THE ORIGINS OF THE STANHOPE FAMILY
Dedicated to the memory of Philip Henry Stanhope
With gratitude to the staff of the British Library
I commenced this history of the Stanhope family in 2005, many years from when my curiosity about the origin of my family name was first kindled. On rare occasions, when visiting my paternal grandmother's very small cottage, I was amazed to see very large oil paintings of people dressed in ancient ways. There was also the puzzle of the 16th Century furniture, and the enormous horse brasses that so dominated the small hearth. More intriguing still was the little mentioned story of the great hall where these anomalies originated, and of my family's connection to it.
However great my interest in the Stanhope family, I must echo the words of an earlier Stanhope chronicler, and admit this to be a work of limited interest, intended only to appeal to those now or formerly called Stanhope; or those of the families of Beaumont, Bertram, Crispin, Percy, Mowbray, Everly, and Colville, who shared their ancient ancestry, that they might feel a sense of continuity in a changing world, and a sense of pride in their Northern roots. For it seems fitting for descendants of a Northern Race that the lineage and deeds of their forefathers would be of interest to them, and would always be kept in memory: Our children are taught all manner of foreign culture, without trouble taken to make them familiar with their own people.
This account commences with the story of people who lived in the 8th and 9th Century Norway, and, by way of Normandy, established themselves as feudal lords in medieval England. Such Norman lineage was poorly recorded by English scribes, and confusion was increased by the replication of names; a son would often be called after his father or grandfather, a daughter, if recorded at all, after her mother or grandmother. Also, much knowledge of these early times comes from monastic works, and, just like today's newspapers or television newscasts, what was reported depended on the particular bias of those reporting it. It should also be realised that the forgery of charters and the creative composition of family histories was a flourishing business on both sides of the English Channel, both before and after 1066. Therefore, it is not possible to absolutely prove or disprove ancient genealogies by quoting written sources of evidence. We cannot just say what truth there may be in these, and those who would seek to claim or disclaim with certainty any family history are in the wrong field of research.
Thus, I can not be liable as to the utmost accuracy of the information given herein, and no warranty is implied; any reader of it must accept this as a condition of reading it. As with all such accounts, it is an indication of what might have been rather than what definitely was. In the same way, the earlier part of this history includes some dates of birth and death that are estimates based on linking people to recorded events of their time; a process of inference and computation.
This account includes many genealogical tables, detailing our common ancestry, its diversification into various lineages, and connections to families of historical renown, such as those of William the Conqueror, King Alfred, and Emperor Charlmagne.
Lastly, by way of introduction, I in no way wish to serve up a dry account, an arid and meaningless catalogue of unexplained events; one which simply states who begat who. The aim of any history, even a small one as this, should be to stir interest and appreciation, for without that all study of the past is dead and labour lost. Where possible, I will give information about people, both men and women, and their deeds and motives, so that those mentioned may leave a permanent mark in our mind.
i. THE JARLS
Until the 880s there were no kings in Norway, though ancient sagas gave this title to a jarl - a Scandinavian earl - who ruled over one of the numerous small territories of Norway. Their principal occupation was to fight other jarls, in the hope of acquiring their land. Land ownership was vitally important. Land was the major provider of wealth, and wealth was the sole means of securing the loyalty of those who fought for you. The present-day Mafia boss would understand the importance of this. The warring jarls also understood that when their quarrels reached stalemate, another tactic, in securing and adding to their land, was to marry a son or daughter advantageously. As you continue to read, you will see the repeated interlinking of a relatively small number of families, so as to protect and acquire land.
The following account of the Jarls of Norway derives from Norse sagas. One point of view is that the sagas are not accurate accounts of history, and contain their fair share of exaggeration. An alternative view is that the sagas accurately portray historical events, being passed from generation to generation in verse before being later committed to parchment without any alteration. [Knut Liestol, Origin of the Icelandic Family Sagas, 1930.] I would expect the truth to lay between thes two extremes, perhaps on the side of their accuracy, for one of the most remarkable features of these sagas is that they offer a consistent account of the families and events associated with them. They can be best viewed as historical novels - embellished, especially when speeches are assigned to leading characters, but not without historical substance.
The preface to the Heimskringla of Snorri Sturlason gives the case for sagas as accurate portrayals of historical events: 'In this book I have had old stories written down, as I have heard them told by intelligent people, concerning chiefs who have have held dominion in the northern countries, and who spoke the Danish tongue; and also concerning some of their family branches, according to what has been told me. Some of this is found in ancient family registers, in which the pedigrees of kings and other personages of high birth are reckoned up, and part is written down after old songs and ballads which our forefathers had for their amusement. Now, although we cannot just say what truth there may be in these, yet we have the certainty that old and wise men held them to be true [Snorri Sturluson, Heimskringla, or The Chronicle of the Kings of Norway, c. 1225, English translation by Samuel Laing, 1844. See also F. W. Horn, History of the literature of the Scandinavian North, from the most ancient of times to the present, 1884].
n.b. Heimskringla is comprised of a number of sagas, such as Ynglinga Saga, Halfdan The Black Saga, and Harald Harfager's Saga. They will be quoted henceforth, as translated in Laing's work.
ii. HALFDAN OLAFSSON
The jarl who I would now like to introduce as an ancestor of the Stanhopes, as well as many other families, including many of the Royal Houses of Europe, is Halfdan Olafsson, 704-772, Jarl of Vestfold, Ringerike, Hadeland, and the Opplands, whose name denotes that he was of half-Danish origin.
Although it is possible to trace his ancestry to much earlier times, if taking as true he was of Yngling lineage, it would seem safer to commence our account with him. 'His ancestry is quite dubious, for his name constitutes a break in the alliterative series of names in the Yngling royal stem - Egil, Ottar, Adils, Eystein, Yngvar, Anund, Ingjald, Olav: Halfdan' [Thomas D. Kendrick, A History of the Vikings, p. 106, 2004]. It would seem probable that Halfdan was of a powerful family; interlopers in the lands they either conquered, or acquired through marriage.
Halfdan Olafsson married Aasa Eysteinsdottir, 710-766, the daughter of Eystein The Severe Throndsson, 683-724, Jarl of the Opplands, and Sloveig Halfdansdottir, 688-740. The Oppland region occupies central-southern Norway, and does not border on the sea. It contains the Jotunheimen, Rondane, and Dovrefjell mountains. Cutting the high ground are two major valleys, Gudbrandsdalen and Valdres. Oppland remained isolated and sparsely populated throughout the Viking Age, and is still a region of solitude and wilderness. Halfdan 'lived to be an old man, and died in his bed at Toten, from whence his body was transported to Vestfold, and was buried under a mound at a place called Skaereid, at Skiringsale' [Ynglinga Saga, ch. 49]. Halfdan ordered the building of a pagan temple at Skaerid, and a little more about early Norse beliefs may be of interest, so as to build up a better understanding of our ancestors in our imaginations.
iii. THE LAST BATTLE
Chief among the gods is Odin. His wife is called Frigg, and his sons are called Thor and Baldur. Thor, the god of thunder, is the strongest of the gods, and is always at war with the giants. He is armed with his strength belt Megingjord, and the hammer Mjolner, which, like a boomerang, always returns to his hand after a throw.
There are other gods in the family, like Forsete, son of Baldur, who is the god of justice. The silent Vidar rules over the lower regions, where the last battle of Ragnorak will be held.
The Valkyries are other-world-beings who seek out those most worthy to fight with Odin in this battle. They are the Choosers of the Slain; beautiful young women who scout the battlefields on winged horses to choose those who died bravely. They escort these heroes, called the Einherjar, to Valhalla, Hall of the Slain, where they prepare for the battle of Ragnarok.
On the day of Ragnarok, the bravest of the Einherjar will march out of Valhalla to battle the enemies of the gods. Valhalla has five hundred and forty doors. When the battle commences, eight hundred warriors will march shoulder to shoulder out of each door.
Ragnarok will be preceded by Fimbulvetr, the winter of winters. Three such winters will follow each other, with no summers in between. Conflicts and feuds will break out, even between families, and all morality will disappear. This is the beginning of the end.
iv. THE DESCENDANTS OF HALFDAN
Halfdan and Aasa had issue Eystein Halfdansson, 725-780, Jarl of Vestfold, Ringerike, Hadeland, and the Opplands. He married Hild Ericsdottir, 730-790, her name deriving from the Old Norse Hildr, meaning battle, daughter of Eric Agnarsson, Jarl of the Vend district of Vestfold. Eric had no son, and, on his death, Halfdan and Eystein took possession of the whole of Vestfold, which Eystein ruled until his untimely death. What happened was that Eystein, not being content with his own fiefdom, had raided the lands of Jarl Skjold of Varna. Skjold was not the sort of man to send for a lawyer. He gave chase in his longship. Eystein was not to be caught, however, being struck by the boom of one of his own ships sailing alongside, thus killing him. 'His men fished up his body, and it was carried into Borre, where a mound was thrown up over it, out towards the sea at Raden, near Vodle. [Ynglinga Saga, ch. 51.] This was of tremendous importance, for what gave future generations legitimacy to rule was that it was their ancestor buried in the mound; a very visible form of importance.
His funeral rites would have been attended by a large number of kinsmen and followers. To this latter class he was their godord, or chieftain. He would share any newly acquired land among them. He was president over their parliament, called Thing, wherein any man who carried arms could speak, and had a right to be judged by his peers. Although kinsmen might be bound by blood, any follower had a right to change their godord. In this way, Eystein was not a feudal lord, but, rather, someone compelled to be a successful provider. His funeral would have been attended by a number of unfree men, who were serfs rather than a slaves, and could own a house and smallholding of their own.
Eystein and Hild had issue:
1. Siegfried Eysteinsson, 745-798, whom is identified as Sigfridi regis Danorum. [Annales Fuldenses, 782.] The family's half-Danish ancestry seems to be confirmed by Siegfried's accession to the Danish throne.
2. Halfdan Eysteinsson, 746-800, Jarl of Vestfold, Ringerike, Hadeland, and the Opplands. He was born in Vestfold at a place called Holtar, the present Holtan in Borre, and is buried under a mound at Borre. He was known as a great warrior who often pillaged and gathered great booty. His nicknames were Halfdan The Mild, signifying his generous nature, and Halfdan The Bad Entertainer. There seems to be a contradiction here, but I think it is easily explained. He was generous to his men by way of rewarding them with money and land, but, when they were guests at his house, they received rather stingy amounts of food and drink. This could have been due to him encouraging their fitness, or, more likely, that his wife, Hlif Dagsdottir, 748-810, whose name derived from the Old Norse Hilfar, meaning shield, ran an extremely economical household. She was the daughter of Jarl Dag of Vestmar.
3. Harald Eysteinsson, 746-804, killed in a battle in the Irish Sea, who married Imhild Von Engern, 760-812, daughter of Warnechin Graf von Engern and Kunhilde von Rügen. Their issue were: Halfdan Haraldsson, 770-810, who was killed in the battle of Walcheren. Harald Haraldsson, who was murdered in 804. Holger Haraldsson, who died in battle in 807.
Halfdan Haraldsson's children were:
Hemming Halfdansson, who was killed in the Battle of Walcheren, 837.
Harald Halfdansson, nicknamed Klak, meaning complainer, who was was killed in the Battle of Walcheren, 844. He was also known by the appelations of Hericus, Heriold, and Heriolt. His children were: Godfried [de Guines] Haraldsson. Rolf Haraldsson [Annales Bertiniani, 864]. Guthorm Haraldsson, who was killed in battle against Horic I. in 854. Ingebord Haraldsdottir. Thorny Haraldsdottir.
Reginfred Halfdannson, who briefly shared joint regency of Denmark with his brother, Harald. He was killed in battle in 814.
Anulo Halfdansson, killed in battle in 812.
Rorik Halfdansson. He was granted Dorstad by Emperor Lothar in 850, having previously been expelled from this fief. He undertook to protect this part of Frisia from further Viking attack, but lacked the military power to fulfill this obligation. In 857, three years after the accession of Horik II., he gained land around Hedeby, and held most of Northern Frisia. It is often claimed that he was the founder of the Russian State [N. T. Belaiew, Saga-book of Viking Society, x., pt. ii., p. 267, 1925-7].
