differences would be seen between no-contact and delay trials in group B. Because no such differences were observed, we can conclude that the reduction in perceived magnitude seen in group A was due to a specific attenuation mechanism and not the attentional demands of the task...” Source: Bays PM, Flanagan JR, Wolpert DM (2006) Attenuation of self-generated tactile sensations is predictive, not postdictive. PLoS Biol 4(2): e28.

http://brain.phgy.queensu.ca/flanagan/papers/BayFlaWol_PLoSB_06.pdf

Can the attention you devote to a competing task attenuate a self produced experience thanks to a previous contact event in the active finger or not?

Attenuation of the sensory consequence did require previous contact events in the active finger, but I fail to understand how they are able to “conclude that the reduction in perceived magnitude seen in group A was due to a specific attenuation mechanism and not the attentional demands of the task”. I mean the ability to attenuate a self produced experence with the help of a prediction may very well rely on previous contact events in the active finger AND the attention you devote to a competing task (what generates the ability to adequately monitor the production of a self produced experience)...

I am currently also reading Somatosensory function in speech perception by Takayuki Ito, Mark Tiede and David J. Ostry in an attempt to understand how somatosensory signals are involved in our ability to generate the event we call perception.

Quote: “The systematic perceptual variation we observe in conjunction with speech-like patterns of skin stretch indicates that somatosensory inputs affect the neural processing of spech sounds and shows the involvement of the somatosensory system in the perceptual processing in speech.”

http://www.pnas.org/content/106/4/1245.full.pdf+html

The ability to predict a self produced experience may depend on previous feedback (somatosensory signals) from the body part which generates a sensory consequence and a top-down sensory expectation like this can be used to attenuate and “tag” a self produced experience or to attend all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce...

The following source suggests that expectation of tactile consequences from visual impressions is inborn:

Quote: ” One of the significant finding in Kuhl's work on infant perception of speech was the ability of very young infants to perceive a categorical relation between speech sounds and facial expressions associated with particular speech sounds. Other experiments have demonstrated analogous effects... ...The infant expects to be able to touch an object it sees. The fact that children as young as two weeks of age react this way to the experimental situation suggests that expectation of tactile consequences from visual impressions is inborn... ...The corollary discharge is a very important concept for the cross-modal interaction of motor control and vision. Intended action transfers information about its consequences to the visual system, which then adjusts in advance to it. Equally importantly, intended eye-movements scanning an object by corollary discharge inform the visual system of the intended pattern of movements, so that the visual system in its interpretation can adjust to cancel out spurious effects of the saccades etc. If the structures governing language became integrated neurally with this complex system linking motor control and vision, then it would not be surprising if language acquired the capacity to form into articulatory patterns information about both visual perception and sequences of action.” Source: The motor theory of language by Robin Allot

http://www.percepp.com/motor-ii.htm

18.) Can the lost ability to generate an act of will with which you are able to consciously control covert speech with regards to a certain goal be as essential to our ability to restore and better distinguish a verbal message as it can be devastating to people with an integration disorder referred to as schizophrenia
(Question 19-33)


19.) Can what you are able to attend when you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce in competition for limited attentional resources more or less suppress the ability to control covert speech and do people who more or less lose the ability to control covert speech more or less lose the ability to inhibit a verbal response


20.) Can what you are able to attend when you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce be more demanding when you get a better match between the sensory consequence you are about to produce
(what you expect to hear) and bottom-up sensory signals

21.) Are you more motivated to produce a verbal response when you get a better match between a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals and will the motivational state you are in when you get a better match between the sensory consequence you are about to produce and bottom-up sensory signals increase the attention you devote to all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce


22.) Is it harder to inhibit a verbal response when you get a better match between a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals and will this result in a tendency to produce the most equivalent sensory consequence you are able to produce


23.) Are several top-down sensory expectations simultaneously available when the gesture you need to use is selected and are you able to select the articulatory gesture you need to use
(the one with the most equivalent sensory consequence you are able to produce) when what you are able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation (a competing task), more than what you are able to attend with any other to a lesser extent matching top-down sensory expectation, suppress the ability to control covert speech

To more or less lose the ability to control covert speech is to more or less lose the ability to inhibit a verbal response!

24.) Is the working memory of people who simultaneously use several top-down sensory expectations to attend more ambigious stimuli overloaded and will this contribute when the perception of a context dependent voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal" is generated by further diminishing the ability to inhibit a verbal response


The synergy of working memory and inhibitory control highlights the connection between a working memory impairment in schizophrenia and what may serve a purpose when you need to restore and better distinguish a slightly distorted verbal message!

What you are able to select with a single top-down sensory expectation may fail to suppress the ability to inhibit the gesture you need to use in response to more ambiguous environmental sounds (what you are able to select when you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce will be less demanding when you get a larger mismatch between a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals) and I am trying to understand how you are able to sufficiently sensitize a verbal response...

25.) Is action selection “the outcome of competition between response tendencies in the context of prefrontal biasing signals that represent drives and strivings for goals”


26.) Can not bottom-up sensory signals affect “the outcome of competition between response tendencies” if it is harder to inhibit a verbal response when you get a better match between a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals


27.) Are you able to integrate all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce when bottom-up sensory signals affect "the outcome of competition between response tendencies" and will this generate the informative event we call perception in response to a more or less distorted verbal message


28.) Can the lost ability to inhibit a verbal response serve the purpose of not letting an act of will interfere with the ability to select the gestures you need to use in response to a verbal message and will the lost ability to choose how you respond result in that you find it much harder to disregard the context you are exposed to and experience


29.) Are you able to use multiple sources of information, like when incongruent auditory and visual cues are used to generate the McGurk effect
(a verbal illusion), because a competing task (what you are able to attend when you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce) suppress the ability to choose how you respond

Quote: ”… The McGurk effect is a perceptual phenomenon which demonstrates an interaction between hearing and vision in speech perception. It suggests that speech perception is multimodal, that is, that it involves information from more than one sensory modality…” Source: Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McGurk_effect

30.) Can covert speech with its sensory consequence heard in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation, thanks to a tendency to produce a rather equivalent sensory consequence, be used to distinguish a verbal message and thanks to a sensitivity to the context you are exposed to and experience, be used to restore a more or less distorted verbal message


31.) Are stimuli to which you make the same response categorized when you hear the sensory consequence of a specific gesture in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation
(what you are able to hear more subjectively will in response to different stimuli sound alike) and can a sensitivity to the context you are exposed to and experience make it possible to categorize (and learn how to categorize) what you are able to distinguish in response to acoustically highly variable speech sounds

32.) Are people able to restore and better distinguish a verbal message when they lack the ability to inhibit a verbal response and with a short delay hear the sensory consequence of covert speech in integration with what they were able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation


33.) Was Alvin M. Liberman more than 50 years ago correct in his assumption that “the articulatory movements and their sensory effects mediate between the acoustic stimulus and the event we call perception”


34.) Are you able to integrate all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce when bottom-up sensory signals affect the outcome of competition between response tendencies and will this generate the event we call perception in all of our senses
(sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell)

35.) Can the exposure to stimulus
(non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message or interpret what subjectively seems to be a verbal message have such a profound effect that some people develop a mental illness

The exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message may contribute to a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore...

36.) Why am I the only one who writes about how the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message or interpret what subjectively seems to be a verbal message can generate a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore


37.) Can not the exposure to stimulus
(non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message or interpret what subjectively seems to be a verbal message contribute to a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore

Classical conditioning (also referred to as pavlovian or respondent conditioning) can be the result of stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies like these and may cause the need to access a verbal message in response to non-verbal environmental sounds while operant conditioning is the result of response - stimulus contingencies and what generates our ability to satisfy the need to access a verbal message. In other words to frequently be forced to restore a verbal message due to a hearing loss may cause the need to access a verbal message in response to non-verbal environmental sounds (1) and the need to access what you learn to expect can motivate a behaviour which satisfies the need to access a verbal message (2). Hearing impairments are, as expected, important risk factors for schizophrenia... (However to be born profoundly deaf may reduce the risk if people who without an act of will covertly are signing in response to bottom-up visual signals more seldom need to restore the message they are receiving... Deaf people have the same incidence of schizophrenic illness as the general population!)

1.) Any signal that consistently precedes a meal, such as a clock indicating that it is time for dinner or an appetizer, may cause us to feel hungrier than before the signal because we learn to expect a meal in response to CS (CS will eventually predict the arrival of food) and non-verbal environmental sounds that consistently precedes a verbal illusion (information) can like any signal that consistently precedes a meal become a conditioned reinforcer that can activate a drive representation D.

2.) Operant or instrumental conditioning is a form of learning in which an individual's behaviour is modified by its consequences and it involves learning to make a response in order to obtain a reward or avoid something unpleasant. What you learn to expect or predict in response to a signal that consistently precedes a reinforcer can motivate an operant behaviour which has been established and fine tuned because it satisfies the need to access what you learn to expect or makes it possible to avoid what you learn to expect.

Quote: "…Some stimuli, such as food and water, are reinforcers due to phylogeny (i.e., the evolutionary history of the species). These stimuli are called primary reinforcers. Other stimuli can become reinforcers due to events that occur in the history of an individual. Typically, these reinforcers have been paired with existing reinforcers. For example, if a tone regularly precedes food, the tone will become a reinforcer – that is, it can be used to operantly condition an arbitrary response such as a lever press. A conditioned reinforcer is a stimulus that has become a reinforcer by being paired with a reinforcer. Conditioned reinforcement expands the range of stimuli that can become reinforcers. The evolutionary significance of conditioned reinforcement is that responding to produce a stimulus that has occurred in close temporal association with a primary reinforcer is likely to bring the animal closer to the primary reinforcer..." (p. 36) "...Before concluding this discussion of the distinction between respondent and operant conditioning, it is important to note that pure instances of either are rare. Most learned behaviour consists of both. This is analogous to the rarity of elemental hydrogen and oxygen, but the abundance of H2O..." (p.40) "...Respondent conditioning is the result of stimulus-stimulus contingencies, while operant conditioning is the result of response-stimulus contingencies that affect operant behaviour. There are, however certain stimulus-stimulus contingencies that affect operant behaviour. Theoretically speaking, stimulus-stimulus effects on operant conditioning may be regarded as resulting from respondent conditioning interacting with operant conditioning..." (p. 103) Source: The science of learning by Joseph Pear

Abstract: ”Acquired behavior is motivated by two forms of incentive learning. Pavlovian incentive learning reflect the acquisition of motivational properties by conditioned stimuli (CSs) through their association with appetitive and aversive reinforcers. Although the influence of appetitive CSs is modulated by primary motivational states, they exert a general motivation influence on appetitive behavior. By contrast, aversive CSs inhibit appetitive behavior. The second process, instrumental incentive learning, determines the incentive value assigned to outcomes of goal-directed, instrumental action. This incentive value, and its control by primary motivational states, has to be learned throught experience of the hedonic reactions elicited by the outcome. The two incentive learning processes function in parallel to motivate instrumental behavior.” Source: Chapter 12 in Steven`s handbook of experimental psychology: Learning, motivation and emotion. The Role of Learning in the Operation of Motivational Systems by Anthony Dickinson and Bernard Balleine

http://balleinelab.com/publications/db2002-2.pdf

Quote: It was originally thought that the process underlying classical conditioning was one where the conditioned stimulus becomes associated with, and eventually elicits, the unconditioned response. But many observations do not support this hypothesis. For example, the conditioned response is often quite different to the unconditioned response. Learning theorists now more commonly suggest that the CS comes to signal or predict the US. In the case of the salivating dogs in Pavlov's experiment, the bell tone signaled and predicted the arrival of the dog food, thus resulting in the dog salivating."
Source: Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_conditioning

 

38.) What can increase the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies that affect an operant behaviour like cover speech

A.) What will make it necessary to restore a verbal message.

- The need to access what you expect to hear can motivate a highly context dependent behaviour which serves the purpose of satisfying the need to restore and better distinguish a verbal message while bottom-up sensory signals suppress the ability to inhibit a verbal response.

B.) What will increase the exposure to more ambiguous voices.

- It´s probably more common to expect to access a verbal message in response to non-verbal sounds which originates from a distorted maybe distant voice than in response to other environmental sounds and to expect to access a verbal message can motivate a verbal response which makes it possible to interpret un-patterned noise.

C.) What may increase the need to access a verbal message.

- The need to access a verbal message can motivate a highly context dependent behaviour which normally satisfies the need to restore a verbal message in response to more ambigious stimuli.

- Incentive motivational signals ("a type of motivationally-biased attention") may shift the allocation of processing resources from what generates the ability to consciously control covert speech to what you are able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation.

- To more or less lose the ability to control covert speech while you are trying to access a verbal message is to more or less lose the ability to inhibit a verbal response.

- The ability to satisfy the need to access a verbal message may depend on that you lack the ability to inhibit a verbal response and with a short delay hear the sensory consequence of covert speech in integration with what you were able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation!

D.) What will diminish our ability to predictively monitor the production of a sensory consequence.

- Can the ability to predictively monitor the production of a sensory consequence in competition for limited attentional resources no longer attenuate all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce and will all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce in competition for limited attentional resources as a consequence more effectively suppress the ability to inhibit a verbal response?

Stimulus - stimulus contingencies that profoundly affect an operant behavior like covert speech can like this be generated and I wonder if the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message or interpret what subjectively seems to be a verbal message can have such a profound effect that some people develop a mental illness.

39.) Can all the factors that contribute to the development of an integration disorder referred to as schizophrenia be assumed to increase the exposure to the kind of stimulus (non-verbal) – stimulus (verbal) contingencies you are exposed to when you are able to restore a verbal message


40.) Can the need to restore a verbal message in a noisy environment, due to a hearing impairment or when volition and emotion make you listen to indistinct, maybe distant and hard to hear voices be assumed to trigger an integration disorder like this


41.) How do you explain “the fact that the incidence of schizophrenia increases consistently with increasing levels of urbanicity”


Quote: “…The fact that the incidence of schizophrenia increases consistently with increasing levels of urbanicity in a dose–response fashion suggests not only statistical association, but also causality. Thus, the Swedish findings, in combination with earlier publications, allow us to put forward an increasingly plausible case that the environment has a powerful influence on variation in the incidence of schizophrenia in populations. The identification of the nature of this environmental exposure is likely to further significantly our knowledge of the causes and mechanisms that facilitate symptom formation in psychosis...” Source: The British Journal of Psychiatry (2004) 184: 287-288 Does the urban environment cause psychosis? by Jim Van Os

http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/full/184/4/287#REF7

A, B, C and D?

42.) Why are hearing impairments important risk factors for schizophrenia


Quote: "...hearing impairments are important risk factors for schizophrenia (Malmberg et al., 1995)..." Source: The Causes of Schizophrenic Voice Hallucinations: A Critical Review (2010) by Álvaro Machado Dias

http://www.gjpsy.uni-goettingen.de/gjp-article-dias.pdf

Quote: ”… However, schizophrenia was 1.81 (95% CI 1.2–2.7) times higher amongst those with severe hearing loss, which may be preventable…” (My remarks: A hearing impairment will increase the exposure to the kind of stimulus (ambiguous) -stimulus (informative) contingencies we are able to generate in response to more ambiguous stimuli, but people who are born profoundly deaf do not interpret what is or seems to be a verbal message and this will reduce the exposure to the kind of stimulus (ambiguous) -stimulus (informative) contingencies we are able to generate in response to more ambiguous stimuli... Hearing impairments are important risk factors for schizophrenia and to be born profoundly deaf may reduce the risk!) Source: Are there neurological and sensory risk factors for schizophrenia? Schizophrenia Research Volume 14, issue 3, Pages 247-251, February 1995

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7766536

A, B and C?

43.) Can sensory deprivation and solitude affect the need to access a verbal message and will this increase the risk of developing a mental illness


44.) Can poor facial recognition
(impaired facial emotion recognition) like sensory deprivation and solitude affect the need to access a verbal message and will this increase the vulnerability to schizophrenia in some people

I have tried to understand how poor facial emotion recognition can be generated in people who frequently are able to avoid some of the voices they hear by revealing a verbal illusion and need to consider the possibility that poor facial emotion recognition in some people correspond to a primary negative symptom!

45.) How do you explain the fact that belonging to an ethnic minority increases the risk of developing an integration disorder like this


Quote: “It seems to be more common in migrants (McGrath, 2006) despite cultural considerations, with some of the most dramatic increases seen in African and Caribbean people living in the United Kingdom, whose rates are up to 6 times those of the native white population (Fearon et al, 2006). The rates remain elevated in the children of migrants, but are not reflected in increased rates in their home country (Mahy et al, 1999). Environmental and social factors have been particularly implicated in this increased risk including racism and loss of social and family support. It is important to note that the risk of schizophrenia in migrants is greatest when they represent a smaller proportion of their local community (Boydell et al 2001).” Source: Scolarpedia, Epidemiology: risk factors for schizophrenia

http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Schizophrenia

C?