4. Geva Eysteinsdottir, 749-816, who married Duke Wittikind of Westphalia, principal progenitor of the Dukes of Saxony. Their daughter was Hasala von Wettin, 765-827, who married Duke Bruno II. of Saxony, 756-813. Their son was Duke Bruno III. of Saxony, 780-844, who married Susanna de Montfort-sur-Risle, 790-847. They had issue: Count Ludolf I. of East Saxony, 806-864, who married Oda of Thuringia, 816-869. Their daughter was Luitgarde of Saxony, 851-905, who married King Louis II. of France, 846-879 - son of King Charles II. of France, 823-877, and Ermentrude de Orléans, 823-869 - their son being King Charles III. of France, 879-929.
Halfdan and Hlif had three sons:
Firstly, Gudrod The Hunter Halfdansson, 770-810. The Norwegian historian, P. A. Munch, identified this Gudrod with Godefrid [Gottrick] Halfdannson, who was assassinated in 810. He succeeded his uncle as Godefrid, King of the Danes. In the first year of his government the Saxons rebelled, and he raised a powerful army to suppress them, which he soon effected, by giving them a signal overthrow, and obliging them, upon the birth of a Danish prince, to send a present to the king of an hundred milk white horses, in token of their submssiion and vassalage to the crown of Denmark. After many years of conflict, in 827, the kingship of Denmark fell to Godefrid's son, Horic I.
He married Alfhildr Alfarinsdottir, 772-807, a daughter of King Alfarin of Alfheim, a district between the Glommen and Gotha rivers. He got with her half the district of Vingulmark. They had a son named Olaf Gudrodsson, 790-841. 'He was a great warrior, and an able man; and was besides remarkably handsome, very strong and large of growth' [Ynglinga Saga, ch. 54].
Olaf succeeded his father in Vestfold when he was about 20 years old. He died of a wound to his foot, and was buried at Geirstad, which has been identified with the existing Gjerstad, near Skiringsale. Great warrior or not, he lost a great part of his father's possessions, and only ruled over Vestmar - a southern portion of Vestfold. His son was Ragnvald Mountain High Olafsson, 809-862.
Gudrod Halfdansson married, secondly, Aasa Haraldsdottir, 788-840. Gudrod proposed marriage to Aasa, daughter of Harald Redbeard, Jarl of Agder, after the death of his first wife, but was refused. Gudrod then invaded Agder, killed Harald and his son, Gyrd, and abducted and married Aasa. Gudrod was killed when his son by Aasa was one year old, by one of his wife's servants, whom she had bribed: 'He lay with his ship in Stiflesund, where they had been drinking hard, so that the king was very tipsy. In the evening, about dark, the king left the ship; and when he had got to the end of the gangway from the ship to the shore, a man ran against him, thrust a spear through him, and killed him. The man was instantly put to death, and in the morning when it was light the man was discovered to be Aasa's page-boy: nor did she conceal that it was done by her orders.' [Ynglinga Saga, ch. 53.]
Aasa was the queen who was buried in the famous Oseberg ship, which has been dated to c. 840.
Gudrod's son by Aasa was Halfdan The Black Gudrudsson, 809-849, so called by reason of his black hair. He was notably stout and strong. After his father's death, his mother took him to Agder, where he became Jarl, when aged eighteen. His first action as jarl was the conquest of all the lands his father had lost, after which time he went to Vestfold and shared that kingdom with his older half-brother, Olaf. His conquests did not end here, however, as is first marriage to Ragnhild Haraldsdottir, daughter of Harald Gulskeg, Jarl of Sogn, brought him that territory, which is situated in the west of Norway.
He died, aged 40, after falling through the ice as he rode over Rykinsvik bight.
He had married, secondly, Ragnhild Sigurdsdottir, 825-860, daughter of Sigurd The Stag Helgasson, 805-855, and Thorny Haraldsdottir, 810-872, daughter of the above mentioned Harald Klak Halfdansson, Gudrod's second cousin. Sigurd The Stag was the son of Helge Hvasse, 780-820, and Aslaug Sigurdsdottir, 790-837; daughter of Sigurd Dragon Eye Ragnarsson, 770-825. Halfdan The Black Gudrudssonson and Ragnhild Sigurdsdottir were the parents of Harald Halfdansson, 839-c.921, a.k.a Harald Harfager, King of Norway. He succeeded his father as Jarl of Vestfold when he was about 10 years old.
Secondly, Sigurd Halfdansson, who was killed in the Battle of Bardowick. 810. King Godefrid's brother is named Sigurd in Europäische Stammtafeln [ES II. 104]. His son was Hemming Sigurdsson, who was killed in battle in 812. The Gesta Francorum states that he succeeded his uncle in 810. Another son of Sigurd Halfdansson was Sigfrid Sigurdsson. Einhard's Annales record that, at the news of the death of Hemming, Sigfid and his second cousin, Anulo, both claimed the succession, and that the faction supporting Anulo was victorious, with his brothers Harald Klak and Reginfred being installed as joint rulers of Denmark.
Thirdly, Ivar Halfdansson, 777-840, Jarl of the Opplands. He married Solveig Eysteinsdottir, 790-855, daughter of Eystein Hognasson, Jarl of Trondheim. Trondheim is situated in central Norway, which is a dramatic fjiord-riven plateau.
Ivar and Solveig's son was Eystein Ivarsson, 815-872, Jarl of the Opplands. He married his close kinswoman Aseda Ragnvaldsdottir, 830-875, who was the daughter of the above mentioned Ragnvald Mountain High Olafsson, and Thora Sigurdsdottir, 815-875, of Jutland. Thora Sigurdsdottir was the sister of Aslaug Sigurdsdottir, see above, being a younger daughter of Sigurd Dragon Eye Ragnarsson, who was the son of the legendary Ragnar Lobrok, 748-794, ruler of lands in Denmark and Sweden:
The English Chronicles state that a fleet of Vikingar was wrecked on the coast of Northumbria in 794. The Lodbrokar-Quida names the leader of this fleet as Ragnar Lodbrok, who was put to death by being thrown into a pit of adders, on the orders of a Saxon noble named Ella. n.b. This Ella should not be confused with the King Ella who began to reign in Northumberland seventy years afterwards. 'It would seem that this apparent anachronism can only be reconciled by the supposition that the Ella spoken of in the Icelandic sagas was some other Saxon prince of that name, all those of the blood royal being called kings by the Saxons.' ...... It is probable that the chieftain whose exploits have been confounded with the more ancient Ragnar, was a prince of Jutland, whose real name was Ragenfred, who was expelled from his dominions during the reign of Harald Klak, became a sea-king, and subsequently invaded France during the reign of Louis-le-Debonare' [Henry Wheaton, History of the Northmen, pp. 150-151, 1831]. Henry Wheaton quotes as authority: Suhm, Historie af Danmark, tom. iii. p. 676. Muller, Saxos og Snorros Kilder, p. 158. Geijr, Svea Rikes Hafder, tom. i. p. 595.
Eystein Ivarsson and Aseda Ragnvaldsdottir had issue:
1. Ragnvald Eysteinsson, 845-894, a.k.a. Rognwald or Raungwalder, whose wife was Ragnhild Hrolfsdottir, 848-910, a.k.a. Hildir, daughter of Hrolf Nefja, 820-870, and mother of Rolf Ragnvaldsson. Ragnvald also had several concubines, lesser wives, the first of which was his cousin Emina Gudrodsdottir, 850-900.
2. Sigurd Eysteinsson, 850-892, who was the first Jarl of Orkney, and was also known as Sigurd The Mighty.
3. Malahule Eysteinsson, 852-920, who became widely known as Malahule of More. n.b. Malahule is not mentioned in the sagas; he is appendaged to them as an uncle of Hrollager and Hrolf, reflecting the collective memory of the Ducal House of Normandy. Although he is recorded as a brother of Ragnvald Eysteinsson, it is by no means certain that this was the case, as he could well have been married to an unknown sister of Ragnvald; the memory being faulty rather than false. He may have also been of the Danish branch of this family; the previously mentioned Anulo Halfdansson [who may be synonomous with the fabled Sigurd Hring] was the father of Ragnar, later to be called Lodbrok, 'whose real name was Ragenfrid or Regnier, who became a sea-king on being expelled from his dominions in the time of Harald Klak' [Andrew Crichton, Henry Wheaton Scandinavia, Ancient and Modern iii.]. His son was Bjorn, later to be called 'Ironside'; he has been equated with the 'Viking leader Berno, who, according to the contemporary and near-contemporary Annales Bertiniani and Chronicon Fontanellense respectively, was active on the Seine in the eight-fifties. He is mentioned alongside Halfdan, another son of Ragnar. It has been suggested that he is the same person as Ragnar's son Hvitserk [Lotbroci regis filio, son of king Lodbrok]. Halfdan was king in Denmark, and was succeeded by Helgi, also called Hulcius. Malahule's epithet was Hulcius. Much remains unclear, for Helgi could have gone by yet other names, and could have been the son of any of Ragnar's sons. Bjorn's son was Eric, King in Sweden in 893. His nephew was Styrbjorn [Bjorn the Strong], who married Thyra, daughter of King Harald Gormsson of Denmark. It is said [Knýtlinga saga] that Styrbjorn was Harald's overlord. Thus, we can see how someone in some way connected to Eric's family may have called on Harald as a military vassal and kinsman when the Scandinavians of Rouen were under attack by Frankish forces. In this way, Bernard the Dane may be associated with this family, as he called for Harald's assistance, with his epithet denoting that he was of a particular branch of this extremely interwoven family; a confederation of cousins, all descended from Halfdan Olafsson. [See also ch. vii.; additional points by Robert Helmerichs].
4. Schwanhilde Eysteinsdottir, 855-900, who was one of the wives of her second cousin, King Harald of Norway. Their g.g.g. grandaughter, Thora Thorbergsdottir, was the wife of Harald Hardraada, 1015-25/9/1066, King of Norway, who was killed in at the Battle of Stamford Bridge, near York, attempting to gain the Crown of England. Their son was Olaf III., 1045-1093, King of Norway.
* Emina Gudrodsdottir was the daughter of Gudrod Ragnvaldsson, 829-865, brother of Aseda Ragnvaldsdottir, son of the above mentioned Ragnvald Olafsson and Thora Sigurdsdottir. It has been wrongly misinterpreted that Emina was a slave. Harald Harfager's Saga, ibid., does not state Hrollager Ragnvaldsson's mother was a slave, only that she was a concubine/lesser wife of Ragnvald: 'Earl Ragnvald had also three sons by concubines, the one called Hallad, the second Einar, the third Hrollaug; and all three were grown men when their brothers born in marriage were still children.' Marriages to near relatives were often contracted to further strengthen alliances between powerful families. Emina Gudrodsdottir was the mother of Hrollager Ragnvaldsson.
* Likewise, Einar is often mentioned as a son of Groa, a slave of Ragnvald. A common form of mistranslation of early Norse works arises from a noun being used instead of an adjective. Laing's translation of Heimskringla correctly states that Einar's mother's kin were 'slavish'. This adjective can be interpreted in any number of ways, and does not necessarily imply that he was the son of a slave. It was a a most virulent form of abuse to call an individual or race slavish at a time when servility was so disparaged. It seems most likely that Einar's maternal ancestors were of a conquered people.
* It can be noted that Norwegian Vikings were essentially farmers. They did not spend all of their time plundering. They lived in scattered settlements along the coastal fringes, which were the only areas fit for agriculture. The eastern coastal regions supported the growing of wheat and barley, whilst the colder western regions lent themselves to the rearing of sheep and cattle, which, for purposes of mutual warmth, were often allowed into the farmstead. The farmstead had gently curving walls, like an upturned boat. Its outer wall comprised of free standing stones; wooden planks formed the inner wall, with the cavity being filled with grass and moss. There was an overhanging wooden roof. The windows were of transparent mica. At the centre of the house was the earth, raised up on stones, around which the family gathered to listen to tales of heroism. Sleeping compartments were behind wooden doors, locked from within. For men, much of the year was taken up by fishing and hunting, whilst women tended the farm.
v. NORSE WOMEN
Before more is said, I feel it is important to redress the lack of mention of women in many genealogical histories. Women in Norse society had a very important role. As mentioned, marriages were essentially made for economic gain, and were not often love-matches, although it is possible that some great objection might have swayed a doting father. The first stage in the marriage process was a proposal to the girl's legal guardian, usually her father. If he favoured it, the girl's consent might be sought. There followed a betrothal ceremony during which the guardian shook hands before witnesses with the suitor. The girl was not present. At this meeting, the size of the girl's dowry was fixed, as well as the size of the price, called mundr, paid to the girl's family by the groom. In Norway, the minimum amount of mundr was twelve ounces of silver, called the poor man's price. The mundr matched to some degree the size of the dowry. It remained the property of the wife, and would form part of the inheritance of her children.
A girl was both a part and possession of her family, and her reputation was highly valued. Attention paid to a girl was severely frowned upon. If a proper proposal of marriage did not follow such attention, revenge might be sought by the girl's male relatives.
A Norse women held complete power in her household. She would also manage their land when her husband was away marauding. If her husband mistreat her, she could divorce him and return to her family. On another level, she was also well groomed and bathed regularly. She would wear a linen or woollen chemise, and probably drawers and hose, kept up with ties, and a long overdress, belted about the middle, from which would hang a knife, purse, and, if she was housekeeper, a bunch of keys. She would often wear a shawl. Brooches were worn either side of the chest, with pendants suspended between them. Unmarried girls wore their hair loose, perhaps with a band across the head. Married women wore it tied in a knot at the back of the head, covered by a tall, curving, or pointed head-dress. They all used eye make-up, and neck and arm rings, to adorn themselves.
When her husband died, as was an occupational hazard, the Norse lady inherited his estate. On her death, it passed to her eldest son, and, if she had no son, it went to her daughter. On occasion, she might have spoken in the Thing, or at least the suspicion is that she greatly influenced her husband in what he said. In extreme cases, she might have fought in battle. She certainly influenced the education and social grooming of her children.
The report of Al-Ghazal, Muslim ambassador from Cordova, probably in Ireland, in 845, stressed the frank and independent behaviour of high-ranking Norse women, which was presumably contrary to what he was used to. Women in widowhood could be rich and important landowners. In 10th. Century Ireland, a woman called The Red Girl was the leader of a group of Vikings. The proud and vengeful woman who urges her menfolk to battle features in many stories.
I would like to think that when her husband was buried at Borre, awaiting his passage to Valhalla, Hild might shed a tear for the loss she felt. She might have remembered him participating in spectator sports of the day - running, jumping, ski-ing, skating, and horse racing, on which wagering took place. She would have seen him cremated in in his finest clothes, and surrounded by those possessions needed to allow him to live well in the afterlife. His might have been burried in a boat grave, with him being buried with the greatest symbol of rank, his ship. Hild would have been proud of the manner of her husband's death - in battle - for in pre-Christian times it was the manner of death that was so important. Consider the lines of the eddic poem Havamal, which is presented as the words of Odin: 'Cattle die, kinsmen die, a man dies likewise himself / One thing I know that never dies: the verdict over each dead man.'
vi. RAGNVALD THE WISE
Ragnvald Eysteinsson, Jarl of More and Romsdal, nicknamed The Wise and The Mighty, whose insignia was a wolf's head, campaigned with his second cousin, Harald, to unify Norway. They were assisted by the Earls of Lade. Lade is situated in the eastern part of Trondheim, bordering on Trondheimsfjiord.
In the 9th. Century, a powerful group established themselves around Trondheimsfjord, called the Hlaoajarlar, Earls of Lade, after their lands situated in present-day Trondheim. These people originated in Halogaland, a vast strip of northern territory stretching to the borders of Finland and Russia. Its name means land of the aurora. Settlement was sparse, and life revolved around hunting and fishing. The result of these activities, especially whaling, made the men in control of Halogaland vastly rich. It was of vital interest to the warrior chieftains of Trondheim to protect their trade routes to Halogaland. The unification of Norway came about to protect these trade routes from pirate-jarls.
c. 868 Ragnvald fought on the side of his kinsman against these pirate-jarls, and was rewarded with the territories of More and Romsdal. This was after the Battle of Solskel, in which Jarl Hunthiof of More and Jarl Novke of Romsdal were defeated. More and Romsdal are in western Norway, bordering on the Atlantic Ocean.
c. 875 Harald and Ragnvald also conquered lands in Shetland, Orkney, Hebrides, and the Isle of Man. On the journey back to Norway, Haraldr gave the Earldom of Shetland and Orkney to Ragnvald as recompense for the death of his son, Ivar, during the campaign. [This is the traditional account, however there is every possibility that Ragnvald seized these territories independently of Harald]. Ragnvald gave these lands to his brother, Sigurd. Gaelic annals recording the wasting of Pictland in the reign of Domnall mac Custantin, 889-900, are probably referring to the activities of Sigurd and his ally, Thorstein the Red, son of Olaf Hvitr of Dublin. They made great incursions into Caithness and Sutherland [W. F. Skene, Chronicles of the Picts, 1867].
c. 884 The unification of Norway was a gradual process, but the the Battle of Hafrsfjord has traditionally been regarded as the decisive battle. Most modern scholars agree that the Battle of Hafrsfjord took place during the 880s: 'A great battle began, which was both hard and long; but at last King Haraldr gained the day. There King Eirik fell, and King Sulke, with his brother Earl Sote. Thor Haklang, who was a great berserk, had laid his ship against King Harald's, and there was above all measure a desperate attack, until Thor Haklang fell, and his whole ship was cleared of men. Then King Kjotve fled to a little isle outside, on which there was a good place of strength. Thereafter all his men fled, some to their ships, some up to the land; and the latter ran southwards over the country of Jadar' [Harald Harfager's Saga, ch. 19].
c. 891 Ragnvald's son, Rolf Ragnvaldsson, was banished from Norway. He joined the war band of his uncle, Malahule Eysteinsson, who would not submit to Harald's rule, and who had been campaigning in France for a number of years. This war band ultimately wrested control of Normandy from France, Rolf becoming more widely known as Rolf The Ganger, 872-931, first Duke of Normandy. Rolf's crime was that 'One summer, as he was coming from the eastward on a viking's expedition to the coast of Viken, he landed there and made a cattle foray. As King Harald happened, just at that time, to be in Viken, he heard of it, and was in a great rage; for he had forbid, by the greatest punishment, the plundering within the bounds of the country [Harald Harfager's Saga, ch. 24].
c. 892 Sigurd Eysteinsson defended Orkney against the Scottish Earl Maelbrigte - nicknamed Maelbrigte Tusk because of his protruding teeth - defeating him. He had the severed heads of the defeated strapped to his mens' saddles, his saddle bearing Maelbrigte's head. When Sigurd went to spur his horse, to commence what I suppose was a victory parade, his calf was pierced by a tooth sticking out of Maelbrigte's mouth! This proved fatal. Sigurd died of an infection. He was laid in a mound at Cyderhall - Sigurd's Howe - near Dornoch. Sigurd's son, Guthorm Sigurdsson, briefly succeeded his father by one winter, but died without issue.
The manner of Guthorm's death is not recorded. However, the sagas portray this to be a time of much conflict, with sons of Harald Harfager being actively engaged in open hostilities against Ragnvald Eysteinsson's family, of whom they were jealous. It can be noted that Ragnvald had initially fought against his second cousin, only joining him when that seemed to be the sensible option. As a result of Harald's forced redistribution of land in Norway, Ragnvald's family had become immensly rich and politically powerful. In this latter respect, note Sigurd Eysteinsson's alliance with the Vikings of Dublin. Ragnvald's family were now a serious threat to Harald, especially if allying themselves with the Earls of Lade, who had not acknowledged Harald's hegemony. The death of Sigurd would have been a propitious time for Harald to place one of his sons as Jarl of Orkney, thus creating a loyal outpost to his kingdom. It would seem entirely probable that Guthorm Sigurdsson was an early casualty of Harald's political intent.
c. 893 When Ragnvald heard of Guthorm's death, he sent one of his sons, Hallad Ragnvaldsson, to be the third Jarl. He did not defend Orkney well against what the sagas portray as repeated Viking attacks, and returned to Norway in disgrace. [Harald Harfager's Saga, ch. 22.]
c. 894 Ragnvald, seeking to secure Orkney, summoned three of his sons to a war-counsel. It was decided that that his eldest son, Hrollager Ragnvaldsson, would campaign in Iceland; the one-eyed Turf-Einar Ragnvaldsson, 866-910, would sail for Orkney, and Thorer The Silent Ragnvaldsson, 873-925, would remain in Norway [Harald Harfager's Saga, ch. 27]. Turf-Einar was a redoutable warrior. The stakes had risen. Harald's sons, Halfdan Haaleg and Gudrod Ljome, sons by Snaefrid Svasedottir, surrounded Ragnvald in his house one night, and burnt him and sixty of his men to death. Gudrod claimed Ragnvald's lands, and Halfdan sailed to Orkney to slay Turf-Einar. It would seem improbable that such an outrage could have happened without Harald's permission.
Turf-Einar was taken by surprise when attacked by Halfdan Haaleg, and fled to the mainland, but returned a short while after ready for battle. He defeated Halfdan in a sea battle, after which, 'Einar and his men lay all night without tents, and when it was light in the morning they searched the whole island and killed every man they could lay hold of ....... Earl Einar went up to Halfdan, and cut a spread eagle upon his back, by striking his sword through his back into his belly, dividing his ribs from the backbone down to his loins, and tearing out his lungs; and so Halfdan was killed ....... Then Earl Einar took possession of the Orkney Isles as before. Now when these tidings came to Norway, Halfdan's brothers took it much to heart, and thought that his death demanded vengeance; and many were of the same opinion' [Harald Harfager's Saga, chs. 30-32].
Harald Harfager, being aware of the risks posed by a protracted conflict, did not share that opinion. He forced Gudrod to relinquish Ragnvald's lands, giving them to Ragnvald's son, Thorer, to whom he also gave his daughter, Alof, in marriage. This marriage was by way of weregild - man price - a reparational payment. He went to Orkney with a great force - how could he not ? - but only levied a token fine of sixty gold marks in payment of Haldan's death [Harald Harfager's Saga, ibid]. Before leaving Turf-Einar, to better fix an idea of him and his descendants in our minds, I would like to give an example of the old Norse language, as developed on Orkney, and similar to that spoken in the high fells of North Yorkshire up to the 16th. Century; though I am not sure that these words or anything closely resembling them were ever said by Turf-Einar!
The Lord's Prayer
Favor i ir i chimrie, Helleur ir i nam thite,
gilla cosdum thite cumma, veya thine mota vara gort
o yurn sinna gort i chimrie,
ga vus da on da dalight brow vora
Firgive vus sinna vora sin vee Firgive sindara mutha vus,
lyv vus ye i tumtation, min delivera vus fro olt ilt, Amen
* Thorer and Alof had issue: Jorund Thorersson, who settled in Iceland, and took land near Lake Udarvatu, living on a farm he called Grund. His son Mar Jorundsson settled a farm called Marstad. Jorund's uncle, Hrollager Ragnvaldsson, established his farm at Felzhverfi. [S. Laing, Journal of a Residence in Norway, p. 261, 1851.]
vii. HROLF RAGNVALDSSON
Ragnvald's son, Hrolf Ragnvaldsson, 872-931, Rolf The Ganger, became a prominant war leader in France during the Viking incursions of 910. He became known as Rollo, first Duke of Normandy. Rollon and its contracted form Rollo are latinized forms of Roul, the Old French form of Rolf. Rolf and its Old Norse cognate Hrólfr are contracted forms of Hrodwulf, which derives from the Old Germanic elements hrod, meaning famous, and wulf, meaning wolf. That a son of Ragnvald Eysteinsson would be named Hrolf is entirely consistent with the insignia of his family, which was, as said, a wolf's head. Old Norse names did have a meaning that was apparent to those who used them, not a meaning that was totally unknown and irrelevant to them, as are the meanings of most modern names.
Hrolf was named as Rollon in a charter of Charles III., 14/3/918, which referred to him and his followers as Northmen of the Seine [Charter of Charles the Simple, ap. Bouquet, ix., p. 536]. That Hrolf was the same person as Rollo is sometimes questioned because of the difference between the two names: The Franks firstly gave Hrolf an Old French form of his name, which they later latinized.