46.) Can any difference which gives you the sense of not belonging in a social context cause an elevated risk of developing an integration disorder like this


The emotional and motivational state you are in may very well affect the need to access a verbal message and this ought to result in that you devote more attention to all features matching what you expect to hear. To devote more attention to a competing task like this can be assumed to suppress the ability to inhibit a behavior which satisfies the need to access a verbal message in response to more ambigious stimuli.

Stimulus - stimulus contingencies that profoundly affect an operant behavior like covert speech can like this be generated and I wonder if the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message or interpret what subjectively seems to be a verbal message can have such a profound effect that some people develop a mental illness.

47.) Can the exposure to social stressors have a particularly harmful impact on individuals with a genetic vulnerability


Indifference is a quality which ought to decrease your vulnerability and being a more sensitive and insecure person is a quality which may increase your vulnerability.

Can not the exposure to social stressors like stress in general, in accordance with an experience shared by many (stress will sometimes generate a more impulsive behaviour), more or less affect the ability control whatever it is you are doing?

Can not the exposure to social stressors increase the need to access information and can not incentive motivational signals ("a type of motivationally-biased attention") like these further diminish the ability to control covert speech by shifting the allocation of processing resources from what generates the ability to consciously control covert speech to what you are able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation?

To more or less lose the ability to control covert speech while you are trying to access a verbal message is to more or less lose the ability to inhibit a verbal response...

Conclusion: A sensitivity to social stressors will probably affect the need to access information while it diminishes the ability to inhibit a verbal response...

48.) Are people, significantely deprived of their sleep, sometimes unable to adequately monitor the production of a sensory consequence and will this increase the risk of developing an integration disorder referred to as schizophrenia


Can the ability to predictively monitor the production of a sensory consequence in competition for limited attentional resources no longer attenuate all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce and will all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce in competition for limited attentional resources as a consequence more effectively suppress the ability to inhibit a verbal response?

Are people, significantely deprived of their sleep, able to hear their own thoughts as alien voices because they are unable to attenuate all features matching the sensory consequence they are about to produce and lack the ability to inhibit a verbal response?

Can the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to interpret un-patterned noise corresponding to environmental or tinnitus like sounds maintain a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore and will this increase the risk of developing an integration disorder referred to as schizophrenia?

Hypnagogic hallucinations are episodes of hearing voices as one is falling asleep and may depend on that people are unable to devote enough attention to a competing task corresponding to what generates their ability to consciously control covert speech with regards to a certain goal.

49.) Can a pre-existing cognitive impairment cause an elevated risk of developing an integration disorder like this


I assume that a cognitive impairment due to the ambiguity you experience like sleep deprivation and the exposure to social stressors can affect the ability control whatever it is you are doing while you are trying to make sense of the context you are exposed to. (What generates the ability to control covert speech must like when you are trying to restore a distorted maybe distant voice be more demanding due to the ambiguity you experience... )

To not be able to make sense of the context you are exposed to will no doubt increase the need to access information and incentive motivational signals ("a type of motivationally-biased attention") like these may even further diminish the ability to control covert speech by shifting the allocation of processing resources from what generates the ability to consciously control covert speech to what you are able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation. To more or less lose the ability to control covert speech while you are trying to access a verbal message is to more or less lose the ability to inhibit a verbal response...

Conclusion: A pre-exstisting cognitive impairment may increase the need to access information while it diminishes the ability to inhibit a verbal response...

Quote: “Trevor Robbins of the University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, argued that the field ought to pay careful attention to phenotypes, and their component parts (“intermediate phenotypes” or, if inherited, “endophenotypes”)... ...He suggested that schizophrenia’s clinical features may be deconstructed into discrete cognitive impairments, and that aberrant learning in general may underlie the positive and negative symptoms defined by psychiatry.” Source: Schizophrenia research forum, WCPG 2012—Phenotype and Function in Schizophrenia Genomics

http://www.schizophreniaforum.org/new/detail.asp?id=1820

The complicated world we live in may trigger the need to access information (larger chunks of information are required in order to understand the context we are exposed to) and the need to access information due to a cognitive impairment or when we are exposed to a much to complicated context may create a vicious spiral in which a person with an overloaded working memory experience the need to take in more information... (The synergy of working memory and inhibitory control highlights the connection between a working memory impairment in schizophrenia and what may serve a purpose in response to a slightly distorted verbal message!)

Quote: ” Working memory is the system that actively holds multiple pieces of transitory information in the mind, where they can be manipulated. This involves execution of verbal and nonverbal tasks—such as reasoning and comprehension—and makes them available for further information-processing. It is not the same as short term memory. Working memory tasks require monitoring (i.e., manipulation of information or behaviors) as part of completing goal-directed actions in the setting of interfering processes and distractions. The cognitive processes needed to achieve this include the executive and attention control of short-term memory, which permit interim integration, processing, disposal, and retrieval of information.” Soruce: Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Working_memory

50.) Is it possible to understand why some people who maybe only once in their lives used the kind of drugs that triggers auditory hallucinations continues to hear these voices for the rest of their lives


The repeated use of hallucinogenic drugs has been reported to cause a chronic hallucinatory state in some people and what people learn when they with a short delay interpret what subjectively seems to be a verbal message may cause a chronic hallucinatory state!...

To expect to access a verbal message in response to a slightly distorted maybe distant voice can be assumed to motivate a highly context dependent behaviour which makes it possible to restore and better distinguish a verbal message and to more frequently reward a behaviour which generates the exposure to stimulus (more ambiguous non-verbal environmental sounds) – stimulus (the sensory consequence of covert speech can be heard in integration with what you were able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation) contingencies can be assumed to establish a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore when you learn to expect to access a verbal message in response to what people normally ignore!

People who mostly hear the kind of voices they want to hear may eventually lose their ability to hear these voices because they are able to reveal a verbal illusion (1) while some people who mostly hear the kind of voices they want to avoid learn to sometimes avoid the kind of voices they hear by paying more attention to what they are able to hear objectively (2) ...

1.) Extinction: The occurrences of a conditioned response will eventually decrease or disappear when a conditioned reinforcer (un-patterned noise) no longer is paired with a primary reinforcer (information)!

2.) People who consistently avoid the event they fear will continue to expect a fearfull event (phobia) and people who selectively are able to avoid some of the voices they hear by revealing a mismatch will continue to expect to hear the voices they were able to avoid! To continue to expect to hear the voices you are able to avoid by revealing a verbal illusion may eventually generate negative symptoms like poverty of speech, affective flattening and avolition and to continue to expect to hear the voices you are trying to avoid will generate the voices you are trying to avoid whenever you are unable to reveal a verbal illusion. The allocation of processing resources from what generates the ability to consciously control covert speech to what you are able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation must be greater when you are trying to avoid a voice with a negative emotional content than when you are trying to restore a verbal message or interpret non-verbal environmental or tinnitus like sounds with no connection to a verbal message (not coexisting with or corresponding to a distorted verbal message) and avoidance may therefore also generate a more disorganized behavior.

"Non-clinical populations usually experience voices with a neutral or even positive emotional content" and to selectively be able to avoid some voices expressed with a negative emotional content may eventually generate a more unpleasant voice hearing experience, disorganization and negative symptoms.

An already stigmatized experience can be connected to some of what characterize an even more stigmatized illness, but most people who hear auditory hallucinations do not meet the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia!

51.) What can prevent the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies from having such a profound effect on an operant behaviour like cover speech that some people develope a mental illness


A.)
The ability to reveal a verbal illusion while you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce may prevent the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal)-stimulus (verbal) contingencies from having such a profound effect that some people develope a mental illness by blocking the voice you are about to produce! (Extinction: The occurrences of a conditioned response will eventually decrease or disappear when a conditioned reinforcer (un-patterned noise) no longer is paired with a primary reinforcer (information)!)

B.) Can the predictability or informativeness of CS (non-verbal environmental sounds) be reduced if the context you are exposed to and experience with more certainty predicts the event we call perception?

52.) Are you able to reveal a verbal illusion because an increase in attention (incentive motivational signals) takes the sound you interpret out of its peripheral existence without generating a match between a top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals


The sound you interpret (CS) can like a verbal context activate the need to access information (D) and incentive motivational signals like these highlights all features matching the sound you interpret while all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce are in focus...

53.) How can the ability to reveal a mismatch between the voice you are about to produce and what you are able to hear more objectively affect the ability to inhibit a verbal response


To reveal a mismatch between the voice you are about to produce and what you are able to hear more objectively will affect the motivation to produce the voice you are about to produce, the incentive to attend all features matching the voice you are about to produce and your ability to inhibit the voice you are about to produce. (The context you are exposed to and experience may have the opposite effect!)

All features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce are attended, but only until you are able to reveal a mismatch and this may prevent that a competing task suppress the ability to inhibit a verbal response!

54.) Can covert speech with its sensory consequence heard in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation be blocked in the middle of a sentence because an increase in attention takes the sound you interpret out of its peripheral existence without generating a match between a top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals


To focus on what you hear objectively (like when you are able to locate the source of a specific sound) will sometimes make it possible to reveal the subjectivity of the voices you hear. The first person to write about an experience like this is as far as I know sir John Perceval (1803-1876), but he believed that God and not his brain made him hear voices in nonverbal sounds. Like me he could hear the nonverbal sound behind the voice without simultaneously hearing a verbal illusion if he located the source which probably means increasing the level of attention devoted to listening until you are able to take the sound you interpret out of its peripheral existence and reveal a mismatch.

55.) Is the ability to remember affectively toned verbal material sometimes impaired because an emotional response increase the attention you devote to what you are able to hear more objectively


To pay more attention to what you are able to hear more objectively due to an emotional response may result in that you are able to reveal a mismatch and to be able to reveal a mismatch will block the ability to use covert speech.

Quote: "...Attention is controlled by sensory and cognitive expectations which are matched against sensory inputs. Attention is also controlled by emotional and motivational expectations, which are regulated by learned feedback between cognitive and reward and punishment centers..." Source: The Imbalanced Brain: From Normal Behavior To Schizophrenia (2000) by Stephen Grossberg

http://www.cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/Gro.BioPsy2000.pdf

56.) Can an emotional response first increase the attention you devote to what you are able to hear more objectively and then when you are able to reveal a verbal illusion like the voice you were about to produce be blocked without ever reaching awareness


57.) Can the sensory consequence you are about to produce during covert speech take on the value of what you are able to reveal as irrelevant and how can this be assumed to affect the emotional state of people who frequently are able to reveal a verbal illusion instead of hearing their own thoughts as alien voices


58.) Can a reduction in the range and intensity of emotional expression be generated due to a tendency to reveal a verbal illusion


59.) Can a tendency to reveal a verbal illusion be generated because you are trying really hard to hear the voice you are about to produce or because you are trying to avoid the voice you are about to produce by paying more attention to what you are able to hear more objectively


It is much harder to hear the voices you are trying to hear and I am able to use this to get rid of some of the voices I hear! (Incentive motivational signals highlights what you are able to hear more objectively until you are able to reveal a mismatch between a top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals.)

60.) Are people able to selectively avoid some of the voices they hear by paying more attention to what they are able to hear objectively and can this be assumed to generate more negative symptoms in people who mostly hear the kind of voices they want to avoid


What I am trying to understand are how secondary negative symptoms emerge in people who frequently reveal a verbal illusion!

Quote: “The objective appearance of negative symptoms in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders may be a direct reflection of a primary neural abnormality or may be secondary to a variety of factors such as neuroleptic side effects, depression, positive symptoms, or environmental understimulation.” Source: In PubMed from Compr Psychiattry. 1995 Nov-Dec;36(6):421-7. The reliability of distinguishing primary versus secondary negative symptoms by Flaum M and Andreasen N.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8565446

People who consistently avoid the event they fear will continue to expect a fearfull event (phobia) and people who selectively are able to avoid some of the voices they hear by revealing a mismatch will continue to expect to hear the voices they were able to avoid! To continue to expect to hear the voices you are able to avoid by revealing a verbal mismatch may eventually generate negative symptoms like poverty of speech, affective flattening and avolition... (Un-patterned noise may come to act as a conditioned negative reinforcer when people mostly hear the kind of voices they want to avoid!)

Conditioned avoidance response (CAR) is a test with predictive validity for antipsychotic efficacy, but negative symptoms are very hard to treat and I wonder if this can be explained with the assumtion that negative symptoms predominantly depend on that you previously in avoidance WERE able to reveal a verbal illusion. In other words I wonder if the gesture (and I mean whatever gesture) you are about to produce (covertly or overtly it does not matter) eventually take on the value of what you in avoidance were able to reveal as irrelevant because it determines a top-down sensory expectation which according to previous events consistently generates a mismatch... (I assume, but have not yet been able to verify (!) that the ability to attenuate a response which allows rats to avoid something unpleasent can predict if a medicine have an effect or not because it corresponds to how well the medicine attenuates a condition avoidance response in humans... )

Quote:””It was believed that dopamine regulated pleasure and reward and that we release it when we obtain something that satisfies us, but in fact the latest scientific evidence shows that this neurotransmitter acts before that, it actually encourages us to act. In other words, dopamine is released in order to achieve something good or to avoid something evil,” explains Mercè Correa.” (My remarks: To reward an operant behavior (covert speech) which generates exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message or interpret what subjectively seems to be a verbal message may contribute to a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore (intrumental and pavlovian motivational signals encourages us to act)... Dopamine receptor antagonists are used to treat "schizophrenia"... ) Source: ScienceDaily , Dopamine Regulates the Motivation to Act, Study Shows

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/01/130110094415.htm

Quote: ” Conventional antipsychotics treat the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, but they have little effect on primary negative and cognitive symptoms.” Source: Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1998 Mar;13 Suppl 3:S21-6. The role of negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia outcome by Tamminga CA, Buchanan RW and Gold JM.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9690966

Quote:” Since the introduction of chlorpromazine, the first antipsychotic drug, it has been evident that a large number of patients have schizophrenia that is treatment resistant. It is estimated that between 20% and 60% of patients have schizophrenia that is resistant to treatment... ... patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia do tend to have prominent negative and cognitive symptoms and more severe psychopathology than patients whose condition responds to antipsychotic drugs.” (My remarks: What generates treatment resistent negative symptoms may generate treatment resistent positive symptoms if it like expected affects the power with which you are able to monitor the production of the voice you are about to produce! ) Source: Psychiatric Times, Treatment-Resistent Schizophrenia, Strategies for Recognizing Schizophrenia and Treating to Remission by Seong S. Shim MD, PhD

http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/schizophrenia/content/article/10168/1433177

Do I need to redefine what I refer to as negative symptoms?

Catatonic behaviours are referred to as positive symptoms, but seem to be consisting of both positive and negative symptoms.

Quote: "Catatonic behaviors are characterized by a marked decrease in reaction to the immediate surrounding environment, sometimes taking the form of motionless and apparent unawareness, rigid or bizarre postures, or aimless excess motor activity."

Conclusion: To selectively be able to avoid some of the voices you hear by revealing a verbal illusion may generate negative symptoms while the voices you are trying to avoid, but fail to reveal, generate positive symptoms. This can be prevented in some people, but negative symptoms like poverty of speech, affective flattening and avolition may also depend on that you previously in avoidance WERE able to reveal a mismatch and this can not yet be effectively treated...

Is the ability to reveal a verbal illusion unintentionally prevented in people who in their minds predominantly generate a neutral or even positive voice hearing experience because they are treated to prevent that positive and negative symptoms emerge due to the voices they are trying to avoid? (Extinction: The occurrences of a conditioned response will eventually decrease or disappear when a conditioned reinforcer (un-patterned noise) no longer is paired with a primary reinforcer (information) because you are able to reveal a mismatch while you are trying to hear the voices you want to hear!)

61.) Will the ability to reveal a verbal illusion in time eventually generate more negative symptoms like poverty of speech, affective flattening and avolition in people who mostly hear kind of voices they want to avoid


The gesture (and I mean whatever gesture) you are about to produce (covertly or overtly it does not matter) may eventually take on the value of what you in avoidance were able to reveal as irrelevant because it determines a top-down sensory expectation which according to previous events consistently generates a mismatch. (People who consistently avoid the event they fear will continue to expect a fearfull event (phobia) and people who selectively are able to avoid some of the voices they hear by revealing a mismatch will continue to expect to hear the voices they were able to avoid! To continue to expect to hear what you are able to avoid by revealing a mismatch may eventually generate more negative symptoms like poverty of speech, affective flattening and avolition!)