Another argument for Hrolf not being Rollo is the apparent discrepancy between Norman and Norse accounts. Norman sources give Rollo a brother named Gurim, while the sagas give Hrolf several brothers, none of them named Gurim. A brief comment might be approprate. The name Gurim would have been transcribed from the Old Norse name of Gorm, a derivative of Guthorm. Although the sagas do not mention a brother of Rolf called Gurim, they do mention a cousin of his called Guthorm, the previously mentioned Guthorm Sigurdsson, second Jarl of Orkney. Norman accounts describing Gurim's death and Rolf's expulsion from Norway, at the behest of a king of Dacia, seem entirely consistent with the account of the feud between the families of King Harald and Ragnvald Eysteinsson. Dacia, be it noted, was a term used by Frankish writers to denote Scandinavia in general.
Norman accounts also lay claim to Duke Richard I., Hrolf's grandson, being related to a king of Dacia named Haigrold. A contemporary of Duke Richard I. was Haigrold Greycloak, grandson of Harald Harfager. Duke Richard was related to Haigrold Greycloak in the sense of them both being direct descendants of Halfdan Eysteinsson. Thus, Norman and Norse accounts seem quite compatible, and again support the notion of Hrolf Ragnvaldsson being the historical Rollo.
Some additional points, from a 2002 essay by Robert Helmerichs: 'Without considering at all the implications, I point out that Göngu-Hrólfr’s brother in the Heimskringla, a historical figure who settled in Iceland, is named Hrollaugr, a name which much more easily lends itself to the Latinization Rollo.' ....... 'The earliest report of his origin, Dudo, makes him a Dane; 12th-century Norse texts make him Norwegian. The Danes themselves never seem to have claimed him, and Dudo knows nothing about Denmark that he didn’t read in Strabo. Furthermore, his daughter had an unambiguously Norwegian name, Gerloc, although this could reflect the origin of her mother, not Rollo. The evidence thus points generally, but not conclusively, to Rollo being Norwegian. There were Norse settlements on the lower Seine as early as the 840s, so it is not impossible, whatever his ethnicity, that he was in fact born in Normandy.' ....... 'Most likely, he was born either in Norway or in a Norwegian colony elsewhere, perhaps in the British Isles, where some later traditions have him in his pre-Norman career.'
Hrolf gained a small cession of territory, around Rouen, in 911, from Charles III., King of France, in return for providing protection against fellow Scandinavian raiders, and giving feudal allegiance to the king. This is affirmed in the above mentioned charter. There were further grants of land, after much fighting, in 924 and 933. Early chroniclers confused Hrolf with Hund, leader of a war band that attacked Neustria in 896, and who submitted to baptism in 897 as a condition of a peace treaty with Charles III. [Annal Vedast, an. 896, 897, Chron. Normanm ap. Pertz, i. 536]. Any mention of Hrolf operating in France before 910 would seem to be a result of this confusion.
Hrolf and his men - principally including his uncle, Malahule of More, and his half-brother, Hrollager Ragnvaldsson - had no intention of being subservient. He began dividing the acquired land among his chieftains with the intention of creating a settled homeland, giving his uncle land centred around Caen in the county of Calvados.
A further condition of the agreement between Charles and Hrolf, that Hrolf was baptized a Christian, his baptismal name was Robert, did not last. Before he died, he reverted to the gods of his ancestors, who awaited him in Valhalla. As any who made such a radical renounceation of the powerful faith of the times, he was given a bad press. It was put about that he had gone mad; what other reason could there be for his lapse into paganism?
These were uncertain times for the Norse settlers. Superior French power limited their expansion to the north-east. Fiercely independent Scandinavian settlers restricted their move westward. The very survival of the Norse colony was often in doubt, especially after the assassination in 942 of Rolf's son, William Longsword, Duke of Normandy.
n.b. What is not supported by any contemporary or recent evidence are claims that Rolf had a number of sons and daughters in addition to William Longsword. The only possible addition, according to Dudo de Saint-Quentin, Guillaume de Jumieges, Orderic Vitalis, and Robert of Torigni, is Gerloc, a.k.a Adele, wife of Guillaume, Count of Poitou. 19th Century attempts to identity additional children, such as Crispina, a proposed mother of Crispin de Bec, see below, by Grimaldus, Prince of Monaco, are without any known foundation [Dudo de Saint-Quentin, De Moribus et Actis Primorium Normanniae Ducum, edited by Jules Lair; Mémoires de la Société des Antiquaires de Normandie, 1865; William of Jumieges, Orderic Vitalis, and Robert of Torigni, The Gesta Normannorum Ducum, 2 volumes, edited and translated by Elisabeth van Houts, 1992-1995].
The Crispin/Grimaldi genealogy was composed in 1646 by Charles de Venasque-Ferriol, secretary of Honore II, Prince of Monaco. He was assisted by Jean Le Laboureur, the historian; Renee du Bec-Crispin, and her husband, Jean Baptiste de Budes, comte de Guebriant. Their composition bore the title of Historica Et Genelogica Grimalda Gentis Arbor.
The powerfiul families who composed the Historica had a desire to obtain a Carlolingian descent. Charles III, Prince of Monaco [1856-89], branding this pedigree as untrue - there was no Prince of Monaco until the 13th. Century - gave an order to his successive archivists, Cais de Pierlas, Saige, and Labande, to write a correct one, founded on authentic documents, and not falsified as this one. The only relationship between the Crispins of Normandy and the family of Grimaldi is that they both had the same armorial bearings, both of whom bore fusily argent and gules, but, with so simple a coat, no great importance can be attached to it.
1 Halfdan Olafsson 704-772 m. Aasa Eysteinsdottir 710-766.
2 Eystein Halfdansson 725-780 m. Hild Ericsdottir 730-790.
3 Halfdan Eysteinsson 745-800 m. Hlif Dagsdottir 748-810.
4 Ivar Halfdansson 777-840 m. Solveig Eysteinsdottir 790-855.
5 Eystein Ivarsson 815-872 m. Aseda Ragnvaldsdottir 830-875.
6 Ragnvald Eysteinsson 845-894 m. Emina Gudrodsdottir 850-900.
7 Hrollager Ragnvaldsson 865-920 m. Emina d'Avranches 865-935.
* Hrolf Ragnvaldsson was probably less of a significant figure than later Norman historians made him to be. He was one Scandinavian leader among several who vied for outright control of the relatively small amount of territory ceded to them. Although history tends to be written as if evolves around the actions of individuals - making it easy for people to identify with and understand - these leaders would have had the essential support of other powerful men.
* The title of duke was first given to early chieftains of Normandy by later Norman historians.
viii. THE DESCENDANTS OF HROLLAGER
One of the chieftains that Rolf gave land to was his half-brother, Hrollager Ragnvaldsson, 865-920, who married Emina d'Avranches, 865-935, probable daughter of Judith Carolingienne, 843-870, daughter of King Charles 11 of France, 823-877, and Baldwin I, 840-878, Count of Flanders [Alexandre Mazas, Histoire des Comtes de Flandre, pp. 378-380, 1843].
Judith had previously married two Kings of Wessex, father and son, Ethelwulf and Ethelbald. She eloped with Baldwin, much to the disapproval of her father. He later relented, however, and made Baldwin the first Count of Flanders. Through their descendant, Matilda of Flanders, who married William the Conqueror, the line of the Anglo-Norman Kings of England can be traced [Sir Francis Palgrave, The History of the Anglo-Saxons, 1831].
In marrying a grandaughter of Charles 1I., King of France, Hrollager was affording that family protection against fellow Scandinavian raiders, and other French dynastic families, at a time of great instability and conflict. Such alliances were common. Hrollager's uncle, Malahule, married Maude de St. Pol, 865-950, a daughter of Hernequin, 825-882, Count of Boulogne et St. Pol, tenant-in-chief and probable uncle of Baldwin I, 840-878, Count of Flanders [Mazas, ibid]. Hernequin had married Bertha de Ponthieu, 835-895, receiving Boulogne and lands around Abbeville from her father in maritagium. He died at the Battle of Wimeru in 882, defending Boulogne against rebel Frankish forces commanded by Isembert. Cart. de Carcassonne, II, 859, mentions an Isembert as a fidelis of Charles the Bald. A little later he is called a viscount and missus [Cart. de Carcassonne, I., 71-72]. He was buried in l'abbaye de Samer, where is wife became a nun. He was succeeded as Count of Boulogne et St. Pol by his son, Regnier. The father of Maude de St. Pol is often given as Adalof. This Adalof was Earl of Boulogne, and was the youngest son of Baldwin II. of Flanders, and Aelfthryth, the daughter of king Alfred; he was, consequently, cousin to Ethelstan. [Bouquet, ii. 74; and Lappenberg, ii. 107]. Baldwin had married Aelfthryth between 893 and 899 [F. M. Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England, p.344, 2001]. Adalof's elder brother was Arnulf the elder, Count of Flanders, whose birth can be estimated to c. 897 [Cart. Abbaye De Samer-Aux-Bois]. Given this, Adalof was probably born c. 899, and could not have been the father of Maude de St. Pol, who was the mother of Richard de St. Saveur, who fought against William Longsword in 933. Regnier's sister, Maude, was given, as maritagium, lands in St Pol, as guarantee against Viking attacks.
Thus, by this hypothesis, Malahule married Baldwin's cousin, and Hrollager married Baldwin's daughter. These close family associations are confirmed by the land grants to Malahule by Baldwin 11., Count of Flanders, the probable brother of Emina D'Avranches, which were centred around present-day Lille, in Flanders, Northern France. Please note: Hernequin and Baldwin could also have been brothers [Gustave Sauvage, Histoire de Saint-Pol, p. 4, 1834].
The strong connection between the descendants of Eystein Halfdansson and Charles II. was established through Eystein's daughter, Geva, whose g.g. grandaughter, Luitgarde of Saxony, married , as said, Louis II. of France, the son of the said Charles. See ch. iv. Thus, it was not a case of Eystein Halfdansson's descendants allying themselves hapazardly with any Frankish faction - they gave their support to those connected by blood, members of their pan-European family, who, not inconsequentially, would also reward them well.
Another example of this connection was the marriage of Frederuna von Ringelheim, 900-10/2/917, and King Charles III. of France, 17/9/879-7/10/929. She was the daughter of Reginhilde von Friesland, 883-929, and Theoderic, Count of Ringelheim, 872-916. Reginhilde was the daughter of [n.b.] Godfried de Guines, 840-885 and Gisela de Lotharingia, 855-907, Abbess of Nivelles, daughter of Hlothar II., roi de Lotharingie, 827-869, a.k.a. Lothar II. [Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Sixth Series, p. 15, 2003]. He was recorded as a member of the Danish Royal Family - 'Godefridus rex Danorum' [von Simson, ed., The Annales of St. Vaast, p. 47, 1909].
Godfried was an ally of Charles II.; he was given Gisela, a cousin of Charles, to marry, and Frisia to rule, as guarantee of securing his support against further Viking incursions: 'From the islands of Betau and Walcheren, where they had established themselves in 837, they ascended the Scheldt, the Meuse, and the Wahal, and devastated Flanders, Lower Lorraine, and Holland. For some time they remained masters of Friesland, which Harald Klak Halfdansson had received as a fief from Louis I. Thus, Charles was confirming the gift of his father on Harald's son[Chrysanthe Ovide Des Michels, A Manual History of the Middle Ages, p. 138, 1841; Carl Christian Rafen, et. al., Inscriptions Runiques du Slesvig, p. 384, 1861].
Godfried and his descendants held Guines as tenants-in-chief of the Counts of Flanders, marrying into families to which they were already related - those of Huges II., Comte de St. Pol, and Siger de Gramines, Chambellan de Flandre [Pierre Jean M. Collet, Notice Historique sur fitéat Ancien de L'Ardresis, pp. 161-162, 1833]. They would not have held Guines if there had not been a strong familial connection with the Counts of Flanders. That is how they did things in those days. Of the ancestors of Baldwin I., Count of Flanders - 'It is impossible to find a place in history for Baldwin's assumed father. Vredius, chief among the critical genealogists of Flanders, has converted 'Odoacre' into a word of command - 'Houd-u-wacker' - hold thyself stoutly. The fanciful tales we have noticed are palpably recent, not older than the thirteenth century' [Sir Francis Palgrave, The History of Normandy and England, p. 532, 1851].