Quote: ”Conclusions: Negative symptoms in schizophrenia are associated with a specific reinforcement learning abnormality: patients with high-negative symptoms do not represent the expected value of rewards when making decisions but learn to avoid punishments through the use of prediction errors... ...These results provide insight into the origins of avolition and anhedonia in schizophrenia. First, patients with the most severe negative symptoms demonstrate deficits in learning from rewarding outcomes. This deficit is not a manifestation of a general learning impairment because the HNS group performed at levels similar to those of the HC group when learning to avoid losses. Second, in the transfer test phase, the HNS group did not show a preference for a frequently rewarded stimulus over a frequent loss avoider; that is, they were less able to take expected reward values into account during decision making; therefore, decisions were based on stimulus response weights learned from prior PEs.” Source: Negative Symptoms and the Failure to Represent the Expected Reward Value of Actions, Behavioral and Computational Modeling Evidence, James M. Gold, PhD; James A. Waltz, PhD; Tatyana M. Matveenva, BA; Zuzana Kasanova, BA; Grgory P. Strauss, Phd; Ellen S. Herbener, PhD; Anne G. E. Collins, PhD; Michael J. Frank, PhD

http://ski.clps.brown.edu/papers/GoldEtAl_Archives12.pdf

62.) Can negative symptoms due to a reduced capacity for anticipating future pleasure resulting from goal-directed action in time emerge because bottom-up sensory signals consistently suppress the ability to generate an act of will


Quote: “The negative symptoms of schizophrenia include deficits in motivation, for which thear is currently no treatment available... ...The motivational deficit in patients with schizophrenia is not due to an inability to experience pleasure in the moment as hedonic reaction appears intact in patients. Instead, the motivation deficit represents a reduced capacity for anticipating future pleasure resulting from goal-directed action. The diminished anticipation appears to be a consequence of an inability to accurately represent the expected reward values of actions.”(My remarks: The sensory consequence you are about to produce may no longer predict a reward because bottom-up sensory signals corresponding to non-verbal environmental or tinnitus like sounds previously consistently suppressed the ability to control covert speech - How informative is a loose association?) Source: Schizophr Bull (2012) 38 (6): 1111-1117, Schizophrenia in Translation: Dissecting Motivation in Schizophrenia and Rodents by Eleanor H. Simpson, James A. Waltz, Christoph Kellendonk and Peter D. Balsam

http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/content/38/6/1111.abstract?sid=763ea097-f288-41d6-ba40-5c1442512a0d

63.) Am I the only one who writes about how the ability to reveal a mismatch can generate negative symptoms like poverty of speech, affective flattening and avolition in people who mostly hear the kind of voices they want to avoid


64.) Can not negative symptoms like poverty of speech, affective flattening and avolition be connected to our ability to reveal a mismatch


65.) Will a tendency to reveal a verbal illusion eventually in correlation more or less attenuate the response to a deviant within a sequence of otherwise regular stimuli


Reduction of mismatch negativity has been correlated with the severity of negative symptoms...

Quote: “When identical tones are presented sequentially, the amplitude of later tones is reduced compared with that of earlier tones in the sequence, suggesting an adaptation or habituation effect of the N1 component, which may correspond to cortical filtering of incoming event. In the present study, we used this approach to assess N1m adaptation to a series of standard tones obtained from an auditory oddball task in UHR subjects, patient with schizophrenia, and healthy control (HC) subjects. In contrast to N1m, which is produced by repetitive stimuli, the mismatch negativity (MMN) component (magnetic counterpart: MMNm) is a neurophysiological index of the automatic detection of deviant auditory stimuli among frequent standard timuli.” Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin (2011) Aberrant Auditory Processing in Schizophrenia and in Subjects at Ultra-High-Risk for Psychosis by Kyung Soon Shin, June Sic Kim, Sung Nyun Kim, Yuri Koh, Joon Hwan Jang, Suk Kyoon An, Brian F. O´Donnell, Chun Kee Chung and Jun Soo Kwon

http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/10/20/schbul.sbr138.full.pdf+html

Do some people early on find it hard to ignore repetitive stimuli and later on if their illness progress in a direction which generates more negative symptoms to some extent lose their ability to notice a deviant within a sequence of otherwise regular stimuli?

66.) Will some people who more frequently are able to reveal a verbal illusion and mostly hear the kind of voices they want to hear eventually lose their ability to hear these voices


Extinction: The occurrences of a conditioned response will eventually decrease or disappear when a conditioned reinforcer (un-patterned noise) no longer is paired with a primary reinforcer (information)!

67.) Is it possible to affect what kind of voices people hear and will this help them to recover from "schizophrenia"


People who mostly hear the kind of voices they want to hear may eventually lose their ability to hear these voices because they are able to reveal a verbal illusion (1) while some people who mostly hear the kind of voices they want to avoid learn to sometimes avoid the kind of voices they hear by paying more attention to what they are able to hear objectively (2) ...

1.) Extinction: The occurrences of a conditioned response will eventually decrease or disappear when a conditioned reinforcer (un-patterned noise) no longer is paired with a primary reinforcer (information)!

2.) People who consistently avoid the event they fear will continue to expect a fearfull event (phobia) and people who selectively are able to avoid some of the voices they hear by revealing a mismatch will continue to expect to hear the voices they were able to avoid! To continue to expect to hear the voices you are able to avoid by revealing a verbal illusion may eventually generate negative symptoms like poverty of speech, affective flattening and avolition and to continue to expect to hear the voices you are trying to avoid will generate the voices you are trying to avoid whenever you are unable to reveal a verbal illusion. The allocation of processing resources from what generates the ability to consciously control covert speech to what you are able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation must be greater when you are trying to avoid a voice with a negative emotional content than when you are trying to restore a verbal message or interpret non-verbal environmental or tinnitus like sounds with no connection to a verbal message (not coexisting with or corresponding to a distorted verbal message) and avoidance may therefore generate a more disorganized behavior.

"Non-clinical populations usually experience voices with a neutral or even positive emotional content" and to selectively be able to avoid some voices expressed with a negative emotional content may eventually generate a more unpleasant voice hearing experience, disorganization and negative symptoms.

An already stigmatized experience can be connected to some of what characterize an even more stigmatized illness, but most people who hear auditory hallucinations do not meet the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia!

68.) Can verbal auditory hallucinations emerge as the result of stimulus
(non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message while positive symptoms in all of our other senses (visual hallucinations etc) emerge due to a failure to block a neutral stimulus in compound with CS (un-patterned noise)


69.) Will some people fail to block a neutral stimulus in compound with CS
(attentional blocking) because they are able to reveal a mismatch

Can a hypothesis testing cycle (mismatch -> arousal/novelty -> short term memory reset) generate "unusual persistence of controlled information processing strategies" due to a tendency to reveal a verbal illusion? To no longer focus on what you were able to reveal as irrelevant (a competing task) may result in that you are able to attend and remember a neutral event in compound with CS! What can be referred to as a competing task will no longer suppress the ability to generate an act of will and this is how I understand the persistence of controlled information processing strategies in people who can be assumed to reveal a verbal illusion. The inability to block a neutral stimulus in compound with CS has been assumed to depend on unusual persistence of controlled information processing strategies.

Quote: “…When the ISI Effect and Secondary Conditioning are combined, it is possible to understand how classical conditioning is related to processes of selective attention. This linkage is illustrated by the process of Attentional Blocking (Kamin,1968, 1969; Pavlov, 1927) whereby sensory events that do not predict new rewarding events are not attended…” (My remarks: To reveal a verbal illusion is to temporarily no longer expect to hear a verbal message in response to CS and to temporarily no longer predict the occurrence of a reinforcer in response to CS may temporarily prevent the ability to block a neutral stimulus in compound with CS!) Source: The Imbalanced Brain: From Normal Behavior To Schizophrenia p.6 (2000) by Stephen Grossberg

http://www.cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/Gro.BioPsy2000.pdf

70.) Can our ability to reveal a verbal illusion briefly switch our attention to a neutral event in one of our other senses and will a neutral event like this if it consistently precedes a reinforcer
(the informative event we call perception) itself become a reinforcer


Ambiguous auditory stimuli (CS) may trigger the need to access information and to reveal a verbal illusion when you experience the need to access information may generate the event we call perception in response to ambiguous stimuli in one of our other senses... (The rare visual hallucitions I have experienced like when I one early morning saw a giant wasp on the wall and occationally a couple of times moths on the floor late at night may have been triggered because I frequently located the source of the voices I heard to reveal the illusionary nature of these voices.)

71.) What is and why do we need to use an echoic memory


You are able to hear the sensory consequence of covert speech in integration with an earlier auditory event (a verbal illusion can be referred to as a false memory of an earlier auditory event) and an echoic memory is a sensory buffer of earlier auditory events which makes it possible to process bottom-up sensory signals as long as it takes to select the gesture you need to use.

Quote: "... It has long been thought that echoic memory plays an important role in speech perception, both in supporting non-categorical comparison among spoken materials (Crowder, 1983; cf. Pisoni and Tash, 1974), and in providing an auditory record that permits the processing of longer-lasting, supra-segmental structures in connected speech (Frankish, 1989). In line with this proposal, we suggest that ongoing maintenance of auditory information, at multiple levels of representation, plays an important role in permitting topdown information to influence perceptual processing of speech..." Source: Hearing speech sounds:Top-down influences on the interface between audition and speech perception. Hearing Research 229 (2007) 132-147

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1892 (abstract)

72.) Can our ability to hear the sensory consequence of an internal gesture in integration with an earlier auditory event result in that some people start to believe that they are able to foresee the future as in precognition


Most people are able to restore a word in the middle of a sentence with the information they get later in that sentence and I´m able to change a short term memory of nonverbal sounds about the length of a syllable by integrating my inner voice with an earlier auditory event. (I´m listening to a nonverbal sound about the length of a syllable with my eyes closed and then with a short delay when I no longer hear the biiip open my eyes to read a random syllable while I´m trying to remember what I heard objectively.) The resulting experience resembles precognition because what I remember hearing is not what I heard objectively and seems to have predicted an unexpected event...

Quote: “Echoic memory is one of the sensory memory registers; a component of short term memory (STM) that is specific to retaining auditory information. This particular sensory store is capable of storing large amounts of auditory information that is only retained for a short period of time (3-4 seconds)...” Source: Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Echoic_memory

73.) Can the ability to hear whatever you expect to hear in response to the context you are exposed to and experience gradually, by subjectively confirming whatever you expect to hear, change the context you experience to a more subjective context


To be able to hear whatever you expect to hear in response to the context you are exposed to and experience may gradually, by subjectively confirming whatever you expect to hear, change the context you experience to a more subjective context and the voices I hear subjectively in response to a distorted maybe distant voice can be assumed to more easily lead to false beliefs if you think that auditory hallucinations never include an external source. (Common sense should in my opinion always be given a fair chance and M.D Hunter is a scientist who gives a more diversified and clear picture of what an auditory hallucination can be.)

I´m currently reading Toward a neurobilogy of delusions by P. R. Crlett, J.R. Talylor, X.-J. Wang, P.C. Fletcher, J.H. Krystal

Quote: ”We have outlined an account of delusional beliefs based on the tenets of animal learning theory and hierarchical Bayesian inference. We apply those tenets not only to explain dysfunctions in Pavlovian predictive learning (Corlett et al., 2006, 2007b) and instrumental conditioning (Freeman et al., 2009; Murray et al., 2008; Roiser et al., 200); Schlagenhauf et al., 2009), but also to account for the perceptual, affective and social disruptions that attend delusions (Bentall et al., 2001; Maher, 1974; Vinogradov et al., 1992).”

http://www-bmu.psychiatry.cam.ac.uk/publications/corlett10tow.pdf

74.)
Can a lowering of the threshold for action selection combined with the ability to hear whatever you expect more suddenly cause a false belief

Bottom-up sensory signals are lowering the threshold for action selection by suppressing the ability to inhibit a verbal response and to suppress the ability to control covert speech by suppressing the ability to inhibit a verbal response can be assumed to affect the outcome of competition between response tendencies...

75.) Can the lost ability to discriminate relevant stimuli from irrelevant stimuli originate from our ability to restore a verbal message


Our ability to restore a verbal message rely on an ability to interpret irrelevant stimuli when we expect to access a verbal message and a failure to block a neutral stimulus in one of our other senses may depend on our ability to reveal a verbal illusion...

Quote: ”… According to Kim, "The blocking phenomenon is one way that animals discriminate relevant stimuli from irrelevant stimuli." Kim believes that their work has larger implications for the scientific community. This latest finding, he said, will help researchers better understand schizophrenia, autism, and other conditions in which patients "cannot filter out irrelevant stimuli."…” Source: Yale neuroscientist finds key piece to Pavlov puzzle by Sangeetha Ramaswamy

http://www.yaleherald.com/archive/xxv/1.30.98/news/neuro.html

Quote: "Kamin's blocking effect demonstrates that conditioning to a stimulus could be blocked if the stimulus were reinforced in compound with a previously conditioned stimulus. For example, an animal is exposed to conditioned stimulus 1 (CS1), which predicts the occurrence of a reinforcer. After learning the paired association between CS1 and unconditioned stimulus (US), a compound stimulus composed of CS1 and another stimulus 2 (CS2) is presented with the US. Hence both CS1 and CS2 are stimuli that predict the US. However, when tested, the animal shows little, if any, CS2-US association. This is because the occurrence of the US was fully predicted by CS1 alone, and hence no learning occurs when CS2 is presented simultaneously. In other words, CS2-US association is blocked because CS1-US association already exists." (My remarks: To reveal a verbal illusion is to temporarily no longer expect to hear a verbal message in response to CS and to temporarily no longer predict the occurrence of a reinforcer in response to CS may temporarily prevent the ability to block a neutral stimulus in compound with CS!) Source: Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blocking_effect

76.) Do people naturally focus more on monitoring the production of a sensory consequence when it is the sensory consequence they produce overtly and can this be assumed to explain why people who constantly loses their ability to control covert speech often find it much easier to control overt speech


77.) Are the frequently occurring loose associations I experience a characterizing feature of this illness which reflects how bottom-up sensory signals can affect “the outcome of competition between response tendencies in the context of prefrontal biasing signals that represent drives and strivings for goals”


78.) Can a mechanism which allows covert speech to jump from one perspective to another in a very disturbed dialog be understood and will this make it any easier to understand why overt speech in some people with schizophrenia jumps from one subject to another based on the sounds or associations of word they have uttered


It is not hard to understand why heard thoughts sometimes end in the middle of a sentence when an increase in attention can take the nonverbal sounds you interpret out of their peripheral existence (you are able to reveal a verbal illusion) or why the alien thoughts you hear sometimes immediately continue with the pitch of another voice which like the previous voice ends when an increase in attention occur and so on. The ability to reveal a verbal illusion (a mismatch) can be assumed to enable an abrupt change in the perspective with which covert speech generates the next voice you hear by triggering what Grossberg refers to as a hypothesis testing cycle (mismatch -> arousal/novelty -> short term memory reset). To speak and in parallel be able to reveal a verbal illusion (1) may combined with the suppressing effect of bottom-up sensory signals (2) result in that some people during overt speech jumps from on subject to another based on the sounds or associations of word they have uttered.

1.) I assume that the sensory consequence of overt speech like the sensory consequence of covert speech can be heard in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and that the sound you interpret can be taken out of its peripheral existence without generating a match between the sensory consequence you are about to produce and bottom-up sensory signals...

2.) What you are able to select with a new top-down sensory expectation may suppress the ability to control covert speech...

79.) Can the ability to remember words be impaired in patients with schizophrenia due to a tendency to reveal a verbal illusion
(1) or because bottom-up sensory signals affect the outcome of competition between response tendencies by suppressing the ability to inhibit a verbal response (2)


1.) The ability to use covert speech with its sensory consequence heard in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation will be blocked whenever you are able to reveal a verbal illusion...

2.) Wikiquote: "One idea regarding how intrusion errors work is due to a lack of recall inhibition, which allows irrelevant information to be brought to awareness while attempting to remember" (My remarks: "Intrusion errors have been linked to deficits in self-monitoring"... )

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory_errors

80.) Is the working memory of people who simultaneously use several top-down sensory expectations to attend more ambigious stimuli overloaded and can this be assumed to cause poor recall in people with an integration disorder referred to as "schizophrenia" by further diminishing the ability to inhibit a verbal response


The synergy of working memory and inhibitory control highlights the connection between a working memory impairment in schizophrenia and what may serve a purpose in response to a slightly distorted verbal message! (To further diminish the ability to inhibit a verbal response may contribute when you need to restore and better distinguish a slightly distorted verbal message! )

Quote: “The relationship between short-term memory and working memory is described differently by various theories, but it is generally acknowledged that the two concepts are distinct. Working memory is a theoretical framework that refers to structures and processes used for temporarily storing and manipulating information. As such, working memory might also be referred to as working attention. Working memory and attention together play a major role in the processes of thinking. Short-term memory in general refers, in a theory-neutral manner, to the short-term storage of information, and it does not entail the manipulation or organization of material held in memory...” Source: Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Short-term_memory#Relationship_with_working_memory

Quote: “Have you ever noticed how tiresome it can be to follow a conversation at a noisy party? Rest assured: this is not necessarily due to bad hearing – although that might make things worse. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in Leipzig have found that adverse listening situations are difficult for the brain, partly because they draw on the same, limited resources supporting our short-term memory. The new findings are particularly relevant to understanding the cognitive consequences of hearing damage, a condition that affects an increasing number of people. Whether we are engaged in small talk or trying to memorise a telephone number - it is our short-term memory that ensures we don't lose track. But what if the very same memory gets additionally taxed because the words to be remembered are hard to understand? This is suggested by a new study conducted by Jonas Obleser and his team at the Max Planck Research Group "Auditory Cognition"...” Source: Medicalxpress.com

http://medicalxpress.com/news/2012-09-noisy-toll-short-term-memory.html

81.) Can the stressed out state you are in due to what you experience affect the ability to recall information


Quote: “The effects of stress on memory include interference with one’s capacity to encode and ability retrieve information.” Source: Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effects_of_stress_on_memory

82.) Will some people who hear their own thoughts as alien voices develop polydipsia
(excessive fluid intake) because an operant behaviour like alien covert speech is rewarded with information without entirely satisfying the need to access information


A hungry animal with access to water may if an operant behaviour is rewarded with food, but in too small amounts to satisfy its hunger, eventually develop polydipsia.

83.) Can a behaviour which operates on the environment to generate the voices you hear be rewarded with information without entirely satisfying the need to access information because you are able to reveal a verbal illusion
(1) or because bottom-up sensory signals affect the outcome of competition between response tendencies (2)


1.) To listen because you experience the need to access a verbal message may result in that you are able to reveal a verbal illusion and it is much harder to hear the voices you are trying to hear...

2.) How informative is a loose association?

84.) Is polydipsia associated with negative symptoms, disorganization and poor outcome


85.) Are people who lose the ability to control their movements forced to divide their attention between their ability to predictively monitor the production of a sensory consequence and what they are able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation


What you expect to feel can be used to select some features matching how the movement you are about to execute will be felt and to attend some features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation may suppress the ability to control the movement you are about to execute. Haptically deafferented subjects do not suffer from delusions of 'passivity' or alien control!

To lack the ability to control covert speech while you are fully aware of how the inner voice you hear is produced will generate what I refer to as a thought insertion voice...

86.) Are catatonic behaviors characterized by a marked decrease in reaction to the immediate surrounding environment, sometimes taking the form of motionless and apparent unawareness
(1), rigid or bizarre postures(2), or aimless excess motor activity(3) possible to understand


1.) Motionless and apparent unawareness - An increase in attention (incentive motivational signals) may take more ambiguous stimuli (CS - the ability to reveal a mismatch may generate a failure to block a neutral stimulus in compound with non-verbal environmental or tinnitus like sounds...) out of their peripheral existence while you are about to produce what you expect to feel without generating a match between a top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals...

2.) Rigid or bizarre postures - Bottom-up sensory signals can affect the threshold for action selection by suppressing the ability to inhibit a response and a movement can not be produced if bottom-up sensory signals continuously are suppressing the ability to inhibit the same response more than they suppress the ability to inhibit a movement!

3.) Aimless excess motor activity - What you expect to feel can be used to select some features matching how the movement you are about to execute will be felt and to attend some features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation may suppress the ability to control the movement you are about to execute.

87.) How can a gain control process, called vigilance control, “track” the degree of match between input exemplar and matched prototype


Read Controlling the Content of Conscious Experiences: Exemplars and Prototypes (p.9-10) from Adaptive Resonance Theory by Gail A. Carpenter and Stephen Grossberg Invited chapter: Encyclopedia of Machine Learnig by Claude Sammut and Geoffrey I. Webb, Eds and consider what I write in my attempts to understand how people in response to bottom-up sensory signals more or less can lose their ability to consciously control covert speech. (Incentive motivational signals, the fact that more ambiguous input are more demanding to process and a similarity between two tasks may all contribute to the more or less lost ability to consciously control covert speech.)

http://digilib.bu.edu/ojs/index.php/trs/article/viewFile/92/91

88.) Can a resonant matching process affect the outcome of competition between response tendencies while it determines what sounds enter consciousness and can this generate a mixed bottom-up and top-down driven experience corresponding to the perception of an external voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal"

Stefan Andersson
nemo661@yahoo.se


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For whatever it's worth some of what I have written in my attempts to understand:

 

Professor Tim Crow's theory suggests that schizophrenia is the price we pay for language and I wonder if the result of stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message or interpret what subjectively seems to be a verbal message can have such a profound effect that some people develop a mental illness.

Can not the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message generate a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore and what can we learn from people who in response to non-verbal environmental sounds are able to generate the perception of an external voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal"? ("In schizophrenia, functional hallucinations are defined as those that occur when a patient simultaneously receives a real stimulus in the perceptual field concerned (e.g., hallucinated voices heard simultaneously with and specific to the real sound of running water)...")

The alien voices I often hear in response to non-verbal environmental sounds are verbal thoughts heard out loud and what if each and every one of us are able to restore and better distinguish a verbal message because we hear the sensory consequence of covert speech in integration with what we were able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation? (Are we only able to use covert speech and generate the perception of an external voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal" in response to non-verbal environmental sounds??)

Was not Alvin M. Liberman more than 50 years ago correct in his assumption that “the articulatory movements and their sensory effects mediate between the acoustic stimulus and the event we call perception”? (This is no doubt a very interesting subject to explore, but I fully understand how hard it must be to respond to a post like this and interpret some of the very few responses I get as kindness from people who like me want to understand this better.)

The internal gestures you are about to produce when you expect to access a verbal message in response to what you are able to hear more objectively ("bottom-up sensory signals") must as far as I can understand like the gestures you intend to produce during overt speech determine what you expect to hear. A top-down sensory expectation like this can be used to select all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce and to with a short delay hear the sensory consequence you are about to produce in integration with what you were able to select can be assumed to generate the informative event we call perception.

The ability to hear the sensory consequence of covert speech in integration with what you were able to select can maybe in response to a verbal message thanks to a tendency to produce a rather equivalent inner voice generate the perception of an external voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal".

Can not bottom-up sensory signals affect the outcome of competition between response tendencies and generate a tendency to produce the most equivalent sensory consequence you are able to produce?

To sometimes lose the ability to control what you are doing when you are forced to divide your attention between two similar tasks is a well known experience many people share and the idea that you divide your attention between two similar tasks when you are able to hear your own thoughts as alien voices must definitely be explored!

The internal gestures you are about to produce when you expect to access a verbal message in response to what you are able to hear more objectively must determine what you expect to hear and what you are able to select with a top-down sensory expectation like this will, when you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce, automatically correspond to some features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce. To like this be forced to simultaneously perform two tasks in response to a reinforcer or a neutral stimulus will naturally demand more attention than to only perform one of them and I wonder if two in some way similar tasks compete with each other more than two different tasks because the available attention capacity is set (limited) as if you were to perform only one task? (The way in which "recurrent competitive networks tend do normalize their total activity" can contribute to limits on attentional capacity!) This would explain why people due to a similarity between two tasks often lose the ability to generate an act of will with which they are able to consciously control what they are doing or maybe more correct what they with a short delay will be doing with regards to a certain goal. (Why am I the only one who uses a well known experience many people share in an attempt to make it easier to understand the lack of voluntary control? )

Attentional demands of the competing task can more or less suppress our ability to control covert speech and will besides the need to access a verbal message (i.e. the gain of a top-down sensory expectation) and the volume of what you are able to hear more objectively rely on how well a top-down sensory expectation matches bottom-up sensory signals (a "resonant matching process").

To more or less lose the ability to control covert speech is to more or less lose the ability to inhibit a verbal response and to find it harder to inhibit a verbal response when you get a better match between a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals would result in a tendency to produce the most equivalent sensory consequence you are able to produce.

Quote: “…Inhibition, thus, allows us a measure of control over our attention and our actions, rather than simply being controlled by external stimuli, our emotions, or engrained habitual tendencies…” Source: Metropolitan State College of Denver. Tools of the Mind

http://www.mscd.edu/extendedcampus/toolsofthemind/curriculum/inhibitory.shtml

The anticipatory adjustments we according to a forward model are able to make during an act of will ought to rely on that we are able to inhibit a verbal response as long as we need to evaluate the sensory consequence we are about to produce and to lack the ability to inhibit a verbal response will serve the purpose of not letting an act of will interfere with the ability to select the internal gestures we need to use in response to a verbal message.

I assume that you are able to select the top-down motor expectation you use (the internal gesture you are about to produce) when several simultaneously are available and each determine their own top-down sensory expectation. A better non-verbal and verbal match between a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals can increase attentional demands of the competing task more than when you use any other to a lesser extent matching top-down sensory expectation. Attentional demands of the competing task may suppress the ability to generate an act of will by suppressing the ability to inhibit a verbal response and to find it harder to inhibit a verbal response when you get a better match between a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals would result in a tendency to produce the most equivalent sensory consequence you are able to produce. In other words attentional demands of the competing task can be assumed to suppress the ability to generate an act of will (willed intention) in favour of what I refer to as stimulus intention!

A resonant matching process can both affect the outcome of competition between response tendencies and determine what sounds enter consciousness when a mixed bottom-up and top-down driven experience is generated!

Are not people able to restore and better distinguish a verbal message when they lack the ability to inhibit a verbal response and with a short delay hear the sensory consequence of an internal gesture in integration with what they were able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation? Yes probably and the lost ability to generate an act of will with which you are able to consciously control covert speech with regards to a certain goal could be as essential to our ability to restore and better distinguish a verbal message as it can be devastating to people with an integration disorder referred to as schizophrenia.

To more or less, depending on how well a corresponding top-down sensory expectation matches bottom-up sensory signals, lack the ability to inhibit a verbal response will serve the purpose of not letting an act of will interfere with the ability to select the gestures you need to use in response to a verbal message and to no longer consciously, with regards to a certain goal, be able to choose how you respond ought to result in that you find it much harder to disregard the context you are exposed to and experience. Covert speech can with its sensory consequence heard in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation, thanks to a tendency to produce a rather equivalent sensory consequence, be used to distinguish a verbal message while a sensitivity to the context you are exposed to and experience makes it possible to restore a more or less distorted verbal message. (The context you are exposed to and experience can affect the need to access a verbal message and the need to access a verbal message can increase attentional demands of all features matching a top-down sensory expectation... ) Stimuli to which you make the same response are categorized when you hear the sensory consequence of a specific gesture in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation (what you are able to hear more subjectively will in response to different stimuli sound alike) and a sensitivity to the context you are exposed to and experience can make it possible to categorize (and learn how to categorize) what you are able to distinguish in response to acoustically highly variable speech sounds.

Can not the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message or interpret what subjectively seems to be a verbal message have such a profound effect that some people develop a mental illness ?

Classical conditioning (also referred to as pavlovian or respondent conditioning) can be the result of stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies like these and may trigger the need to access a verbal message (what you learn to expect) in response to non-verbal stimuli while operant conditioning is the result of response - stimulus (the sensory consequence of an internal gesture can be heard in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation) contingencies and what you learn to do to satisfy the need to access a verbal message. In other words to frequently restore a verbal message in response to more ambiguous sounds may result in a tendency to expect to hear a verbal message in response to non-verbal environmental sounds and to expect to access a verbal message in response to non-verbal environmental sounds can motivate a verbal response which makes it possible to interpret what people normally ignore.

"Hearing impairments are important risk factors for schizophrenia" and the need to restore a verbal message in a noisy environment, due to a hearing impairment or when volition and emotion make you listen to indistinct, maybe distant and hard to hear voices can be assumed to trigger an integration disorder like this.

Why am I the only one who writes about how the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message can generate a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore?

Phonemic restoration rely on our ability to interpret irrelevant stimuli when we expect to access a verbal message and to integrate and give meaning to irrelevant stimuli without the ability to inhibit a response is a characterizing feature which may reflect the origin of an integration disorder referred to as "schizophrenia".

POSITIVE SYMPTOMS are as far as I can understand added to what some people experience when they lack the ability to inhibit a response (internal or external and verbal or not) and with a short delay generate the event we call perception in response to what people normally ignore.

Verbal auditory hallucinations can emerge as the result of stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message while positive symptoms in response to visual, somatosensory, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli emerge due to a failure to block a neutral stimulus in compound with CS (un-patterned noise).

Quote: ”… According to Kim, "The blocking phenomenon is one way that animals discriminate relevant stimuli from irrelevant stimuli." Kim believes that their work has larger implications for the scientific community. This latest finding, he said, will help researchers better understand schizophrenia, autism, and other conditions in which patients "cannot filter out irrelevant stimuli."…” Source: Yale neuroscientist finds key piece to Pavlov puzzle by Sangeetha Ramaswamy

http://www.yaleherald.com/archive/xxv/1.30.98/news/neuro.html

To focus on what you hear objectively (like when you are able to locate the source of a specific sound) will sometimes make it possible to reveal the subjectivity of the voices you hear. The first person to write about an experience like this is as far as I know sir John Perceval (1803-1876), but he believed that God and not his brain made him hear voices in nonverbal sounds. Like me he could hear the nonverbal sound behind the voice without simultaneously hearing a verbal illusion if he located the source which probably means increasing the level of attention devoted to listening until the sound is no longer peripheral and you are able to reveal a mismatch. (It is not hard to understand why heard thoughts sometimes end in the middle of a sentence when an increase in attention can take the nonverbal sounds you interpret out of their peripheral existence or why the alien thoughts you hear sometimes immediately continue with the pitch of another voice which like the previous voice ends when an increase in attention occur and so on.)

Can a failure to block a neutral stimulus in compound with CS (attentional blocking) be the result of a remaining or previously present ability to take all features matching a top-down sensory expectation out of their peripheral existence?

I assume that you are able to reveal a verbal illusion when positive feedback quickly draws attention to CS and all features matching a top-down sensory expectation (an internal reinforcer) without generating a match between a top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals.

To no longer attend what you were able to reveal as irrelevant will allow you to focus on a neutral stimulus and the neutral event you are able to attend and remember can if it consistently precedes a reinforcer itself become a reinforcer. (The informative event we call perception (a reinforcer) can due to a faliure to block a neutral stimulus in compound with CS be generated in response to a neutral stimulus (visual, somatosensory, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli) when CS (un-patterned noise) activates a drive representation corresponding to the need to access information.) A previously neutral event like this will trigger the need to access information (what you learn to expect in response to a verbal message) and the need to access information can motivate a non-verbal response which generates the informative event we call perception…

NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS (poverty of speech etc ) can when you expect to hear the sensory consequence you are about to produce be the result of a remaining or at least previously present ability to take all features matching a top-down sensory expectation out of their peripheral existence. The ability to take all features matching a top-down sensory expectation out of their peripheral existence ought to result in that you lack the motivation to execute and are able to inhibit the internal gesture you are about to produce. (The sensory consequence you are about to produce may take on the value of what you are or previously were able to reveal as irrelevant and to no longer attend what you were able to reveal as irrelevant will allow you to inhibit a verbal response.) This may result in negative symptoms like affective flattening, alogia or avolition. (A remaining or at least previously present ability to take all features matching a top-down sensory expectation out of their peripheral existence can in response to auditory, visual, somatosensory, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli generate a tendency to inhibit whatever sensory consequence you are about to produce.)

An already stigmatized experience can be connected to some of what characterize an even more stigmatized illness, but most people who hear auditory hallucinations do not meet the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia!

The alien voices I often hear in response to non-verbal environmental sounds such as traffic noise or the pitch and timbre of a distorted maybe distant voice are no doubt just like when I hear and with awareness control my inner voice verbal thoughts heard out loud.

Quote 46: “One of the most influential cognitive models of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) suggests that a failure to adequately monitor the production of one’s own inner speech leads to verbal thought being misidentified as an alien voice…” Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin Volume 37, Issue 5. Subjective Loudness and Reality of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations and Activation of the Inner Speech Processing Network by Ans Vercammen, Henderikus Knegtering, Richard Bruggeman and André Aleman

http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/content/37/5/1009.abstract

Are people able to hear the sensory consequence of covert speech in integration with what they were able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation?

The internal gestures you are about to produce when you expect to access a verbal message in response to what you are able to hear more objectively ("bottom-up sensory signals") must as far as I can understand like the gestures you intend to produce during overt speech determine what you expect to hear. A top-down sensory expectation like this can be used to select all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce and to with a short delay hear the sensory consequence you are about to produce in integration with what you were able to select will generate the informative event we call perception. Read quote 1, 9, 16 and 19 and try to draw your own conclusion.