It is not improbable that Baldwin was closely related to Harald Klak, whose family had long established close connection with the Royal House of Saxony: It can be noted that the previously mentioned Duke Wittikind, who took as wife Geva Eysteinsdottir, and who was progenitor of the Royal House of Saxony, sought refuge with his wife's kinsfolk when driven out of his domains by the Franks. It can also be noted that Harald Klak initially held territories between the middle Rhine and Moselle, before being given the additional fiefs of Oldenburgh and Nordalbingia by Louis I [Suhm, Historie of Danmark, vol. ii., pp. 1-2, 1784]. The following statement seems to confirm Baldwin's connection to lands held by Harald Klak: 'Baldwin's family stemmed from the middle Rhine and Alsace, while the Count himself had received duties in Flanders' [Pierre Riché, The Carolingians who Forged Europe, p. 196, 1993]. A territorial connection usually stemmed from a familial one.
A great-grandaughter of Baldwin II. married a great-grandson of Hrollager. This is highly significant, for marriages and tenurial relationships were almost invariably the result of previous family connections. This process kept wealth within a network of closely interconnected families, making marriages between cousins and between second cousins commonplace. Such connections also prevented territorial disputes; they were, in effect, peace treaties. Another reason for such marriages was to give each family an insurance policy against ducal or monarchial authority, for, if you fell out of favour, powerful family connections might be the means of preserving land and life. They were also the conduit through which individuals advanced in life, with extended family members being expected to assist their kinsfolk to gain important positions or grants of land. In this way, it is best to view these families as members of a kinship group.
Hrollager and Emina had issue: Hrolf Turstain, 885-962, whose baptismal name was Robert. Hrolf Turstain, when marrying his second cousin, Gerlotte de Blois, 895-950, great-grandaughter of Charles 1I., King of France, was reinforcing the links established by his father: Gerlotte de Blois was the daughter of Theobald, Count of Blois and Chartres, and Richilde de Main, a.k.a. Bourges, grandaughter of King Charles 11 of France, and great-great grandaughter of Emperor Charlmagne. This genealogy is detailed in works by notable French antiquaries [d'Anisy and de Sainte-Marie, Recherches sur le Domesday ou Liber Censualis d'Angleterre, p. 244, 1842].
The connection between these families persisted in post-Conquest England, where a descendant of Hrolf Turstain first styled himself de Stanhope, after the land he held in the Palatinate of Durham as tenant of the Bishop; a member of the family of Blois. Also, as will be shown, a g.g.g. grandson of Rolf Turstain married Maud de Blois, sister of King Stephen of England, and cousin of the above mentioned Bishop of Durham.
Hrolf Turstain followed his uncle to Normandy, via Flanders, and founded the important Norman families of Avranches, Briquebec, Crispin, and Montfort-sur-Risle. His first son was Anslech de Bastembourg, 908-990, Lord of Briquebec and Montfort-sur-Risle, ancestor of the Bertran/Bertram family, see extended genealogies. n.b. In the rebellion of Richard de St. Saveur, son of Malahule of More, against Duke William Longsword, in 933, Anslech is mentioned by Wace as one of the three Barons who alone remained faithful to the Duke, his second cousin, by rendering him military service at the seige of Rouen; and, on the assassination of Duke William, he was appointed by the barons of Normandy and Bretagny as one of the three guardians to his young son, the Duke Richard [Wace, Roman de Rou et des ducs de Normandie, ed. Andresen, 1877-1879].
The support given by Anslech to William Longsword, and that of his descendants to William's descendants, points to a close family connection, and supports the case for Hrollager and Rolf Ragnvaldsson being half-brothers. They formed one stem of the Eysteinsson family. They would often be in conflict with another stem - that of Malahule's - whose descendants challenged the right of their 'cousins' to supreme authority on the basis of their shared and equally noble ancestry. The early connection between these families was reiterated by the later marriage of Richard de St. Saveur's g.g. grandaughter to Anslech de Bastembourg's g.g. grandson, Robert Bigod, see extended genealogies.
Other sons of Hrolf Turstain and Gerlotte de Blois, as given by d'Ainsy and de Sainte-Marie, ibid., were:
Guillaume de Bec, 918-1000, ancestor of the Crispin family.
Ansfrid Le Danois, qui fut, suivant quelques historiens, le premier vicomte d'Exmes ou d'Hyesmes. Il conserva cette charge jusqu'en 978, époque où la vicomtefut temporairement eulevée à sa famille et donée à Roger de Montgommery, grand-père de Roger, qui fut plus tard comte d'Alencon, ainsi que d'Arundel et de Shrewsbury, en Angleterre.'
That Guillaume de Bec was the progenitor of the family of Bec-Crispin is shown in charters of the Abbey of Mont-Saint-Michel, diocèse d'Avranches, c. 990, relating to the foundation of its priory at Abbayette near Lindivy, and in charters relating to the Benedictine Priory of Saint-Ymer-en-Auge et de Briquebec. The lineage of the early Crispins, and those closely related to them, was recorded in these charters, and notable French antiquaries, such as d'Anisy and de Sainte-Marie, used them as a basis for their work. Guillaume de Bec's ancestry and progeny are also recorded, as given above, in the work of the Duchess of Cleveland: 'Hrollager's three grandsons each became the founder of an illustrious Norman stock. From the eldest, Anslac de Bastembourg, came the Bertrams, second, William, the barons of Bec-Crespin, and from the third, Ansfrid the Dane, who was Viscount of Exmers, or Hiesmes, before 978, the house of Avranches. He was the first Viscount of Hiesmes that is on the record, and his descendants inherited this dignity, as well as the surname of Le Gotz or Gois. Toustain Le Gois, his grandson, was Chamberlain to Duke Robert' [The Battle Abbey Roll: With Some Account of the Norman Lineages, pp. 43-44, 1889].
As stated by d'Anisy and de Sainte-Marie, it is accurate to describe Guillaume/William as the immediate ancestor of the Seigneurs du Bec-Crespin. It was at a much later date - temp. Guillaume Crespin IV. - that those of their lineage became the Barons of Bec-Crespin. It should also be noted that he was the first of his lineage to hold the name of William, a distinction wrongly given to his great-grandson, William Crispin I.
Guillaume de Bec, c. 960, gave land to the Benedictine Priory of Saint-Ymer-en-Auge et de Briquebec; a confirmation charter sanctioned by Duke Richard I., and witnessed by Count Robert de Vermandois. This connection, suggestive of a close family tie, and later ties of marriage, suggests that Guillaume de Bec's wife was one of three sisters of Robert de Vermandois; the children of Herbert 11., 884-23/2/943, Count of Vermandois, and Adela de France, 895-931, a.k.a Hildebranda, daughter of Robert 1, 866-15/6/923, King of France.
These three sisters were:
1. Adele de Vermandois, 913-10/10/958. Adele married Arnulf the elder, 889-27/3/965, Count of Flanders, Hrolf Turstain's cousin, whose men assassinated Duke William Longsword. Arnulf was the son of Baldwin 11, 863-10/9/918, Count of Flanders, Guillaume de Bec's cousin, and Aelfthryth de Wessex, 868-929, daughter of King Alfred the Great of England, 849-26/10/899, and Ealhswith of Gaini, 852-5/12/905.
2. Luitgarde de Vermandois, 914-2/9/978, widow of William Longsword. She married Guillaume de Bec's uncle, Theobald de Blois 11, 905-15/1/975, brother of the above mentioned Gerlotte, and ally of Rollo in defending against repeated Viking incursions [Theodore Andrea Cook, The Story of Rouen, p. 46. 1901].
3. Bertha de Vermandois, 920-990, who married her distant cousin, Guillaume de Bec. One of his fiefs was Bec-de-Mortagne, situated some three miles from Colleville-sur-Mer. As will be shown, it is from this latter commune of the Seine-Maritime that a branch of the Crispin family took its name. An act of Guillaume, son of Robert, granted tithes at Lisieux to Mont-Saint-Michel 'for the souls of his father and wife, Bertha.' The early Crispin family had strong associations with Lisieux. See later.
Guillaume de Bec and Bertha de Vermandois had issue:
Crispin de Bec, 945-1010, a.k.a. Crespin-Ansgot, who married his second cousin, Heloise de Guines, 958-1015. Heloise de Guines was the daughter of Siegfried, Count of Guines, 912-965, and Elftrude de Flandre, 932-990, g.g. grandaughter of King Alfred, and daughter of the above mentioned Arnulf the elder and Adele de Vermandois. [W. H. Turton, The Plantagenet Ancestry, 1928.] Siegfried was the grandson of the previously mentioned Godfried de Guines and Gisela de Lotharingia.
Emperor Charlmagne 747-814 m.  Hildegarde of Vinzgau 757-783.
Emperor Louis I. 778-840 m.  Ermengarde Haysbe 778-818.
Adelaide de Tours 824-866 m. Robert The Strong Count of Anjou 820-866.
Robert I. King of West Francia c. 860-923 m.  Aelis g.g.g. grandaughter Charlmagne.
Adele de France 895-931 m. Herbert II. Count of Vermandois 884-943.
Bertha de Vermandois 920-990 m. Guillaume de Bec 918-1000.
Emperor Charlmagne 747-814 m.  Hildegarde of Vinzgau 757-783.
Emperor Louis I. 778-840 m.  Judith of Bavaria 805-843.
Charles 1I King of France 823-877 m. Richilde de Provence 842-910.
Rothilde de France 865-928 m. Hugh Count of Bourges 860-892.
Richilde de Main 880-925 m. Theobald Count of Blois 870-904.
Gerlotte de Blois 895-950 m. Hrolf Turstain 885-962.
Guillaume de Bec 918-1000 m. Bertha de Vermandois 920-990.
Crispin de Bec 945-1010 m. Heloise of Guines 958-1015.
Emperor Charlmagne 747-814 m.  Hildegarde of Vinzgau 757-783.
Emperor Louis I. 778-840 m.  Judith of Bavaria 805-843.
Charles I1 King of France 823-877 m. Richilde of Provence 842-910.
Judith Carolingienne 857-870 m. Baldwin I. 840-878 Count of Flanders.
Baldwin 11 863-918 Count of Flanders m. Aelfthryth de Wessex 868-929.
Arnulf the elder 897-964 Count of Flanders m. Adele de Vermandois 913-959.
Elftrude de Flandre 932-990 m. Siegfried 912-965 Count of Guines.
Heloise of Guines 958-1015 m. Crispin de Bec 945-1010.
King Alfred the Great 849-899 m. Eahlswith of Mercia 852-905.
Aelfthryth de Wessex 868-929 m. Baldwin 11 863-918 Count of Flanders.
Arnulf the elder 897-964 m. Adele de Vermandois 913-959.
Elftrude de Flandre 932-990 m. Siegfried 912-965 Count of Guines.
Heloise of Guines 958-1015 m. Crispin de Bec 945-1010.
ix. FIVE SONS
Crespin-Ansgot had five sons:
1. Gilbert Crispin, of more anon.
2. Raoul de Bec, who was the father of Goisfrid de Bec, otherwise known as Goisfrid the Marshal, and of Turstin, called in Domesday, 'filius Ralf.' The bearings of Goisfrid's family were Lozengy, and the most ancient known coat of arms of the Marshals was a Bend Lozengy.
3. Hellouin de Bec, a.k.a. Herluin. Hellouin founded the Abbey of Bec toward the 37th. year of his life, i.e. 1034. 'Son père tirait son origine de ces Danois qui les premiers conquirent la Normandie, et sa mère était liée de proche parenté avec les ducs de la Gaule Belgique, que les modernes appellent le pays de Flandre. Son père s'appelait Ansgot, et sa mère Héloïse. Gilbert, comte de Brionne, petit-fils de Richard I., duc de Normandie, par son fils le prince Godefroi, fit élever Herluin auprès de lui, et le chérissait particulièrement entre tous les seigneurs de sa cour' [Francois Guizot, Collection des mémoires relatifs à l'histoire de France, p. 146, 1826]. A notion of the some of the fiefs held by Hellouin's family is given in the following text: 'Bonneville sur le Bec, Eure, est dans le canton Montfort-sur-Risle. Nous avons le texte de la charte de donation [Lanfr. op., Docum, t. ii., p. 350, Oxford, 1844] Hellouin y donne, en présence et de l'aveu de se deux frères, le tiers qui lui appartenait de la terre de Bonneville et de se dépendances, les terres du Petit-Quevilli, Seine-Inférieure, et de Surci, Eure, ainsi que la terre de Cernai-sur-Orbec, Calvados. Cette charte ne peut remonter moins haut que les premiers mois de 1035. cf. w. Genet,. dans D. Bouquet, t. xi,. p. 35' [Charles Remusat, Saint Anselme de Cantobéry, p. 27, 1856].