Quote 1: ” ...Top-down sensory expectations help to unitize the contents of bottom-up sensory signals, whereas top-down motor expectations help to unitize the motor gestures that are used to read-out articulatory movements. Under normal conditions, sensory expectations of self-generated sounds are subliminally primed when motor expectations are used to produce speech…” Source: How hallucinations may arise from brain mechanisms of learning, attention and volition (1999) by Stephen Grossberg

http://cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/Gro99.hall.pdf

Quote 9: "...Attention is controlled by sensory and cognitive expectations which are matched against sensory inputs. Attention is also controlled by emotional and motivational expectations, which are regulated by learned feedback between cognitive and reward and punishment centers..." (p.3) Source: The Imbalanced Brain: From Normal Behavior To Schizophrenia (2000) by Stephen Grossberg

http://www.cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/Gro.BioPsy2000.pdf

Quote 19: “...the articulatory movements and their sensory effects mediate between the acoustic stimulus and the event we call perception...” Source: Liberman, A. M. (1957). Some results of research on speech perception. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 29, 117-123.

http://www.haskins.yale.edu/Reprints/HL0016.pdf

Quote 16: "In schizophrenia, functional hallucinations are defined as those that occur when a patient simultaneously receives a real stimulus in the perceptual field concerned (e.g., hallucinated voices heard simultaneously with and specific to the real sound of running water)... ...Another hallucinated voice occurred simultaneously with actual speech uttered by television announcers. The semantic content was the same as that of the "engine voice," but the "television voice" sounded human, exactly like the real voice of the television announcer who was speaking at the same time. For example, the "television voice" was described as sounding like an adult woman with a northern British accent and "serious" emotional prosody... In this Patient, we observed a direct relationship between the timbre, prosody, and pitch of real environmental sounds and simultaneously perceived auditory hallucinations. Evidence from functional neuroimaging supports a general hypothesis that auditory hallucinations can arise because of abnormal activation in the auditory cortex. This case suggests a further hypothesis: normal activation in the auditory system, which corresponds to neural encoding of natural-sound object and location characteristics, may be misinterpreted, leading to the false perception of functional auditory hallucinations that retain certain acoustic features that where present in the original signal..." Source: Letter to the Editor, Characteristics of Functional Auditory Hallucinations by Michael D. Hunter, M.R.C.Psych., and Peter W.R. Woodruff, Ph.D., M.R.C.P., M.R.c.Psych. Sheffield, U.K. Am J Psychiatry 161:923, May 2004

http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/161/5/923

You are able to hear (or maybe more correct you are able to change an auditory short term memory of what you heard objectively and remember hearing) the sensory consequence of an internal articulatory movement in integration with an earlier auditory event when you use an echoic memory. (An echoic memory is a sensory buffer of earlier auditory events which makes it possible to with a short delay restore and distinguish a more or less ambiguous verbal message.)

Most people are able to restore a word in the middle of a sentence with the information they get later in that sentence and I´m able to change a short term memory of nonverbal sounds about the length of a syllable by integrating my present inner voice with past auditory experiences when I use a sensory buffer of earlier auditory events. (I´m listening to a nonverbal sound about the length of a syllable with my eyes closed and then with a short delay when I no longer hear the biiip open my eyes to read a random syllable while I´m trying to remember what I heard objectively. The resulting experience resembles precognition because what I remember hearing is not what I heard objectively and seems to have predicted an unexpected event... )

Quote: "... It has long been thought that echoic memory plays an important role in speech perception, both in supporting non-categorical comparison among spoken materials (Crowder, 1983; cf. Pisoni and Tash, 1974), and in providing an auditory record that permits the processing of longer-lasting, supra-segmental structures in connected speech (Frankish, 1989). In line with this proposal, we suggest that ongoing maintenance of auditory information, at multiple levels of representation, plays an important role in permitting topdown information to influence perceptual processing of speech..." Source: Hearing speech sounds:Top-down influences on the interface between audition and speech perception. Hearing Research 229 (2007) 132-147

Abstract:
http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1892

Some people are able to hear functional auditory hallucinations in response to the pitch and timbre of a distorted maybe distant voice impossible to hear more objectively and this must no doubt be the most insidious symptom a person can experience. I succeeded to simulate the circumstances needed to induce verbal illusions like these in one of my attempts to understand this better. This was done with the help of a soundfile with a lot of white noise used to mask distant voices talking in the background. An objective perception was hereby prevented, but I could still hear them talk and in real life you only need to hear a couple of words to start and fuel false beliefs. It is sometimes hard to tell, but I do think that the ability to hear whatever you expect to hear in response to non-verbal features which characterize a certain voice early on had a negative impact on my life. (Quote 17) To be able to hear whatever you expect to hear in response to the context you are exposed to and experience may gradually change the context you experience to a more subjective context and to be able to hear functional auditory hallucinations in response to non-verbal features which characterize a certain voice can be assumed to more easily lead to false beliefs if you think that auditory hallucinations never include an external source. Common sense should in my opinion always be given a fair chance and M.D Hunter is a scientist who gives a more diversified and clear picture of what an auditory hallucination can be. (Quote 16)

Quote 17: "...A tendency to extract spurious, message-like meaning from meaningless noise was assessed as a risk factor leading to shizophrenia-spectrum disorders by assessing word length of speech illusions elicited by multispeaker babble in 43 people with prodromal symptoms..." Source: Extracting spurious messages from noise and risk of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in a prodromal population" written in British journal of psychiatry (2007), 191, 355-356. by Ralph E. Hoffman and colleagues. (Their findings can as far as I can understand be used in support of the opinion that functional auditory hallucinations early on in the development of an integration disorder like schizophrenia often are a part of what you experience. It´s probably more common to expect to hear a verbal message in response to non-verbal sounds which originates from a distorted maybe distant voice than in response to other environmental sounds and this is also why I assume that voices like these when you are able to hear whatever you expect in response to non-verbal features which characterize a certain voice often are the first you hear althoug


How are people able to hear the sensory consequence of covert speech in response to what normally is unattended and bellow awareness?

Excessive attentional focus on all features matching a top-down sensory expectation can substantially increase the subjective loudness of what you are able to select (peripheral features not otherwise brought to awareness) when you are trying to hear a certain voice and this will as far as I can understand determine the subjective loudness of the voice you are able to hear in integration with all features matching a top-down sensory expectation. To first excessively pay attention to and then with a short delay interpret all features matching a top-down sensory expectation may result in abnormal (internal) activation of primary auditory cortex (Quote 11), but what I write in my attempts to understand functional auditory hallucinations as the origin of an integration disorder like this will like our ability to restore and better distinguish a verbal message naturally be more concerned with normal (external) activation of primary auditory cortex.

The voice you hear in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation will in response to certain sounds include acoustic features which characterize what you are able to hear more objectively and to sometimes be able to reveal a verbal illusion by locating the source of some environmental sounds can like when you are able to block all features matching a top-down sensory expectation make it very easy to understand that you are able to interpret external stimuli. However to block what I hear with my fingers can only give a temporary relief from the voices I hear and I am also like expected able to hear my own thoughts in the tinnitus sounds I hear (become more aware of) during silence. Most people will probably find it very hard to understand that you are able to hear a voice when you interpret what normally is unattended and below awareness, but it is well known that a short or long term memory of a tone can enable the perception of the same tone at a lower volume than otherwise would have been possible (Hemisfärernas musik, s.53, Jan Fagius) and Treisman´s attenuation model which can be used to understand the cocktail party effect claim that "paying attention to a message means increasing its subjective loudness". The ability to take nonverbal features matching what you expect to hear out of their peripheral existence will make it possible to reveal a verbal illusion and to be able to reveal a verbal illusion in response to un-patterned noise above a certain threshold, but totally lack the ability to reveal a verbal illusion in response to un-patterned noise of a much lower volume may result in a tendency to expect to hear a verbal message in response un-patterned noise bellow a certain threshold. To expect to hear a verbal message in response to un-patterned noise bellow a certain threshold can motivate an operant behaviour (the internal gestures we produce during covert speech) which without an act of will can generate the alien voices people are able to hear in integration with all features matching (and previously selected with) a corresponding top-down sensory expectation. Ford and colleagues suggest that patients with auditory hallucinations may have excessive attentional focus toward internally generated events and because of this overinterpret the kind of internal noise (spontaneous sensory activity) people normally ignore. Quote 11-12

Why do people lose the ability to generate an act of will with which they are able to consciously control covert speech ?

To sometimes lose the ability to control what you are doing when you are forced to divide your attention between two similar tasks is a well known experience many people share and the idea that you divide your attention between two similar tasks when you are able to hear your own thoughts as alien voices must definitely be explored. (Why am I the only one who uses a well known experience many people share in an attempt to make it easier to understand the lack of voluntary control? Am I the only one who thinks it´s worth while to consider the possibility that some people hear their own thoughts as alien voices because they divide their attention between two similar tasks? The lost ability to generate an act of will with which you are able to consciously control covert speech with regards to a certain goal could be as essential to our ability to restore and better distinguish a verbal message as it can be devastating to people with an integration disorder referred to as schizophrenia… )

The internal gestures you are about to produce when you expect to access a verbal message in response to what you are able to hear more objectively ("bottom-up sensory signals") must determine what you expect to hear and what you are able to select with a top-down sensory expectation like this will, when you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce, automatically correspond to some features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce. To like this be forced to simultaneously perform two tasks in response to a reinforcer or a neutral stimulus will naturally demand more attention than to only perform one of them and two in some way similar tasks can be assumed to compete with each other more than two different tasks because the available attention capacity is set (limited) as if you were to perform only one task. This would explain why people due to a similarity between two tasks often lose the ability to generate an act of will with which they are able to consciously control what they are doing or maybe more correct what they with a short delay will be doing with regards to a certain goal. Read quote 2 about Allport´s module resource theory and try to draw your own conclusion.

Quote 2: “… Allport (1980, 1993) has proposed that attention consists of a number of modules. Each module deals with a different ability or skill, so that one module may deal with auditory information, another with visual information, etc. Allport suggests that each module has its own resources and each has a limited capacity. (This is in contrast to capacity theories that regard attention as being controlled by a single limited capacity.) Allport´s theory predicts that similarity will be a major factor in the performance of dual task experiments (see Figure 3.2). When tasks are similar they compete for the resources of one module and interfere with each other. This makes it difficult to perform them simultaneously. However, dissimilar tasks use different modules and do not require the same resources. These tasks do not interfere with each other and may be performed simultaneously (they are processed in parallel)…" (p.32) Source: Attention and pattern recognition by Nick Lund

http://books.google.se/books?id=0seUC6tzx7kC&pg=PA32&dq=%22Allport+-+modules+of+attention%22&hl=sv#v=onepage&q=%22Allport%20-%20modules%20of%20attention%22&f=false

Can two similar tasks interfere with each other more than two different tasks because the neurons involved in executing one task tend to resonate with the group of neurons that are involved in executing a similar task?

The ability of neurons to respond selectively to inputs at preferred frequencies can be compared to how tuning forks resonate selectively to inputs at preferred frequencies. Some of the energy with which you make one object like a tuning fork resonate can be transferred to another object which has the capacity to resonate with the same frequency (resonate selectively to inputs at preferred frequencies) and I wonder if some of the attention you devote to one task (like monitoring the sensory consequence you are about to produce with an internal gesture) thanks to a mechanism like this can be transferred to a similar task (like paying attention to all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce with an internal gesture). To automatically (passively) transfer some attention to a similar task may result in that the available attention capacity is set (limited) as if you were to perform only one task.


How can some people in response to running water generate the perception of a hallucinated voice "heard simultaneously with and specific to the real sound of running water" ?

The internal gestures you are about to produce when you expect to access a verbal message in response to nonverbal environmental sounds like running water must as far as I can understand like the gestures you intend to produce during overt speech determine what you expect to hear.

What you are able to select (attend) with a top-down sensory expectation like this (1 ) will automatically correspond to some features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce (2) and the attention you devote to all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce can when you divide your attention between two tasks due to a similarity suppress the ability to generate an act of will. (To be forced to simultaneously perform two tasks will naturally demand more attention than to only perform one of them and two in some way similar tasks can be assumed to compete with each other more than two different tasks because the available attention capacity is set (limited) as if you were to perform only one task.)

Attentional demands of the competing task (1) will besides the need to access a verbal message rely on how well a top-down sensory expectation matches bottom-up sensory signals (Quote 9) and to more or less, depending on how well a top-down sensory expectation matches bottom-up sensory signals, lack the ability to consciously control covert speech with regards to a certain goal (2) is to more or less lack the ability to inhibit a verbal response. (The anticipatory adjustments we according to a forward model are able to make during an act of will ought to rely on that we are able to inhibit a verbal response as long as we need to evaluate the sensory consequence we are about to produce. In other words to consciously with regards to a certain goal be able to choose how you respond (an act of will) must include an ability to inhibit (and to in comparison with a more appropriate response be able to change) the internal gesture you are about to produce as long as you need to evaluate a corresponding top-down sensory expectation. To no longer be able to consciously control covert speech must be to lack the ability inhibit a verbal response as long as it takes to generate an act of will and to more or less, depending on how well a corresponding top-down sensory expectation matches bottom-up sensory signals, lack the ability to inhibit a verbal response will serve the purpose of not letting an act of will interfere with the ability to select the internal gestures you need to use in response to a verbal message.)

This is essential because to find it harder to inhibit a verbal response when you get a better match between a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals will result in a tendency to produce the most equivalent sensory consequence you are able to produce in response to what you are able to hear more objectively. (I assume that you are able to select the top-down motor expectation you use (the internal gesture you are about to produce) when several simultaneously are available and each determine their own top-down sensory expectation. A better non-verbal match between a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals can increase attentional demands of the competing task more than when you use any other to a lesser extent matching top-down sensory expectation... )

The ability to hear the sensory consequence of covert speech in integration with all features matching (and previously selected with) a corresponding top-down sensory expectation can thanks to a tendency to select an internal gesture with the most equivalent sensory consequence you are able to produce generate the perception of an external voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal". (Quote 16) In other words bottom-up sensory signals can affect the outcome of competition between response tendencies and this may in response to running water generate the perception of a hallucinated voice "heard simultaneously with and specific to the real sound of running water". (Quote 16)

Are not people able to restore and better distinguish a verbal message when they lack the ability to inhibit a verbal response and with a short delay hear the sensory consequence of an internal gesture in integration with all features matching (and previously selected with) a corresponding top-down sensory expectation ?

The ability to hear the sensory consequence of an internal gesture in integration with all features matching (and previously selected with) a corresponding top-down sensory expectation can maybe in response to a verbal message thanks to a tendency to produce a rather equivalent inner voice generate the perception of an external voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal".

 

To more or less, depending on how well a corresponding top-down sensory expectation matches bottom-up sensory signals, lack the ability to inhibit a verbal response will serve the purpose of not letting an act of will interfere with the ability to select the gestures you need to use in response to a verbal message and to no longer consciously, with regards to a certain goal, be able to choose how you respond ought to result in that you find it much harder to disregard the context you are exposed to and experience. Covert speech can with its sensory consequence heard in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation, thanks to a tendency to produce a rather equivalent sensory consequence, be used to distinguish a verbal message while a sensitivity to the context you are exposed to and experience makes it possible to restore a more or less distorted verbal message. Stimuli to which you make the same response are categorized when you hear the sensory consequence of a specific gesture in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation (what you are able to hear more subjectively will in response to different stimuli sound alike) and a sensitivity to the context you are exposed to and experience can make it possible to categorize (and learn how to categorize) what you are able to distinguish in response to acoustically highly variable speech sounds. Read quote 10 and try to draw your own conclusion.

Quote 10: "Listening to speech modulates activity in human motor cortex. It is unclear, however, whether the motor cortex has an essential role in speech perception... ...These findings indicate that motor circuits controlling production of speech sounds also contribute to their perception. Mapping acoustically highly variable speech sounds onto less variable motor representations may facilitate their phonemic categorization and be important for robust speech perception." Source: The Journal of Neuroscience, August 5, 2009, 29(31):9819-9825; doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6018-08.2009 Motor representations of articulators contribute to categorical perception of speech sounds. Möttönen, Riikka and Watkins, Kate E

http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/full/29/31/9819

The event we call perception

To sometimes lose the ability to control what you are doing when you are forced to divide your attention between two similar tasks is a well known experience many people share and to be forced to divide your attention between the sensory consequence you are about to produce with an internal response and what you are able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation may due to a similarity result in that you lose the ability to control how you respond.

Do top-down processes when what you are "doing" in response to auditory, visual, somatosensory, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli can be more or less abstract rely on a mechanism like this?

The internal response you are about to produce when you expect to access information in response to what you are able to hear, see, feel, smell or taste more objectively must determine the sensory consequence you are about to produce and the attention you devote to what you are able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation can when you are forced to divide your attention between two tasks due to a similarity more or less suppress the ability to consciously control how you respond. Attentional demands of the competing task will besides the need to access information rely on how well a top-down sensory expectation corresponding to the sensory consequence you are about to produce matches bottom-up sensory signals and to more or less, depending on how well a corresponding top-down sensory expectation matches bottom-up sensory signals, lack the ability to consciously control how you respond is to more or less lack the ability to inhibit an internal response. This is essential because to find it harder to inhibit an internal response when you get a better match between a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals will result in a tendency to produce the most equivalent sensory consequence you are able to produce in response to what you are able to hear, see, feel, smell or taste. The ability to hear, see, feel, smell or taste the sensory consequence of an internal response in integration with all features matching (and previously selected with) a corresponding top-down sensory expectation can thanks to a tendency to select an internal response with the most equivalent sensory consequence you are able to produce generate a perception that retain certain features that were present in the original signal. In other words bottom-up sensory signals can affect the outcome of competition between response tendencies and this may in response to auditory, visual, somatosensory, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli generate the informative event we call perception.

Are people able to restore, better distinguish and categorize stimuli when they lack the ability to inhibit an internal response and with a short delay hear, see, feel, smell or taste the sensory consequence of an internal response in integration with all features matching (and previously selected with) a corresponding top-down sensory expectation?