4. Odo de Bec.
5. Roger de Bonneville.
In a charter of Hellouin, 994-1078, after describing himself as 'Herluinus filius Ansgoti', he adds, 'adstantibus et laudantibus fratibus meis Odone et Rogero.' These brothers gave concessions of paternal inheritance to Le Bec, in lieu of which Roger received a horse worth 100 shillings, and Odo placed his son in le Bec. [G. R. Evans, The works of Gilbert Crispin, Abbot of Westminster, p. 190, 1986.] It can be noted that these brothers were previously deprived of their land by their liege lord, Gilbert de Brionne, as a result of his jealousy of the popularity of Hellouin, which he considered as a sleight to to himself. A sad reminder of the absurdity of the human condition.
That Hellouin was seen by some to have descended from his knightly position in Gilbert de Brionne's household, to which he had been fostered by his father, is represented by the following text: 'In the wooded valley of the Rille, not far from Rouen. A rude old soldier, named Herluin, had with some trouble obtained permission of his feudal lord to devote himself and his patrimony to religion; and had retired to this spot with his mother and a few companions, over whom he presided as superior. All day long he was employed in building: most of the night he spent in learning to read, and in getting the Psalter by heart; his mother baked for the monks, washed their clothes, and performed all the menial offices of the house. Herluin was with his own hands building the bakehouse of the monastery [Richard William Church, Essays and reviews, p. 138, 1834]. It can be noted that Herluin's mother, because of her status, would not have performed these tasks for her family prior to Hellouin's new vocation.
x. NOBILITY OF NORMANDY
The three sons of Hrolf Turstain and Gerlotte de Blois:
1. Anslech de Bastembourg, a.k.a. Oslac de Briquebec, 910-974, tutor to Duke Richard of Normandy, who married Gillette de Beaumont, 922-960, probable daughter of the aforementioned Bernard the Dane, who brought with her, as maritagium, estates in Flanders and Liseux. Their son was Turstain de Bastembourg, 945-1021, 'père de Guillaume, tige des Bertran' [Gustave Saige, Cartulaire de la seigneurie de Fontenay le Marmion, p. 29, 1895]. 'It is deserving of observation that the senior branch of the family held the extensive barony of Bricquebac in Normandy for eight successive generations. The last died as late as the 14th Century, leaving his large possessions, and the castle of Bricquebec, which one of his early ancestors had built, to his eldest daughter, who carried them by marriage to William Paisnel [Paganel], Baron of Hambie' [Memoirs Chiefly Illustrative of the History and Antiquities of Northumberland, Royal Archeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, vol. ii., pp. 48-50, 1859].
2. Ansfrid I., The Dane, 915-978, who married Helloe de Beulac, 942-1000.
3. Guillaume de Bec, 918-1000, who married Bertha de Vermandois, 920-990.
x. a. ERTEMBERGE DE BRIQUEBEC AND TORF DE HARCOURT
The daughter of Anslech and Gillette was Ertemberge de Briquebec, 935-985, who married Torf The Rich de Harcourt, son of Bernard The Dane. Touroude of Pont-Audemer, eldest son of Torf and Ertemberge, married Duvelina, sister of Gonnor de Crepon, spouse of Duke Richard of Normandy [Robert of Torigni, G.N.D, Book VIII., ch. 36-37].
Turulf and Duvelina had issue:
1. Humphrey de Vieilles, aka, Onfroi de Vieilles/Vaux/Vetulis; Unfredus de Vetulis. Vieilles is a small commune in the canton of Beaumont, arrondissement of Bernay; where the family appears to have been long established. Bernay was a centre of Crispin family influence. Humphrey de Vieilles was also lord of Vaux-sur-Seine, near Mantes, canton Meulan. Humphrey married Auberée de la Haye, obit. 28/12/1045. Her family bore three bunches of quickset, signifying a connection the Thorn Clan of Malahule of More, whose emblem was a thorny hedge [Martin de Albuquerque, ed. Notes and Queries, p. 413, 1861]. They had three sons:  'Rodbertus de Bellomonte, filius Unfredi.'  Guillaume de Bellomonte, who gave to Saint-Léger de Préaux la forêt de Beaumont.  Roger de Beaumont, aka Belomonte, Baron de Beaumesnil, who married Adeline, sister of Huges II., Comte de Meulan* [La Roque, Hist. de la M. d'Harcourt. T. III.. p. xxv.]. Roger became a monk at St. Pierre de Préaux, which was founded by his father on his own domains, which became known as Beaumont-le-Roger. This abbey was in the diocese of Lisieux, caput of the Crispin family. The land was gifted to Humphrey de Vieilles by his brother, Ralph, in his capacity of administrator of Bernay Abbey, at the behest of the ducal family, who wished to secure his support. The fief of Neuborg was obtained in the same manner [L. F. Dubois, Histoire de Lisieux, p. 53, 1845]. Humphrey de Vieilles remained loyal to the young Duke William, and, as a consequence, in 1036, had his estates plundered by those opposed to his succession, led by Roger de Toeni, descendant of Malahule. A force led by Roger de Beaumont drove the attackers back, slaying Roger de Toeni and two of his sons.
Land in Bailleul-en-Vimeu was among the many endowments that Humphrey de Vieilles invested on the abbey, as evidenced by its cartulary, c. 1050. The topographical name Beaumont was first mentioned in an act of the Abbey of St. Martin de Tours, 855, as Bellus Mons, that is, the high ground to the south of Bailleul-en-Vimeu, part of the Château Coquerel Estate. 'Coquerel is on a hill overlooking the plain Flavy-le-Martel, and is bound by a series of ridges separating the valleys of the Oise and the Somme. This hill was obviously fortified, because it is still surrounded by two deep ditches. The mound was opened, it is said, by the Templars, to search for what can not be known. For those of us who have visited and explored several times, the Coquerel tumulus is not a Celtic, but a Gallic fortress, which occupied an important strategic position' [Société Française d'Archéologie, p. 370, 1861]. A possible connection between the family of Humphrey and this region is also suggested by L'église de Lieur, arrond. Pont-Audemer, receiving tithes from the feudal manors of les Préaux, Coquerel, and Bailleuil.
Roger de Beaumont left his domains to his sons:
Robert I. de Beaumont, obit. 1118, surnommé le Prudhomme, who became Comte de Meulan, as heir to Hugues, his mother Adeline's brother. He was granted the Earlship of Leicester by Henry I. He married Elizabeth de Vermandois, great-grandaughter of King Henry I. of France. Their son was Robert II. de Beaumont, obit. 1168, Earl of Leicester, who married Amicia, daughter of Ralph de Waier, Earl of Norfolk. Their son was Robert III. de Beaumont, Earl of Leicester, High Steward of England, who married Petronilla de Grentemesnil. Their son, William de Beaumont, being the [contentious] ancestor to the Hamiltons of Scotland.
Henry de Beaumont, who was made Earl of Warwick. He married Margaret, daghter of Geoffrey, Earl of Morton, and had two sons - Roger and Robert de Neuborg, and a daughter, Elizabeth, who was the grandmother of Isabel, wife of the illustrious William Marshal, alias Guillaume le Maréchal, who became the Earl of Pembroke through marriage to Isabel de Clare, descendant of Gilbert de Brionne. His brother, John Marshal, had a mistress named Alice de Colleville, descendant of the Crispin family.
2. Josseline of Pont-Audemer, who married Hugh de Montgomery, of Mont Gomeri, near Lisieux, around which the Crispin family held vast tracts of land; suggesting the Montgomery family to be closely connected to the Crispins. Their son was Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Shrewsbury, Arundel, and Chichester, who held Orbec in Normandy [L. C. Loyd, Origins of some Anglo-Norman Families, pp. 68-9, 1975]. The children of Count Hugh and Josseline, were, I. Roger, who succeeded; II. Robert; III. William; and IV. Gilbert, who lost his life undesignedly at the hands of his sister-in-law, Mabel, A.D. 1064. In her hatred of the family of the Giroie, she had desired to make away with Ernauld d'Echafour, son of William Giroie. She invited him on his return from Poland to pay her husband a visit, and prepared for him poisoned meat and drink. The design was discovered to him in time, and on arriving at her house, he declined partaking of any refreshment. But Gilbert, who accompanied Ernauld, ignorant of Mabel's plans, took unhesitatingly the cup, and without dismounting from his horse drank the wine, and died within three days. Gilbert may have been the father of 1. Aimeria, wife of Reginald de Baliol, whose family originated in Bailleul-en-Vimeu; who appears among the witnesses to the charter of foundation of the Abbey of Shrewsbury; and in Roger de Montgomerie's charter to St. Evroult, 1083, he mentions "Reginald de Baliol and Aimeria his wife my niece." [n.b. Reginald's great-grandson, Ingram, was eroneously styled Lord of Harcourt; Marquis de René Belleval clearly shows that the family of John Baliol were called "sires of Bailleul-en-Vimeu" to the exclusion of their other major holdings, Dompierre and Helicourt; all three being sites of important castles. When Jean de Bailleul, roi d'Ecosse, returned to Ponthieu in 1299, he lived at Helicourt. French antiquaries confused this with Harcourt, this being held by the closely related family of Beaumont, who similarly originated in Bailleul-en-Vimeu. Thus, the family of Baliol were eroneously named as lords of Harcourt, an oft repeated misunderstanding [Marquis de René Belleval, Jean de Bailleul: roi d'Ecosse et sire de Bailleul-en-Vimeu, p.10, 1866]. Reginald's brother, Warin the Bald, was Viscount of Shrewsbury under Roger. 2. Gilbert, Roger's constable, " the constable", who is mentioned in the grant to the monasteries of 1083. Roger de Montgomerie, Count of Montgomerie, and Viscount d'Exmes in Normandy, and subsequently Earl of Shrewsbury, Arundel, and Chichester, in England, the eldest son of Count Hugh, was one of the most powerful and influential nobles at William's court.
3. Emma de Harcourt. She married Rudolf de Varennes, who held considerable lands on the Seine above Rouen, and in the Pays de Caux, who took is name from Varenne, a hamlet on the River Varenne, near Dieppe. Emma de Harcourt and Rudolf de Varennes were the parents of Rudolf II. de Varennes, and William de Varennes, a.k.a. William de Warren, Earl of Surrey, who first came to prominence in the Battle of Mortemer, 1054, after which he received the castle so named from Duke William, forfeited by his kinsman, Roger de Mortimer. He also received Bellencombre, caput of the Warenne family in Normandy [John Le Patourel, Feudal Empires: Norman and Plantagenet, p. 9, 1984].
* Waleran, the first recorded Comte de Meulent, was believed to be a decendant of the aforementioned Bernard the Dane [La Roque, ibid]. Comtes de Meulent: 'Waleran ou Galeran' - first recorded Count, obit. 965. Two sons - Gauthier, received 'Mantes et Chaumont', and was the progenitor of the Mauvoisin family, a dau. of which m. William Crispin II. See later. Robert, Waleran's s. and h., obit 990. His s. and h. was Robert II., who married a dau. of Gauthier II., dit le Blanc, comte de Vexin. They had 3 sons - Huges, Galeran, and Richard de Neaufle, a dau. of whom m. a member of William Crispins family [Tabular. S. Petrie-Carnot, bibl. du roi, mss, p. 423]. Huges, 'caput ursae', 'comte de Meulent en 997', m. Helvise, sister of Herluin de Conteville*, possible son of Ansfrid II. [Cartulary Columbens]. Helvise was made a Saint in 1032 [SS Ben, saecul. 6 part. 1., p. 365]. Galeran succeeded his br. in 1015, whose children had died. He m. Ode, sister, 'if it can be believed', of the Saint Helvise' [Chronicles Saint-Nigaise de Meulent]. His s. and h. was Huges II., whose sister, Adeline, m., as said, Roger de Beaumont.