To more or less, depending on how well a corresponding top-down sensory expectation matches bottom-up sensory signals, lack the ability to inhibit an internal response will serve the purpose of not letting an act of will interfere with the ability to select the internal response you need to use and to no longer consciously, with regards to a certain goal, be able to choose how you respond ought to result in that you find it much harder to disregard the context you are exposed to and experience. An internal response can with its sensory consequence perceived in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation, thanks to a tendency to produce a rather equivalent sensory consequence, be used to distinguish stimuli while a sensitivity to the context you are exposed to and experience makes it possible to restore what you are able to hear, see, feel, smell or taste more objectively. Stimuli to which you make the same response are categorized when you perceive the sensory consequence of a specific response in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation (what you are able to hear, see, feel, smell or taste more subjectively will in response to different stimuli be similar) and a sensitivity to the context you are exposed to and experience can make it possible to categorize (and learn how to categorize) what you are able to distinguish.

" SCHIZOPHRENIA " (an integration disorder) - the price we pay for language?

To find it harder to inhibit a verbal response when you get a better match between a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals will result in a tendency to produce the most equivalent sensory consequence you are able to produce and the lost ability to generate the kind of self-awareness you need to control covert speech (when attentional demands of all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation suppress the ability to inhibit a verbal response) could be as essential to our ability to restore and better distinguish a verbal message as it can be devastating to people with an integration disorder referred to as schizophrenia. (Quote 8 and 18 )

Quote 8: “…The lack of voluntary control over the experience is a key feature of auditory hallucinations, which might explain why self-generated inner speech is classified as external in origin. According to this proposal, hallucinations are experienced when verbal thoughts are unintended and unwanted. Because deficits in cognitive processes, such as inhibitory control, are thought to render people more susceptible to intrusive and recurrent unwanted thoughts, studies have linked auditory hallucinations with deficits in cognitive inhibition…” Source: Auditory Hallucinations in Psychiatric Illness from the march 2010 issue of Psychiatric Times by Flavie Waters (My own voice ("gedankenlautwerden") can be heard in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and like an alien voice located to an external source, but will not be experienced as originating form an external source... The anticipatory adjustments you according to a forward model are able to make during an act of will ought to rely on that you are able to inhibit a verbal response as long as you need to evaluate the sensory consequence you intend to produce and to generate an act of will would probably only interfere with the ability to select the gestures you need to produce in response to a verbal message.)

http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/cme/display/article/10168/1534546

Quote 18: "...mental states include not only affects and emotions, but also goals and intentions. A person who was unaware of their goals could, on the one hand, be a slave to every environmental influence or, on the other hand, be prone to perseverative or stereotyped behaviour, because they would not have the insight to recognize that certain goals were unobtainable or inappropriate..." (Both Frith and Grossberg must no doubt realize that you need more than one perspective to understand a person and the persistence with which I´m trying to understand some of what I with this illness experience can not be fully captured with a quote like this. The human need to understand and be understood can be equally relevant.) Source: Theory of mind in Schizophrenia. (1994) by CD Frith quoted by Stephen Grossberg in The Imbalanced Brain: From Normal Behavior To Schizophrenia (2000)

http://www.cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/Gro.BioPsy2000.pdf

Classical conditioning is according to Stephen Grossberg "...far more subtle and relevant to complex human cognitive-emotional behavior than one might first realize..." (Quote 26) and I´m trying to understand if the result of stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message or interpret what subjectively seems to be a verbal message can have such a profound effect that some people eventually develop a mental illness.

Classical conditioning (also referred to as pavlovian or respondent conditioning) can be the result of stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies like these and may trigger the need to access a verbal message (what you learn to expect) in response to non-verbal stimuli while operant conditioning is the result of response - stimulus (the sensory consequence of an internal gesture can be heard in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation) contingencies and what you learn to do to satisfy the need to access a verbal message. In other words to frequently restore a verbal message in response to more ambiguous sounds may result in a tendency to expect to hear a verbal message in response to non-verbal environmental sounds and to expect to access a verbal message in response to non-verbal environmental sounds can motivate a verbal response which makes it possible to interpret what other people mostly ignore. (Quote 21)

It´s probably more common to expect to hear a verbal message in response to non-verbal sounds which originates from a distorted maybe distant voice than in response to other environmental sounds. This is also why I assume that voices like these when you are able to hear whatever you expect in response to non-verbal features which characterize a certain voice often are the first you hear although most people are entirely unaware of this. (Quote 17) The need to restore a verbal message in a noisy environment, due to a hearing impairment or when volition and emotion make you listen to indistinct, maybe distant and hard to hear voices may result in a tendency to interpret all features matching a top-down sensory expectation in response to what other people mostly ignore.

Phonemic restoration rely on our ability to interpret irrelevant stimuli when we expect to access a verbal message (Quote 22) and to integrate and give meaning to irrelevant stimuli without the ability to inhibit a response is a characterizing feature which may reflect the origin of an integration disorder referred to as "schizophrenia". (Quote 8, 17 and 22)

Quote 22: "...These failures of perception are studied because they isolate and clarify some fundamental processes that normally lead to accuracy of perception and appropriate interpretation of ambiguous sources..." (They replaced one phoneme of a word with a cough-like sound and noticed that people are able to restore what they in a verbal context expect to hear. I assume that people able to restore a verbal message when they lack the ability to inhibit a verbal response and with a short delay hear the sensory consequence of an internal gesture in integration with all features matching (and previously selected with) a corresponding top-down sensory expectation.) Source: Warren, R.M., & Warren, R.P. (1970). Auditory illusions and confusions. Scientific American, 223, 30-36.

http://step.psy.cmu.edu/articles/WarrenWarren70.pdf

POSITIVE SYMPTOMS are as far as I can understand added to what some people experience when they lack the ability to inhibit a response (internal or external and verbal or not) and with a short delay generate the event we call perception in response to what other people mostly ignore. Verbal auditory hallucinations emerge as the result of stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to restore what is or at least subjectively seems to be a verbal message while "positive" symptoms in response to visual, somatosensory, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli emerge due to a failure to block a neutral stimulus in compound with CS (un-patterned noise).

Quote 37: ”… According to Kim, "The blocking phenomenon is one way that animals discriminate relevant stimuli from irrelevant stimuli." Kim believes that their work has larger implications for the scientific community. This latest finding, he said, will help researchers better understand schizophrenia, autism, and other conditions in which patients "cannot filter out irrelevant stimuli."…” Source: Yale neuroscientist finds key piece to Pavlov puzzle by Sangeetha Ramaswamy

http://www.yaleherald.com/archive/xxv/1.30.98/news/neuro.html

NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS (poverty of speech etc ) can when you expect to hear the sensory consequence you are about to produce be the result of a remaining or at least previously present ability to take all features matching a top-down sensory expectation out of their peripheral existence. I assume that you are able to reveal a verbal illusion when positive feedback quickly draws attention to CS and all features matching a top-down sensory expectation (an internal reinforcer) without generating a match between a top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals. The ability to take all features matching a top-down sensory expectation out of their peripheral existence ought to result in that you lack the motivation to execute and are able to inhibit the internal gesture you are about to produce. In other words the sensory consequence you are about to produce may take on the value of what you are able to reveal as irrelevant when all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation are brought to awareness without generating a match between a top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia will as a consequence emerge when you are able to reveal a mismatch between a top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals (the "arousal level" is too large when you expect to access information in response to what you are able to reveal as irrelevant) and when attending what you were able to reveal as irrelevant eventually together with whatever you intend to produce automatically take on the value of what you were able to reveal as irrelevant (the "arousal level" will be too small in response to the context you are exposed to and experience). The verbal top-down sensory expectation you use represents a reinforcer and can like an external reinforcer elicit an emotional response (the onset response), but what you are able to reveal as irrelevant (an unexpected event) will trigger the offset response. This may result in negative symptoms like affective flattening, alogia or avolition and a failure to block a neutral stimulus in compound with CS (un-patterned noise). Read The Imbalanced Brain: From Normal Behavior To Schizophrenia (2000) by Stephen Grossberg and try to draw your own conclusion. "This article discusses one type of arousal: conditioned reinforcer/incentive motivational arousal, and how its depression can lead to negative schizophrenic symptoms."

Catatonic behaviours are referred to as positive symptoms, but seem to be consisting of both positive and negative symptoms. "Catatonic behaviors are characterized by a marked decrease in reaction to the immediate surrounding environment, sometimes taking the form of motionless and apparent unawareness, rigid or bizarre postures, or aimless excess motor activity."

"From Normal Behavior To Schizophrenia"

To be stressed out and sleep deprived can maybe like the need to restore a verbal message in a noisy environment, due to a hearing impairment or when volition and emotion make you listen to indistinct, maybe distant and hard to hear voices be assumed to trigger an integration disorder like this.

1.) Sensory deprivation and solitude may, like starvation can affect hunger, result in that an internal drive which correspond to the need to access information get stronger. The strong need to access information can motivate an operant behaviour which satisfies your need and will no doubt increase the tendency to restore what seems to be a verbal message.

2.) Sleep deprivation on the other hand can probably trigger or make auditory hallucinations worse because you are unable to devote enough attention to process what you intend to produce.

Can the ability to predictively monitor the production of a sensory consequence in competition for limited attentional resources no longer attenuate all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce and will all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce in competition for limited attentional resources as a consequence more effectively suppress the ability to inhibit a verbal response?

Are people, significantely deprived of their sleep, able to hear their own thoughts as alien voices because they are unable to attenuate all features matching the sensory consequence they are about to produce and lack the ability to inhibit a verbal response?

Can the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to interpret un-patterned noise corresponding to environmental or tinnitus like sounds maintain a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore and will this increase the risk of developing an integration disorder referred to as schizophrenia?

Hypnagogic hallucinations are episodes of hearing voices as one is falling asleep and may depend on that people are unable to devote enough attention to a competing task corresponding to what generates their ability to consciously control covert speech with regards to a certain goal.

3.) Indifference is a quality which ought to decrease your vulnerability and being a more sensitive and insecure person is a quality which may increase your vulnerability as it will increase the need to access information.

4.) Belonging to an ethnic minority will increase the risk of developing an integration disorder like this... Can any difference which gives you the sense of not belonging in a social context cause an elevated risk of developing an integration disorder like this?

5.) Urban living will increase the exposure to more ambiguous voices in response to which you are more likely to expect to hear a verbal message and this may eventually result in a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore…(It´s probably more common to expect to access a verbal message in response to non-verbal sounds which originates from a distorted maybe distant voice than in response to other environmental sounds. To expect to access a verbal message in response to non-verbal environmental sounds which originates from a distorted maybe distant voice can motivate a verbal response which makes it possible to restore a verbal message and to frequently restore a verbal message in response to more ambiguous sounds may result in a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore.)

Quote: “…The fact that the incidence of schizophrenia increases consistently with increasing levels of urbanicity in a dose–response fashion suggests not only statistical association, but also causality. Thus, the Swedish findings, in combination with earlier publications, allow us to put forward an increasingly plausible case that the environment has a powerful influence on variation in the incidence of schizophrenia in populations. The identification of the nature of this environmental exposure is likely to further significantly our knowledge of the causes and mechanisms that facilitate symptom formation in psychosis...” Source: The British Journal of Psychiatry (2004) 184: 287-288 Does the urban environment cause psychosis? by Jim Van Os

http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/full/184/4/287#REF7

6.) A hearing impairment can not only generate a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore, but is also as expected a risk faktor, one out of many, which are known to more or less increase the likelihood of developing an integration disorder like this.

Quote: "...hearing impairments are important risk factors for schizophrenia (Malmberg et al., 1995)..." Source: The Causes of Schizophrenic Voice Hallucinations: A Critical Review (2010) by Álvaro Machado Dias

http://www.gjpsy.uni-goettingen.de/gjp-article-dias.pdf

Quote: ”… However, schizophrenia was 1.81 (95% CI 1.2–2.7) times higher amongst those with severe hearing loss, which may be preventable…” Source: Are there neurological and sensory risk factors for schizophrenia? Schizophrenia Research Volume 14, issue 3, Pages 247-251, February 1995

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7766536

Professor Tim Crow proposes that the human capacity for language can cause an integration disorder like this and I wonder if it is possible to categorize environmental and genetic risk factors with regards to what may cause conditioned reinforcer/incentive motivational learning as follows?

A.) What will make it necessary to restore a verbal message. (5 and 6)

B.) What may increase our internal drive to restore what seems to be a verbal message. (1,3,4 and 5)

C.) What will diminish our ability to devote enough attention to generate awareness of what we with regards to a certain goal will be doing. (2)


Auditory hallucinations: People who hallucinate are able to "restore" what only seems to be a verbal message (interpret un-patterned noise) when they lack the ability to inhibit a verbal response and with a short delay hear the sensory consequence of (alien) covert speech in integration with nonverbal features matching (and previously selected with) a corresponding top-down sensory expectation. (To expect to hear a verbal message in response to un-patterned noise (like when you need to restore a verbal message in response to a distorted maybe distant voice) can motivate an internal response which makes it possible to restore a verbal message and to frequently restore a verbal message may result in that a neutral stimulus (un-patterned noise) acquire the ability to predict a forthcoming reward. This will as far as I can understand increase the tendency to restore what only seems to be a verbal message. The kind of verbal illusions some people are able to hear in response to the pitch and timbre of a distorted maybe distant voice impossible to hear more objectively must no doubt be the most insidious symptom a person can experience. Voices like these may when you are able to hear whatever you expect change the context you experience to a more subjective context and might more easily lead to false beliefs if you think that auditory hallucinations never include an external source. (Quote 16) It is probably more common to expect to hear a voice (expect to access information) in response to un-patterned noise which originates from a distorted maybe distant voice than in response to other environmental sounds and this is why I assume that voices like these are the first you hear although most people are entirely unaware of this... (Quote 17) The need to restore a verbal message in a noisy environment, due to a hearing impairment or when volition and emotion make you listen to indistinct, maybe distant and hard to hear voices may result in a tendency to interpret all features matching a top-down sensory expectation in response to what other people mostly ignore. To focus on what you hear objectively (like when you are able to locate the source of a specific sound) will sometimes make it possible to reveal the illusionary nature of the voices you hear. The first person to document an experience like this when you interpret peripheral nonverbal sounds is as far as I know sir John Perceval (1803-1876), but he believed that God and not his brain made him hear voices in nonverbal sounds. Like me he could hear the nonverbal sound behind the voice without simultaneously hearing a verbal illusion if he located the source which probably means increasing the level of attention devoted to listening until the sound is no longer peripheral and you devote all of your attention to listening instead of thinking. (It is not hard to understand why heard thoughts sometimes end in the middle of a sentence if an increase in attention can take the nonverbal sounds you interpret out of their peripheral existence or why the alien thoughts you hear sometimes immediately continue with the pitch of another voice which like the previous voice ends when an increase in attention occur and so on.) The ability to take nonverbal features matching what you expect to hear out of their peripheral existence will make it possible to reveal a verbal illusion and this ought to result in that you lack the motivation to execute and are able to inhibit what you simultaneously intend to produce. In other words to be able to reveal a verbal illusion in response to un-patterned noise above a certain threshold, but totally lack the ability to reveal a verbal illusion in response to un-patterned noise of a much lower volume may result in a tendency to expect to hear a verbal message in response un-patterned noise bellow a certain threshold. (Will it be easier to understand the underlying mechanism which generates negative symptoms like poverty of speech if we fully understand the ability to reveal a verbal illusion?) To expect to hear a verbal message in response to un-patterned noise bellow a certain threshold can motivate an operant behaviour (without an act of will what can be referred to as alien covert speech) which generates the voice people hear in integration with all features matching (and previously selected with) a corresponding top-down sensory expectation. Most people will probably find it very hard to understand that you are able to hear a voice when you interpret what normally is unattended and bellow awareness, but it is well known that a short or long term memory of a tone can enable the perception of the same tone at a lower volume than otherwise would have been possible (Hemisfärernas musik, s.53, Jan Fagius) and Treisman´s attenuation model which can be used to understand the cocktail party effect claim that "paying attention to a message means increasing its subjective loudness". The voice you hear in integration with all features matching a top-down sensory expectation will in response to certain sounds include acoustic features which characterize what you are able to hear more objectively and an ability to sometimes be able to reveal a verbal illusion by locating the source of some environmental sounds can like when you are able to block all features matching a top-down sensory expectation make it very easy to understand that you are able to interpret external stimuli. (Quote 16) However to block what I hear with my fingers can only give a temporary relief from the voices I hear and I am also like expected able to hear my own thoughts in the tinnitus sounds I hear (become more aware of) during silence. Ford and colleagues suggest that patients with auditory hallucinations may have excessive attentional focus toward internally generated events and because of this overinterpret the kind of internal noise (spontaneous sensory activity) people normally ignore. Quote 11-12)

The lack of voluntary control: Several scientists claim that people can hear and misattribute self generated inner speech as alien voices because they lack the ability to attenuate and "tag" (label as self-produced) all features matching the sensory consequence they intend to produce. A defective corollary discharge mechanism has been suggested to explain this (Quote 3) and attentional demands of all features matching what you simultaneously intend to produce (not attentional demands of the sensory consequence you produce!) can due to a similarity (competition for limited neuronal resources) suppress your ability to attenuate and "tag" the sensory consequence you intend to produce. (this is my own attempt to understand... ) Corollary discharge is a precise representation of what you intend to produce (when you intend to produce what you expect to hear) and Irwin Feinberg was the first scientist to propose that these discharges "are themselves conscious" and "correspond to nothing less than the experience of will or intention" (Quote 4). To consciously (with awareness of what you intend to produce with regards to a certain goal) be able to make a sensory prediction will correspond to nothing less than the experience of will or intention and can be used to label our sensory experience as self-produced. Competition for limited neuronal resources may like in a divided attention task when the available attention capacity is set (limited) due to a similarity between two tasks cause the attenuation of our sensory experience during an act of will (this is my own attempt to understand... ), but not without any previous sensory feedback (like a contact event) from the body part which during an act of will can generate the sensory consequence we expect. (Quote 14-15 ) In other words what we with awareness intend to produce (one task) is the sensory consequence we expect and attend (the other task), but due to competition for limited neuronal resources for a short period of time (less than 300 milliseconds) are able to attenuate. (Quote 14) The lack of voluntary control has also been suggested to depend on deficits in cognitive inhibition (Quote 8 ) and the connection to how I understand our ability to restore and better distinguish a verbal message is clear. In other words what can be assumed to cause the lack of voluntary control in response to a verbal message can help us to understand the lack of voluntary control during auditory hallucinations.

Excessive attentional focusing towards internally generated events can due to competition for limited neural resources result in that people hear (all features matching a top-down sensory expectation + ) and misattribute self-generated inner speech as alien voices (awareness of what you will be doing - ), but I have also noticed that I´m able to hear nonverbal external features like the pitch and timbre of real environmental sounds in integration with my inner voice. [/b](Broca's area is activated during covert speech and together with primary auditory cortex when you without control are able to hear an alien inner voice. Several neuroimaging studies have failed to observe activation of Broca's area during auditory hallucinations, but this can not in my opinion be used to dismiss the idea that people without control are able to hear their thoughts. Two in some way similar tasks will often compete with each other more than two different tasks and all features matching a verbal top-down sensory expectation will when you expect to hear what you intend to produce correspond to a similarity between what you select (listening) and what you intend to produce (covert speech). In other words to be forced to divide your attention between what you select (listening) and what you simultaneously intend to produce (covert speech) may result in that you are unable to devote enough attention to generate awareness of what you are doing (or maybe more correct what you with a short delay will be doing). This can probably if so also suppress the intensity with which broca's area is activated! A verbal match can be assumed to increase attentional demands of all features matching what you expect to hear more than when you get a nonverbal match in response to un-patterned noise during functional auditory hallucinations. In other words the comparatively low intensity with which broca´s area is activated during speech perception can not be used to dismiss a motor theory of speech perception! The motor theory of speech perception (reviewed) as it is presented today claim that perceiving speech is perceiving gestures and that perceiving speech involves the motor system, but has rejected most of the "old" ideas I´m trying to explore. A behaviouristic approach to understand speech perception was early on abandoned by Liberman himself, no module and very hard to understand without more knowledge of how our brain is "hardwired" to generate the event we call perception. An innate ability to associate verbal stimuli with an internal gesture corresponding to the specific gesture with which they are produced overtly is not suggested! What is innate are only our perceptual systems that transduce information... Source: The motor theory of speech perception reviewed (2006) Galantucci B, Fowler CA, Turvey MT.
http://pbr.psychonomic-journals.org/content/13/3/361.full.pdf)

Quote: "In schizophrenia, functional hallucinations are defined as those that occur when a patient simultaneously receives a real stimulus in the perceptual field concerned (e.g., hallucinated voices heard simultaneously with and specific to the real sound of running water)... ...Another hallucinated voice occurred simultaneously with actual speech uttered by television announcers. The semantic content was the same as that of the "engine voice," but the "television voice" sounded human, exactly like the real voice of the television announcer who was speaking at the same time. For example, the "television voice" was described as sounding like an adult woman with a northern British accent and "serious" emotional prosody... In this Patient, we observed a direct relationship between the timbre, prosody, and pitch of real environmental sounds and simultaneously perceived auditory hallucinations. Evidence from functional neuroimaging supports a general hypothesis that auditory hallucinations can arise because of abnormal activation in the auditory cortex. This case suggests a further hypothesis: normal activation in the auditory system, which corresponds to neural encoding of natural-sound object and location characteristics, may be misinterpreted, leading to the false perception of functional auditory hallucinations that retain certain acoustic features that where present in the original signal..." Source: Letter to the Editor, Characteristics of Functional Auditory Hallucinations by Michael D. Hunter, M.R.C.Psych., and Peter W.R. Woodruff, Ph.D., M.R.C.P., M.R.c.Psych. Sheffield, U.K. Am J Psychiatry 161:923, May 2004

http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/161/5/923

If normal (external) as well as abnormal (internal) activation of primary auditory cortex can result in that some people hear and misattribute self-generated inner speech as alien voices maybe this is how you are able restore and better distinguish a more or less distorted verbal message. To consider the possibility that you are able to restore a verbal message like this will allow you to also consider the possibility that some people learn to produce and hear the sensory consequence of alien covert speech in response to un-patterned noise such as traffic noise or background chatter.

Quote: "...These failures of perception are studied because they isolate and clarify some fundamental processes that normally lead to accuracy of perception and appropriate interpretation of ambiguous sources..." (They replaced one phoneme of a word with a cough-like sound.) Source: Warren, R.M., & Warren, R.P. (1970). Auditory illusions and confusions. Scientific American, 223, 30-36.

http://step.psy.cmu.edu/articles/WarrenWarren70.pdf

Alien voices heard simultaneously with and specific to environmental sounds like running water or distant very ambiguous voices are verbal illusions referred to as functional auditory hallucinations. (Scientists who differentiate between these two and sometimes even doubt that people are able to hear self-generated inner speech will need to reconsider their opinion. This is my opinion because I do not yet understand how it is possible to differentiate between verbal illusions and functional auditory hallucinations and sometimes simultaneously neglect the experience of people who with control hear their own thoughts. To synchronize my thoughts by reading or thinking something syllable by syllable when I listen to a recorded sound played in intervals will like when I listen to smooth sounds of a much lower volume and think result in that I´m able to hear my own thoughts. Voices like these are heard in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and will in response to certain sounds include acoustic features which characterize what you are able to hear more objectively. To focus on what you hear objectively (like when you are able to locate the source of a specific sound) will sometimes make it possible to reveal the illusionary nature of the voices you hear. The first person to document an experience like this when you interpret peripheral nonverbal sounds is as far as I know sir John Perceval (1803-1876), but he believed that God and not his brain made him hear voices in nonverbal sounds. Like me he could hear the nonverbal sound behind the voice without simultaneously hearing a verbal illusion if he located the source which probably means increasing the level of attention devoted to listening until the sound is no longer peripheral and you devote all of your attention to listening instead of thinking. (It is not hard to understand why heard thoughts sometimes end in the middle of a sentence if an increase in attention can take the nonverbal sounds you interpret out of their peripheral existence or why the alien thoughts you hear sometimes immediately continue with the pitch of another voice which like the previous voice ends when an increase in attention occur and so on. The ability to take nonverbal features matching what you expect to hear out of their peripheral existence will make it possible to reveal a verbal illusion and this ought to result in that you lack the motivation to execute and are able to inhibit what you simultaneously intend to produce.) The kind of verbal illusions some people are able to hear in response to the pitch and timbre of a distorted maybe distant voice impossible to hear more objectively must no doubt be the most insidious symptom a person can experience. Voices like these may when you are able to hear whatever you expect change the context you experience to a more subjective context and might more easily lead to false beliefs if you think that auditory hallucinations never include an external source. I succeeded to simulate the circumstances needed to induce functional auditory hallucinations (alien voices) in one of my attempts to understand this better. This was done with the help of a soundfile with a lot of white noise used to mask distant voices talking in the background. An objective perception was hereby prevented, but I could still hear them talk and in real life you only need to hear a couple of words to start and fuel false beliefs. It is probably more common to expect to hear a voice (expect to access information) in response to un-patterned noise which originates from a distorted maybe distant voice than in response to other environmental sounds and this is why I assume that voices like these are the first you hear although most people are entirely unaware of this... Common sense should in my opinion always be given a fair chance and maybe some of what a scientist like Michael D. Hunter writes in time will spread the kind of knowledge people who hear functional auditory hallucinations in response to ambiguous voices need.)

Functional auditory hallucinations in the prodromal population

What you learn if you for some reason more often need to restore a verbal message can result in that you start to expect to hear a verbal message in response to un-patterned noise (CS) such as traffic noise or background chatter. To expect to hear a verbal message in response to ambiguous stimuli (CS) can motivate an operant behaviour (without an act of will what can be referred to as alien covert speech) which during speech perception makes it possible to restore and better distinguish a verbal message.

It is probably more common to expect to hear a voice (expect to access information) when you listen to un-patterned noise which originates from a distant or distorted voice than when you hear "white noise" which doesn´t originate from a verbal message (maybe gradually if you frequently need to restore a verbal message associated with information as a positive reinforcer) and this is why I assume that voices like these are the first you hear although most people are entirely unaware of this and just like me sometimes fail to use their common sense. I succeeded to simulate the circumstances needed to induce functional auditory hallucinations in one of my attempts to understand this better. This was done with the help of a soundfile with a lot of white noise used to mask distant voices talking in the background. An objective perception was hereby prevented, but I could still hear them talk and in real life you only need to hear a couple of words to start and fuel false beliefs.

"Extracting spurious messages from noise and risk of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in a prodromal population" written in British journal of psychiatry (2007), 191, 355-356. by Ralph E. Hoffman and his colleagues can as far as I can understand be used in support of the opinion that functional auditory hallucinations early on in the development of this illness often are a part of what you experience.

Quote: "...A tendency to extract spurious, message-like meaning from meaningless noise was assessed as a risk factor leading to shizophrenia-spectrum disorders by assessing word length of speech illusions elicited by multispeaker babble in 43 people with prodromal symptoms..."

http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/full/191/4/355

Functional Auditory Hallucinations - an alien voice in response to peripheral stimuli?

To focus on what you hear objectively (like when you are able to locate the source of a specific sound) will sometimes make it possible to reveal the illusionary nature of the voices you hear. The first person to document an experience like this when you interpret peripheral nonverbal sounds is as far as I know sir John Perceval (1803-1876), but he believed that God and not his brain made him hear voices in nonverbal sounds. Like me he could hear the nonverbal sound behind the voice without simultaneously hearing a verbal illusion if he located the source which probably means increasing the level of attention devoted to listening until the sound is no longer peripheral and you devote all of your attention to listening instead of thinking. ( It is not hard to understand why heard thoughts sometimes end in the middle of a sentence if an increase in attention can take the nonverbal sounds you interpret out of their peripheral existence or why the alien thoughts you hear sometimes immediately continue with the pitch of another voice which like the previous voice ends when an increase in attention occur and so on. )

The available attention capacity is shared between two tasks when you expect to hear (and select) what you simultaneously intend to produce (and "think") and attentional demands of all features matching (attended with) what you expect to hear can because of this suppress the ability to process and with awareness inhibit what you intend to produce. However an abnormal increase in attention devoted to all features matching what you expect to hear may result in that you are able to take normally peripheral features out of their peripheral existence and reveal a mismatch in response to ambiguous stimuli. To be able to reveal a mismatch ought to result in that you no longer are motivated to execute what you intend to do in response to what you select and are able to hear objectively.

From an alien voice to my own voice?

My own voice is like an alien voice the inner voice I produce and hear in integration with all features matching a top-down sensory expectation. People who frequently hear functional auditory hallucinations will probably learn to expect to hear what they experience as their own verbal thoughts. To select and integrate all features matching what you expect to hear when you are able to generate awareness of what you with a short delay will be doing ought to result in that you with an act of will are able to hear your own thoughts. (All features matching a top-down sensory expectation can not suppress the ability to generate awareness of what you will be doing.) To be able to generate awareness of how you will produce the voice you experience can like during overt speech result in that you devote more attention to somatosensory feedback.

To synchronize my thoughts by reading or thinking something syllable by syllable when I listen to a recorded sound played in intervals will like when I listen to smooth sounds of a much lower volume and think result in that I´m able to hear my own thoughts. Voices like these are heard in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and will include acoustic features which characterize what you are able to hear more objectively.

From my own voice to a thought insertion voice?

A thought insertion voice is like my own and an alien voice the inner voice I produce and hear in integration with all features matching a top-down sensory expectation. People who frequently hear what they experience as their own thoughts will sometimes learn to expect to feel how covert speech will be produced in response to ambiguous auditory (CS) and haptic stimuli (NS->CS). They are able to hear a thought insertion voice when they start to expect to feel how the sensory consequence they intend to produce will be felt in response to ambiguous auditory and haptic stimuli. Attentional demands of all features matching a top-down sensory expectation (auditory and haptic features) can suppress the ability to generate awareness of what you with a short delay will be doing, but the sensory consequence you produce can in integration with all features matching a top-down sensory expectation be brought to awareness! In other words you lack the ability to control covert speech in spite of the fact that you are fully aware of how the inner voice you hear is produced.

From a thought insertion voice to "alien control"?

People can sometimes lose their ability to control what they are doing overtly when an earlier neutral sensory event (CS) motivate and attentional demands of all features matching the sensory consequence they intend to produce suppress the ability to control what they with a short delay will be doing.

People can lose control of what they are doing overtly in response to ambiguous haptic stimuli when they expect to feel how the sensory consequence they intend to produce will be felt. Attentional demands of all features matching a top-down sensory expectation can suppress the ability to generate awareness of what they with a short delay will be doing, but the sensory consequence they produce can in integration with all features matching a top-down sensory expectation be brought to awareness! In other words people who experience alien control lack the ability to control what they are doing overtly in spite of the fact that somatosensory feedback make them aware of how their movements are produced.

Voiceless phonemes are heard together with voiced speech sounds - All voiced phonemes when I hear what I experience as my own voice are heard when I subjectively experience an increase in volume, but the same thing does not happen when I listen to a smooth sound and uses my inner voice to express a single voiceless consonant. Still "strangely" these voiceless speech sounds without the fundamental frequency are incorporated in the perceived voice when combined with voiced vowel sounds. If I imagine the letter t as "t" I don´t hear anything, but if I imagine the letter t as "te" I hear both t and e. (It is well known that a short or long term memory of a tone can enable the perception of the same tone at a lower volume than otherwise would have been possible (Hemisfärernas musik, s.53, Jan Fagius) and Treisman´s attenuation model which can be used to understand the cocktail party effect claim that "paying attention to a message means increasing its subjective loudness". The syllable you expect to hear will always include the pitch of voiced vowel sounds and... )

Syllable by syllable - The subjective loudness of the sound I interpret increases in synchronicity with the pitch of my own voice and a temporary increase in volume of the nonverbal sound which substitutes the pitch of my inner voice can suppress the ability to inhibit a verbal response. (People are able to restore and better distinguish a verbal message when they lack the ability to inhibit a verbal response and with a short delay syllable by syllable hear the sensory consequence of alien covert speech in integration with all features matching (and previously selected with) a corresponding top-down sensory expectation.)

In both changing and smooth noise - It ought to be possible to hear voices in smooth sounds although attentional demands of all features matching (attended with) a top-down sensory expectation (when you expect to hear the syllable you intend to produce) tend to lower the threshold for action selection of an internal gesture with a sensory consequence corresponding to what you expect to hear in synchronicity with an increase in volume of a nonverbal feature like the pitch. (Both an objective change in volume of what I hear objectively and an increase in its subjective loudness together with the ability to suppress what I hear may affect my experience during functional auditory hallucinations!)

A hallucination can occur in any of our senses

A hallucination can occur in any of our senses (in response to ambiguous visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory or tactile CSs), but verbal auditory hallucinations are by far the most common kind of hallucination people experience. CS will in compound normally block the conditioning of neutral stimuli (kamin blocking) and to for some reason fail to block the conditioning of neutral sensory events in some of our other senses may result in that also ambiguous stimuli in some of our other senses are associated with the drive representation of a verbal message. This will result in that ambiguous stimuli (CS) activate “the need to access information” and all sensory representations which previously in a certain context gave access to information. The "need to access information" can now draw attention to all features matching the sensory representation you select (all features matching what you expect to hear, see, feel, taste or smell). Two in some way similar tasks can be assumed to affect each other more than two different tasks and all features matching a top-down sensory expectation will when you expect to hear, see, feel, smell or taste what you intend to produce correspond to a similarity between what you select and what you intend to produce. In other words to be forced to divide your attention between what you select and what you simultaneously intend to produce may result in that you are unable to devote enough attention to generate awareness of what you are doing (or maybe more correct what you with a short delay will be doing). To not be able to devote enough attention to generate awareness of what you will be doing ought to result in that you, without an act of will, totally lack the ability to inhibit an internal response. (This will also as far as I can understand prevent that awareness due to competition for limited neuronal resources attenuate all features matching a top-down sensory expectation which ought to be a big advantage.) People are able to restore (and better distinguish) stimuli when they lack the ability to inhibit an internal response and with a short delay are able to hear, see, feel, smell or taste the sensory consequence of an internal response in integration with all features matching (and previously selected with) a corresponding top-down sensory expectation.