* Other issue of Turulf of Pont-Audemer and Duvelina were: Herbrand, Gilbert, Richard, and Ilbert.
x. b. ANSFRID I. AND HELLOE DE BEULAC
The four children of Ansfrid and Helloe were:
1. Toussaint de Bertrande, 957-1021.
2. Ansfrid II., 963-1035. His son was, as said, Toustain de Gois, 989-1041, aka Turstenus de Goys, Vicomte d'Exmes, 1034, seigneur d'Exmes, Vicomte d'Argentan, and governor of Falaise during William's minority [Chronique de Normandie, par Mesgissier, fol. 34]. He married Judith de Monterolier, 994-1050. Their two sons were: Robert Bigod, 1015-1071, ancestor of the Dukes of Norfolk, and Richard D'Avranches, 1025-1083, ancestor of the Earls of Chester. He married Emma de Conteville, 1029-1077; their son Hugh D'Avranches, 1045-27/7/1101, 1st. Earl of Chester, bearings: wolf's head erazed argent in a field azure, married Ermentrude de Clermont, 1053-1094, and had issue: Richard D'Avranches, 1090-1120, 2nd. Earl of Chester, who married Maud de Blois, 1097-25/11/1120, daughter of Stephen, Count of Blois, 1046-19/5/1102, and Adela, 1062-8/3/1137, daughter of William the Conqueror. Maud de Blois was the sister of King Stephen of England, 1095-25/10/1154.
3. Hugh I. de Montfort-sur-Risle, 965-1020. His son was Hugh II de Montfort-sur-Risle, 1010-1066, who married Alice de Beaufou, 1020-1070, daughter of Richard de Beaufou. Their daughter was Alice de Montfort-sur-Risle, 1050-1091. She married Gilbert de Gaunt, 1035-1095, Lord of Folkingham, nephew of the Conqueror.
Their children were:
Emma de Gaunt, 1076-1132, who married Baron Alan de Percy, 1069-1120, son of Baron William de Percy, 1034-1096, and Emma de Porte, 1051-1110.
Walter de Gaunt, 1082-1139, a man of great piety and humanity [Leland, Collect., vol. i., p. 92]. He married Maud of Brittany, daughter of Stephen I, Count of Brittany, and Hawise. Their daughter, Alice de Gaunt, 1122-1180, married  Roger de Mowbray, her first husband being Ilbert de Lacy II., obit. 1141.
Hugh de Gaunt, 1085-1125, who married Adeline de Beaumont, daughter of Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan, 1st Earl of Leicester.
4. Anceline de Bertrande, 956-994, who married, see below, Turketil de Harcourt, 951-1015, second son of Torf [William Harcourt-Bath, A History of the Family of Harcourt, 1931]. Their son was Ansketil de Harcourt; he was the first who assumed the name of Harcourt, from the bourg of Harcourt near Brionne [Ctl. Abbey of Bernay, 1014]. He married Eve de Boessey le Chapel. Their second son, Robert de Harcourt I, married Colette de Argouges. Their son was William de Harcourt, Lord of Harcourt, Caileville, Beauficel, and Lord of the Manor of Stanton-under-Bardon. He married Hue de Amboise. Their son was Robert de Harcourt II., ancestor of the Dukes of Harcourt, peers of France and the Counts of Aumale, Counts of Tankerville, Viscounts de St. Sauveur.
* A third son of Torf and Ertemberge was William de Torville.
x. c. ANCELINE DE BERTRANDE AND TURKETIL DE HARCOURT
The daughter of Anceline de Bertrande and Turketil de Harcourt was Leceline de Harcourt, 971-1035. She married Godfrey de Brionne, 953-1015. He was the son of Duke Richard I. of Normandy, 933-20/11/996, and Gonnor de Crepon. Godfrey and Leceline had a son, Gilbert de Brionne, 989-1040 [Elizabeth Van Houts, The Normans in Europe, p. 69, 2000 ;Ordericus Vitalis,The Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy, trsl. Thomas Forester, vol. i., p. 149, 1853]. n.b. He is often confused with Gilbert Crispin. In the foundation charter of Bec Abbey, he describes himself as 'Gislebertus Brionensis Comes, primi Ricardi Normannorium ducis nepos, ex filio Consule Godefrido.' i.e., grandson of Duke Richard I. of Normandy, by his son, the magistrate, Godfrey [Francisque Michel, Gesta regnum Britanniae, p. 77, 1862]. Although not being the same personage as Gilbert Crispin, it is, however, likely that he was very closely connected to the Crispin family. Early Lotharingian land charters, Arch. Savoy, variously record Godfrey as Gudofrey Crispin de Crepon, Godfred Crispin von Arnes, Crispin d'Arnes, and Godrick, baron of Luneburg in Saxony. This latter location had strong connections to Scandinavia, in that its salt mines provided the preservative for the Scandinavian fish harvests. The ancestry of his mother is unknown, albeit supposed pedigrees were composed over proceeding centuries, with the earliest sources solely reporting her to be of royal Scandinavian ancestry. That Godfrey was variously titled Crispin was instrumental in the confusion surrounding his son, Gilbert. It may also suggest that Godfrey's mother was of the Crispin family, but to what degree can only be conjectured. This would be entirely compatible with the custom of marriage within kinship networks, and the closeness of this particular alliance is shown by a daughter of Duke Richard and Gonnor de Crepon, Mathilde de Normandie, marrying Guillaume de Bec's cousin, Eudes II., Comte de Blois. It is also shown by a further example: 'Count Gilbert of Brionne, grandson of Richard I. of Normandy, through the Duke's son, Count Godfrey, had Hellouin [Crispin de Bec's son] brought up fittingly at his home among all the nobles of his court' [Van Houts, ibid]. Gilbert de Brionne also married into this network of closely related families. He married Gilbert Crispin's second cousin. For an account of Gilbert de Brionne's descendants see Michael Altschul, A Baronial Family in Medieval England: The Clares, 1217-1314, 1965. Another son of Duke Richard and Gonnor de Crepon was Robert of Normandy, 955-1037, who married Havline de Rouen, 960-1030. Their daughter, Alix de Brionne, 975-1045, was the mother of Gunnor d'Anjou, wife, as will be shown, of Gilbert Crispin. Their son, Richard de Evreux, 986-1067, had issue: Agnes de Evreux, Gunnor's cousin, who married, as will be shown, Simon de Montfort.
x. d. GODFRIED AND SIEGFRIED
In Flanders, between 851 and 864, Scandinavian raiders regularly sailed up the river Schelde and attacked the district around the city of Ghent. They met with little resistance, and were employed as mercenaries in the conflicts between the various Frankish factions. After their defeat in England by Alfred the Great, they again turned their attention to Flanders. Godfried was one of the leaders of the so called Great Army that attacked Flanders in 879. Louis III. finally defeated them at the battle of Saucourt, in 881. Not to be discouraged, the war-bands returned to Flanders and Dutch Limburg. From their base of Asselt, north of Roermond, they raided the towns of Cologne and Bonn in Germany, and Liége and Tongeren in Limburg [B. von Simson, ibid]. Please note, an original fief of Bernard the Dane was Haccourt, near Liége.The Ferrières family were anciently of Ferrières, also of Liége, pointing to a close familial relationship.
The new emperor, Charles II., sent an army to Asselt, where Godfried chose to negotiate. He became a so called vassal of the emperor, and, after being baptised, married, as said, Gisela, daughter of Lothar II. He received some of the territories ceded to his uncle, Rorik. He was granted 'comitatus et beneficia, quae Rorich Nordmannus Francorium regibus fidelis Kinnim tenuerat.' - i.e. the Kennemerland peninsula [B. von Simson. ibid]. He was also the recipient of Rorik's fief of Ghent, situated on the north bank of the Waal, which was noted as 'ex rebus iuris nostri ex beneficio Hrorici' [T. Schieffer, ed., MGH, Diplomata Karolinorum, III., P. 405, 1966]. Ghent had been a domain of Duke Wittikind, a.k.a. Wittikind de Gand. 'Godfried settled at Ghent, and took possession of the castle of Heslau' [Wolfgang Menzel, The History of Germany, p. 291, 1824-1825].
However, the emperor felt threatened by Godfried and Godfried's brother-in-law, Hugh. In June 885, Godfried was summoned for talks on the island of Betuwe, where the Rhein and the Waal diverge. This turned out to be a conspiracy - Gisela was lured off the island - and Godfried was murdered by Count Everard and his men. Hugh was blinded, spendind the rest of his life in the Monastery of St. Boniface [Eduard Hlawitschka, Lotharingien und das Reich, pp. 17-19, 1968].
Godfried's army was not large. The Annales specifically state that he had been recruiting war-bands from Scandinavia, with the purpose of gaining greater concessions of territory from Charles II. Charles, having prevented Godfried's plans, recruited the same war-bands to protect his lands against other Scandinavian raiders. Malahule of More was an early recruit, as said, to the defense of Flanders. His nephew, Hrollager Ragnvaldsson, follwed his uncle to Flanders, probably in 896, after the dissolution of the Great Army, where his family were granted fiefs in the region of Ghent.
Godfried and Gisela had issue: Reginhilde de Friesland, a.k.a. Rheinghildin de Frise, wife, as said, of Count Theoderic of Ringelheim, a.k.a. Dietrich/Dietricus of Ringelheim, a direct descendant of Duke Wittikind. Their issue were: Frederune of Ringelheim, who married, as said, King Charles III. of France. Mathilda of Ringelheim, wife of Henry the Fowler, 876-2/7/936, a.k.a. Henry I., King of Germany. Almalrad of Ringelheim, who married Everard, Count of Hameland, a domain of Wickman de Hameland. Siegfried, Count of Ringelheim: 'Henry the Fowler bestowed the government [of Brandenburg] on Siegfried, Count of Ringelheim' [Robert Beatson, A Political index to the histories of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, p. 494, 1806]. n.b. It was this Siegfried who was to become known as Siegfried de Guines, who held Brandenburg simultaneously [J. Dhondt, Recherches sur l'histoire Boulonnais, ix., x., in Memoires de l'Academie d'Arras, 4th. series, pp. 1-35, 1941/42]. It should be noted that Siegfried would not have been known by the appelation de Guines during his lifetime; the County of Guines being formed at a later date. It can be further noted that Siegfried's son, Otto, by his first marriage, to Magdalen, Countess of Ascaniae, was Count of Ringelheim and Oldenburgh, which was, as previously noted, a possession of his great-great grandfather, Harald Klak.
x. e. BARONS HAYE-DU-PUITS
When occupying Normandy, between 918 and 930, powerful families built a series of mottes circulaires, circular wooden forts. These were places of original abode, held before families moved to other estates. Some of these mottes circulaires were at Barneville-la-Bertran, held by the Briquebec family of Hrolf Turstain, La Haye-du-Puits, and Varenquebec, from where, according to Sir Francis Palgrave, the Harcourt family originated. These families were obviously closely connected by kinship; connections confirmed by future alliances: Hrolf's son was Ansfrid I.; his sons were Osmund de Gois and Ansfrid II. de Gois, father of Wymond de Gois and Toustain de Gois; father of Richard, Vicomte d'Avranches, who married married Emma de Conteville, the Conqueror's half-sister. There is some speculation that Osmund de Gois was synonomous with Osmond de Conteville, Viscomte de Vernon [Collectanea Archæologica, p. 283, 1862; cit. Recherches sur la Domesday]. This Osmond may have been the father of Herluin de Conteville, often given as the son of the totally obscure Jean de Conteville. Certainly, par Prevost, Osmond de Conteville married a niece of the Duchess Gonnor, and their daughter married Baldwin FitzGilbert de Brionne; their daughter marrying a nephew of Richard, Vicomte d'Avranches [see anon]; a typical example of marriage within the same elitist kinship network. Such a scenario would explain the marriage of Richard d'Avranches to and his close kinswoman, Emma de Conteville. We know that Arletta, the mother of the Conqueror, married secondly Herluin de Conteville, by whom she had issue Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, Robert, Comte de Mortain, married to Maud de Montgomery, and the said Emma de Conteville.