Visual hallucinations

The rare visual hallucitions I have experienced like when I one early morning saw a giant wasp on the wall and occationally a couple of times moths on the floor late at night may depend on my emotional state or that I frequently located the source of the voices I heard to reveal the illusionary nature of these voices. An emotional response can like an act of will result in that you are able to take normally peripheral features out of their peripheral existence. To like this be able to reveal a mismatch may result in that CS (ambiguous auditory stimuli associated with a drive representation) can mediate its relevance to NS[/b] (weak visual stimuli)[b]. Ambiguous auditory stimuli are associated with and can activate the drive representation of a verbal message and a mismatch may result in that you learn to associate ambiguous visual stimuli with "the need to access information". In other words you may start to expect to see things in response to weak visual stimuli....

Polydipsia

A hungry animal with access to water may if an operant behaviour is rewarded with food, but in too small amounts to satisfy its hunger, eventually develop polydipsia (excessive fluid intake) and I assume that some people with chronic schizophrenia (according to one source 10%–25%) develop polydipsia because an operant behaviour like alien covert speech is rewarded with information without entirely satisfying the need to access information.

Quote: "...Can information be positively reinforcing even when it is aversive? Clearly this is a contradiction. How, then, can we explain the fact that people respond to receiving bad news?... ...As the ratio of the probability of receiving good news to the ratio of receiving bad news decreases, the probability of emitting observing responses also decreases... ...very special conditions are required in order for it to be one..." Source: The science of learning, Joseph Pear, Information as a Positive reinforcement p. 249 (available in google books)

Quote: "The informativeness of a stimulus should not depend on whether it is correlated with positive or negative events, because bad news is just as informative as good news..." Source: Behaviour analysis and learning W. David Pierce, Carl D. C (available in google books)

 

Echoic memory

You are able to hear (or maybe more correct you are able to change an auditory short term memory of what you heard objectively and remember hearing) the sensory consequence of an internal articulatory movement in integration with an earlier auditory event when you use an echoic memory (An echoic memory is a sensory buffer of earlier auditory events which makes it possible to with a short delay restore and distinguish a more or less ambiguous verbal message.).

- I´m able to change a short term memory of nonverbal sounds about the length of a syllable by integrating my present inner voice with past auditory experiences when I use a sensory buffer of earlier auditory events (I´m listening to a nonverbal sound about the length of a syllable with my eyes closed and then with a short delay when I no longer hear the biiip open my eyes to read a random syllable while I´m trying to remember what I heard objectively. The resulting experience resembles precognition because what I remember hearing is not what I heard objectively and seems to have predicted an unexpected event... ) and most people are able to restore a word in the middle of a sentence with the information they get later in that sentence.

"... It has long been thought that echoic memory plays an important role in speech perception..." and experiences like these make it easier to understand that you with a short delay are able to restore and distinguish a verbal message if an internal articulatory gesture associated with an earlier attended auditory event automatically results in that you remember (associate) and interpret (integrate its sensory consequence with) some of what you heard objectively.

Quote: "... It has long been thought that echoic memory plays an important role in speech perception, both in supporting non-categorical comparison among spoken materials (Crowder, 1983; cf. Pisoni and Tash, 1974), and in providing an auditory record that permits the processing of longer-lasting, supra-segmental structures in connected speech (Frankish, 1989). In line with this proposal, we suggest that ongoing maintenance of auditory information, at multiple levels of representation, plays an important role in permitting topdown information to influence perceptual processing of speech..." Source: Hearing speech sounds:Top-down influences on the interface between audition and speech perception. Hearing Research 229 (2007) 132-147

Abstract:
http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18921836

The event we call perception

To sometimes lose the ability to control what you are doing when you are forced to divide your attention between two similar tasks is a well known experience many people share and to be forced to divide your attention between the sensory consequence you are about to produce with an internal response and what you are able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation may due to a similarity result in that you lose the ability to control how you respond.

Do top-down processes when what you are "doing" in response to auditory, visual, somatosensory, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli can be more or less abstract rely on a mechanism like this?

The internal response you are about to produce when you expect to access information in response to what you are able to hear, see, feel, smell or taste more objectively must as far as I can understand determine a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and the attention you devote to what you are able to select with a top-down sensory expectation like this can when you are forced to divide your attention between two tasks due to a similarity more or less suppress the ability to consciously control how you respond. Attentional demands of the competing task will besides the need to access information rely on how well a top-down sensory expectation matches bottom-up sensory signals and to more or less, depending on how well a corresponding top-down sensory expectation matches bottom-up sensory signals, lack the ability to consciously control how you respond is to more or less lack the ability to inhibit an internal response. This is essential because to find it harder to inhibit an internal response when you get a better match between a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals will result in a tendency to produce the most equivalent sensory consequence you are able to produce in response to what you are able to hear, see, feel, smell or taste. The ability to hear, see, feel, smell or taste the sensory consequence of an internal response in integration with all features matching (and previously selected with) a corresponding top-down sensory expectation can thanks to a tendency to select an internal response with the most equivalent sensory consequence you are able to produce generate a perception that retain certain features that were present in the original signal. In other words bottom-up sensory signals can affect the outcome of competition between response tendencies and this may in response to auditory, visual, somatosensory, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli generate the informative event we call perception.

Distractibility can be a sign of sleep deprivation and may depend that you are unable to devote enough attention to a competing task corresponding to what generates the ability to consciously control how you respond! Bottom-up sensory signals can be assumed to more easily suppress the ability to inhibit a response and hereby with a short delay generate the event we call perception in any of our senses (sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell)! To integrate all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce when bottom-up sensory signals affect the outcome of competition between response tendencies may generate the event we call perception in all of our senses!

Are not people able to restore, distinguish and categorize stimuli when they lack the ability to inhibit an internal response and with a short delay hear, see, feel, smell or taste the sensory consequence of an internal response in integration with all features matching (and previously selected with) a corresponding top-down sensory expectation?

To more or less, depending on how well a corresponding top-down sensory expectation matches bottom-up sensory signals, lack the ability to inhibit an internal response will serve the purpose of not letting an act of will interfere with the ability to select the internal response you need to use and to no longer consciously, with regards to a certain goal, be able to choose how you respond ought to result in that you find it much harder to disregard the context you are exposed to and experience. An internal response can with its sensory consequence perceived in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation, thanks to a tendency to produce a rather equivalent sensory consequence, be used to distinguish stimuli while a sensitivity to the context you are exposed to and experience makes it possible to restore what you are able to hear, see, feel, smell or taste more objectively. Stimuli to which you make the same response are categorized when you perceive the sensory consequence of a specific response in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation (what you are able to hear, see, feel, smell or taste more subjectively will in response to different stimuli be similar) and a sensitivity to the context you are exposed to and experience can make it possible to categorize (and learn how to categorize) what you are able to distinguish.

Is the ability to generate the event we call perception subject to the laws of operant and respondent conditioning?

Respondent conditioning is the result of stimulus ( auditory, visual, somatosensory, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli) - stimulus (the informative event we call perception) contingencies and can motivate an internal response because the tendency to expect to access information increase while operant conditioning is the result of response - stimulus (the informative event we call perception) contingencies and what we learn to do to satisfy the need to access information. Stimuli can start to motivate an internal response with a more or less equivalent sensory consequence if an internal response like this previously due to a match resulted in an improved ability to restore and better distinguish stimuli. To be highly motivated to produce an internal response will simultaneously increase attentional demands of all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation. This may further suppress our ability to inhibit an internal response and without the kind of self-awareness you need to control how you respond initiate an internal response with a more or less equivalent sensory consequence. I have tried to understand this better with a CogEm-model. Quote 24

An internal forward model

An internal forward model can as far as I can understand not only explain how you are able to correct and avoid an error with the help of a prediction, but also how you are able to change your goal (sometimes with regards to how much effort it requires to obtain) when the sensory prediction you make with awareness of your goal is evaluated in comparison with the sensory prediction of an alternative maybe more favourable response. To with awareness control covert speech is to be aware of your goals and prevent stimulus control (Willed intention - an internal articulatory gesture appropriate to your current internal goal is selected and correspond to an act of will) and to without awareness lack the ability to inhibit covert speech is to lack awareness of your goals and allow stimulus control (Stimulus intention or meaning when you copy the expected goal of somebody else - in response to verbal stimuli internal articulatory gestures appropriate to current external stimulation and in response to more ambiguous stimuli when you restore what is or only seems to be a verbal message context dependent internal articulatory gestures.).

Quote: "...mental states include not only affects and emotions, but also goals and intentions. A person who was unaware of their goals could, on the one hand, be a slave to every environmental influence or, on the other hand, be prone to perseverative or stereotyped behaviour, because they would not have the insight to recognize that certain goals were unobtainable or inappropriate..." (Both Frith and Grossberg must no doubt realize that you need more than one perspective to understand a person and the persistence with which I´m trying to understand some of what I with this illness experience can not be fully captured with a quote like this. The human need to understand and be understood can in my opinion be equally relevant.) Source: Theory of mind in Schizophrenia. (1994) by CD Frith quoted by Stephen Grossberg in The Imbalanced Brain: From Normal Behavior To Schizophrenia (2000)

http://www.cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/Gro.BioPsy2000.pdf

Corollary discharge

Quote: "...Before someone talks, a neural signal travels from speech production areas to auditory cortex. It carries a prediction of the speech sounds based on a copy of the motor command and triggers a “corollary discharge.” If the corollary discharge matches what the speaker hears, as it should when the sound is self-produced, the sensory experience is reduced. The sensory experience thus carries a tag declaring it "self-produced," which presumably helps us avoid being distracted by our own talking..." Source: Schizophreniaforum.org

http://www.schizophreniaforum.org/new/detail.asp?id=1343

Irwin Feinberg was as far as I know the first scientist to propose that these discharges "are themselves conscious" and "correspond to nothing less than the experience of will or intention".

Quote: "...motor commands are monitored and evaluated as they occur, before the effector have been actuated... ...Internal feedback of this nature can affect both ongoing motor activity and sensory systems... ...These discharges may assist in the distinction between self-generated and externally produced movements; they also allow (or represent) monitoring of the motor commands before the effector response has occurred... ...Whereas internal feedback associated with simpler motor act is below the level of consciousness, one might postulate that the corollary discharges accompanying conscious thought are themselves conscious. If so, the subjective experience of these discharges should correspond to nothing less than the experience of will or intention..." Source: Schizophrenia bulletin (VOL. 4, NO. 4, 1978) Efference copy and corollary discharge: implications for thinking and its disorders, Irwin Feinberg

http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/4/4/636.pdf

Several scientists claim that people can hear and misattribute self generated inner speech as alien voices because they lack the ability to attenuate and "tag" (label as self-produced) the sensory consequence they produce.

Resonance is proposed to be a necessary condition for conscious awareness. To like Irwin Feinberg propose that these discharges "are themselves conscious" and "correspond to nothing less than the experience of will or intention" appears to gain support from recent research. “We suggest that this premovement burst of synchronous neural activity is a reflection of the forward model preparing the CNS for the sensory consequences of its own actions,” Ford and colleagues write. They noticed that "those with the worst hallucinations showed the least pre-speech synchrony" something which ought to depend on that people who hallucinate are able to associate nonverbal features with the gestures they intend to produce. (To learn to associate an intended gesture with nonverbal features when a verbal message is restored may result in that you attend nonverbal features matching what you simultaneously intend to produce during covert and overt speech. Attentional demands of all features matching the sensory consequence you intend to produce can because of this suppress your ability to sufficiently process what you intend to produce during covert and overt speech.) Source: American Journal of Psychiatry, 164:458-466, March 2007 Synch Before You Speak: Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Judith M. Ford, Ph.D., Brian J. Roach, B.S., William O. Faustman, Ph.D., and Daniel H. Mathalon, Ph.D., M.D.

http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/content/35/1/58.full.pdf+html

Corollary discharge when your attention is divided between two tasks?

An ability to attenuate and "tag" the sensory consequence you produce with the help of a prediction ought to rely on that you are able to devote enough attention to generate awareness of what you with a short delay will be doing. (Attentional demands when you devote some attention to generate awareness can attenuate all features matching what you intend to produce and produce. A "neural signal" like this will automatically be sent to auditory cortex whenever you are able to generate awareness of what you with a short delay will be doing, but can of course only "tag" (label as produced with willed intention) and attenuate the sensory consequence you produce when what you intended to produce match the sensory consequence you produce.) To be forced to divide your attention between what you select (listening) and what you simultaneously intend to produce (covert speech) may result in that you are unable to devote enough attention to generate awareness of what you with a short delay will be doing. This ought to prevent that awareness due to competition for limited neuronal resources attenuate all features matching a top-down sensory expectation and may result in that you without an act of will totally lack the ability to inhibit a verbal response. (To not be able to inhibit a verbal response is to lack the ability to control what you with a short delay will be doing!) People are able to restore and better distinguish a verbal message when they lack the ability to inhibit a verbal response and with a short delay hear the sensory consequence of (alien) covert speech in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation. (To process what you intend to produce more than what you hear objectively would in response to a verbal message generate awareness which as a consequence would make it possible to inhibit the internal gestures you need to use. In other words the lack of voluntary control which is a key feature of auditory hallucinations can if you simultaneously lack the ability to attenuate serve a purpose during speech perception.)

To lose the ability to control covert speech and be able to hear an alien inner voice in integration with all features matching (and previously attended with) what you expect to hear (top-down sensory expectations) serves a purpose during speech perception when you need to restore and distinguish a verbal message and has been referred to as a failure in the brain’s self-monitoring (feed forward or corollary discharge) systems in schizophrenia.

Quote: " How do forward models relate to efference copy and corollary discharge?" Source: Neural mechanisms for prediction: do insects have models? (2004) by Barbara Webb (p.7)

http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/bwebb/publications/tins_compact.pdf

Stefan Andersson
nemo661@yahoo.se

To access some of the soundfiles I have used to understand both nonverbal and verbal illusions better go to
http://www.freewebs.com/stefan661/

NONVERBAL ILLUSIONS

1.) To try to further confirm the assumption that memories guided my attention towards external sounds I first recorded a couple of notes coming from a violin in a certain sequence and after that I played them all together with white noise to see if I could single them out with the help of a short term memory. This actually worked and I heard the "melody" from the beginning of the tape over and over again. I am not satisfied with this soundfile, but it will have to do for now on. (Maybe if it´s quiet, you use earphones, increase the volume to maximum and listen when you remember the three notes from the beginning it will work. To make sure that the short term memory doesn´t fade away it is important that you recall the "melody" immediately after you have heard it. If you hear it more than one time it is an illusion.) Once when I repeatedly called a number that was busy the busy tone bip-bip-bip....was heard when I lifted the phone before dialing and holding it close to my ears and then when I held the phone closer to my ears the perception was more objective and I heard the continuous biiiiib. This is interesting because it indicates that you might loose control of the pitch in a smooth sound if you attend the less verbal aspects of speech.

2.) Normally if a tone is interrupted by noise (biib-noise-biib-noise...) the tone will be heard as if it is going on continuously (biiiiiib) thanks to restoration. This is not always the case if you are diagnosed with schizophrenia and hear voices.

To generate a verbal response is probably much more demanding than to generate a non-verbal response and a more demanding task is harder to control... (A less demanding non-verbal task makes it easier to reveal what you are able to hear more objectively and some people tend to reveal a non-verbal illusion because they learn to pay more attention to all features matching what they expect to hear... )

VERBAL ILLUSIONS

3.) When I listen to a recorded sound like this played in intervals with short breaks and synchronize my thoughts by reading or thinking something syllable by syllable when the sound is heard (sometimes in a couple of minutes) I end up hearing "my own" voice. The voice I hear when I do like this is very distinct and clear. (Mostly it sounds like a synthetic and gender neutral voice.) If I increase the volume of the sound behind my own voice in this test the illusion of hearing a voice is lost.

 

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The wall of silence

When nobody I am
together we must stand
(the few of us who can)
and see and feel and hear
the questionmarks are there

why do they nothing tell
when precious knowledge dwell
and soon in black and white
the answers will be right

I did it all back then
now did it once again
prevail prevail prevail
how can it ever fail

persistence is its core
will make it now for sure
persistence is a pain
will lable me insane

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Quote: "...mental states include not only affects and emotions, but also goals and intentions. A person who was unaware of their goals could, on the one hand, be a slave to every environmental influence or, on the other hand, be prone to perseverative or stereotyped behaviour, because they would not have the insight to recognize that certain goals were unobtainable or inappropriate..." (The persistence with which I´m trying to understand some of what I with this illness experience can not be fully captured with a quote like this... ) Source: Theory of mind in Schizophrenia. (1994) by CD Frith quoted by Stephen Grossberg in The Imbalanced Brain: From Normal Behavior To Schizophrenia (2000)

http://www.cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/Gro.BioPsy2000.pdf



 


 

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