Wymond de Gois d'Avranches, the uncle of Richard d'Avranches, lord of Creully, was the father of William d'Avranches, Lord of Okehampton, stated to be a cousin of Richard d'Avranches by Orderic Vitalis, who married Emma FitzGilbert de Brionne, daughter of Baldwin FitzGilbert de Brionne de Meules and Albreda le Gois d'Avranches, daughter of the above mentioned Osmond de Conteville. [Emma's brother was Richard FitzBaldwin de Redvers, who married Adelise de Peverel]. Their children were: 1. Lesceline d'Avranches, who married William Paynel, lord of Moutiers, near Lisieux. Their son Raoul Paynel, Sheriff of Yorkshire, was a man of Ilbert de Lacey, and held Fresne, near Sourdreval, under Richard de Sourdeval, of the Count of Mortain. 2. Robert d' Avranches, who married, firstly, a daughter of Gelduin de Dol, and, secondly, Maud de Monville, daughter of William d'Arques and Beatrix Malet, daughter of of William Malet and Hesilia Crispin. By the lady of Dol, Robert d'Avranches was the father of Maude d'Avranches, who married William de Courci. By Maud de Monville, Richard was the father of William d'Avranches, who held of William d'Arques in Kent. By either lady, Richard was the father of Denise d'Avranches, who married Hasculphe de Subligny, who held under the Count of Mortain. Subligny is near Saint-Jean-le-Thomas, from where the family of St. John originated. The families of St. John, de la Haye, and Paynel were three of a dozen or so ruling families, mostly related to him, that William the Conqueror empowered to govern England [John Le Patourel, Michael Jones, Fedal Empires, p. 28, 1984]. It would seem to reasonably follow that the St. Johns shared some common ancestry with the family of de la Haye, as evidenced by the marriage of Cecily de la Haye and Roger St. John; another example of marriage within the same elitist kinship network. Shared ancestry is suggested in the following text: 'Ce Guillaume avait épousé Olive, fille de Raoul de Fougères, n.b. origine Bretagne, [who lived] près d'Orval, dans le château d'un la Haie. [Aureavalle par Orville, nom qui appartient au diocèse de Lisieux]. Il en eut un fils, Thomas de Saint-Jean, qui posséda en Angleterre des biens dont le chef-lieu était à Stanton Saint-John dans le comté d'Oxford. Il eut deux fils, Roger et Thomas. Roger de Saint-Jean épousa Cecile, fille et héritière de Robert de la Haie' [MSAN, pp. 95-6, 1828]. These families witnessed acts of Lessay: 'Nous avons vu ces trois familles, de la Haie, Saint-Jean et Orval, figurer ensemble dans un acte confirmatif de la fondation de Lessay [ibid.].
DA LA HAYE: 1. Robert de la Haye m. Muriel of Lincoln. 2. Cecily de la Haye m. Roger St. John. 3. Muriel St. John m. Reginald d'Orval. 4. Mabel de Orval m. Adam de Porte.* 5. William de Porte** alias St. John m. Godchelda de Paynel [Mon. Ang. i., pp. 594-596]. *He was closely connected to the family of Braose: Adam de Porte married, firstly, Sybilla de Newmarche, daughter of Bernard de Newmarche, and relict of Milo, Earl of Hereford. By this wife, he was the father of Bertha de Newmarche, who married William de Braose II., as shown in a charter charter of Sele [Mon. i. 589]. His second wife was Maud d'Orval, as stated, and his third wife was a sister of the same William de Braose [Gesta regis Henrici Secundi Benedicti abbatis]. The family of Porte witnessed charters of the Fraxineto family, see anon, who were also closely connected to the family of Braose: Osborn de Crepon, married Emma, daughter of Rodulf, Count of Ivry, half-brother of Duke Richard. The son of Rodulf was Hugh, Bishop of Bayeux. His daughter was Gunnora d'Ivry. She was the mother of William de Braose I. [Depoin, Cart. St. Martin]. On taking the veil, she gifted lands to Sanct. Trin., with the permission of Hugh "Pincerna" d'Ivry, fl. 1066/7, who was obviously a close relative. Hugh "Pincerna" d'Ivry came from Ivry-la-Bataille, Evreux, canton Saint-Andre. This was also the domain of Odo Radulphus de Fraxineto. Whatever the relationship between the families of Braose and Fraxineto, it was evidently a very close and familial one. Odo Radulphus de Fraxineto witnessed numerous Braose charters, often as principal witness. He witnessed a charter of William II. de Braose, as 'Radulphus de St. Andre' [Cart. Blanc, f. xix.]. This clearly identifies him with the family of Fresnay [Fraxineto par Le Prevost] of canton St. Andre, near Briouze, arr. Evreux. Other charters determine his origin; Cart. Sanct. Vincentii - he made a gift for the souls of his father and ancestors 'whether in Normandie or Maine.' Odo Rufus de Fraxineto also went under the name Odo Rufus de Fraxinivilla, who also held in Fresne-Camilly, canton Creully. Odo was a possible ancestor of the Freigne family of Kilkenny: 'The Freigne family originally came from Fresnay near Briouze. The first time Fulk de Freigne is mentioned in the Ormond Deeds, c. 1305, is as a witness to a grant of Richard de Fraxineto' [Fr. John Clyn,The Annals of Ireland, p'58, 2007]. ** His donations to Boxgrove were witnessed by Geoffrey de Peverel.
THE RIE FAMILY OF PREAUX: Hubert de Rie came from Rie near Bayeux, Calvados. He was a companion of William I and he saved William's life in 1047 His father was Odo FitzGeoffroi, seigneur de Preaux, who gave the church of Rie to the abbey of Fecamp, and Odo's father was Geoffroi de Rie who lived around 980. It can be noted that Geoffroi was of the same generation as Humhrey de Vieilles, founder of the Abbey of Preaux, and it can not be discounted that he was of the same family. Hubert de Rie had four sons: 1. Ralph, who, like Adam and Eudo., was generally called Fitz Hubert, was Castellan of Nottingham, and held land in Leicester, Stafford, Nottingham, and Lincoln; but the head of his great barony was Crich in Derbyshire. The successors of Ralph fitz Hubert were: a. Odo Fitz-Ralph, alias Eudo de Boney, who was dead by 1129/30 when his heir was his son Ralph [ob. ante 1164]. Ralph was doubtless also father of Matilda, second wife of Edward of Salisbury. Their son, Edward of Salisbury the younger, inherited none of his father’s lands but held some in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire of the fee of Ralph Fitz- Hubert of Crich. Edward the younger married Adelicia, daughter and Norman heiress of Roger of Raimes. Their daughter Leonia, wife of Robert de Stuteville of Valmont, subsequently inherited half the barony of Crick [Fees, 183]. b. Hubert Fitz-Ralph, who married to Edelina, daughter of William Fitz-Ralph, seneschal of Normandy; who died about 3 Hen. III., and left two daughters. Juliana, the eldest, married Ansgar de Frisca-Villa, or Frecheville, a name that may have derived from Francheville [Mark Antony Lower, Patronymica Britannica, p. 120, 1860], from which the names Freynsh, Fraynsh, Frainche, Freinche, Freinch, Frenshe, and Frensch also seem to stem. From Hubert Fitz-Ralph by other issue descended the Beaumonts of Devon and Leicester ['The Norman People.' p. 153]. The Francheville family can be traced to Arfast de Crepon, brother of Gunnor, wife of Duke Richard I. Arfast had a son called Osborn, who became seneschal to Duke Robert. To repeat: He married Emma, daughter of Rudolf, Count of Ivry, half-brother of Duke Richard, and received the Honour of Breteuil. Their son was William Fitz-Osborn, Earl of Hereford, who founded Francheville on the Isle of Wight, named after his fief in Breteuil. He married Adeliza de Tosny, daughter of Roger I. de Tosny [David C. Douglas, "The Ancestors of William Fitz Osbern," English Historical Review, 59 (1944), 62-79]. Their son was Guillaume, 'Guillelmus fillius Guillelmi' [Chronicon Lyrensis], who married Adeline Montfort-sur-Risle; her kinsman, Hugh de Montfort-sur-Risle, gifted jointly with Guillaume de Francheville [Henry Richards Luard, Annales Monastici, lxiv., 1886], suggesting the Franchevilles were a cadet of the family of Breteuil. The sister of 'Guillelmus fillius Guillelmi', Emma, was the grandmother of Amicia de Gael, who married Robert de Beaumont, Earl of Leicestershire. 2. Hubert, the next brother, founded another baronial family, which proved of even briefer duration. He held the Honour of Hingham in Norfolk, comprising thirty-five knights' fees, and succeeded Ralph Guader as Castellan of Norwich in 1074. His wife, Agnes de Tosny,*a daughter of the first Baron of Belvoir, had been the richly-dowered widow of one of the de Beaufous, and brought him several other manors in the county. 3. Adam, the third son, held considerable estates in Kent under Bishop Odo, and was one of the compilers of Domesday Book. Little is known of him, and nothing of his descendants, except that a Robert de Rie of Kent, presumably one of them, is mentioned in the Pipe Roll of 1189. 4. Eudo, sire of Preaux, generally styled Eudo Dapifer, the last born, married Rohaise de Clare; their daughter, Margaret, married William de Mandeville; their son being Geoffrey de Mandeville, Earl of Essex.
*AGNES DE TOSNI: 'Agnes de Toteneio' confirmed the gift of her mother and father of a bovate of land in 'Asclakheby' to Belvoir priory [Mon. Angl. III: 290, Num. VII., 3]. As Agnes de Beaupre, she gave the church and manor of Aldeby to the monks of Norwich [William Page, ed., "Victoria County History of Norfolk, Vol. II, p. 328, 1906].'Hubert de Ria assigned the tithe of his estates at Hockering, Swanton, Deopham, Buxton and Markshall, and Agnes de Bellofago, his wife, gave the church and manor of Aldeby' [Dodwell, Charters of Norwich Cathedral Priory, vol. i, no. xx.]. She had married, firstly, Ralph de Beaufou. Her father was 'Robertus de Belvedeir', founder of Belvoir priory with his wife, ca. 1085 [Mon. Angl. III: 288-9, vol. i., no. iii.]. Her mother was Adelaise [K.S.B. Keats-Rohan, 'Belvoir: The Heirs of Robert and Berengar de Tosny,' Prosopon, no. xix., July 1998]. Agnes had two sisters: Alberada (<1129), m. Robert de Insula, and Adeliza (>1135), m. Roger le Bigod, who possessed Framlingham as a result [Regesta, ii, no. 1495; Rutland MSS, iv, p. 144].
RICHARD TURSTIN: He was also known as Halduc ou Haldup. He founded Lessay: 'L'abbaye de Lessay est fondée en 1056 (ou 1064) par Richard Turstin Haldup et sa femme Anna [Charte de fondation [Arch. dép. Manche, H 4601]. Their son, Raoul de la Haye, alias Radulph or Ranulph ['Radus de Haia 2 mil. et dim. de honore de Plessis, et 1 mil. de honore de Mort. de feodo de Criensiis, et ad servit. suum 6 mil. et dim. in Constant' - RBE], sénéchal du comte de Mortain, married Olive de Rye, daughter of Hubert de Rye and the above mentioned Agnes de Tosni. Raoul de la Haye and Olive de Rye were the parents of Robert, baron de la Haye-du-Puits [Éric Van Torhoudt, L’écrit et la justice au Mont Saint-Michel: les notices narratives, vers 1060-1150, 2007], who married Muriel de Lincoln. Their son was Richard, baron de la Haye-du-Puits et de Varenquebec. The barony was to later pass to the descendant of the Crispin family of Neaufles, direct decendants of Hrolf Turstain. Richard Turstin: Baron de La Haye du Puits et le Plessis [Fresne] et Appeville: A clue to his origins is given in the latter holding: The family of Appeville were the family of Montfort-sur-Rille; 'La famille d'Appeville doit tirer son origine de l'une des trois paroisses de ce nom, situées en Normandie, 1° Appeville [depuis Annebaut], canton de Montfort-sur-Rille, arrondissement de Pont-Audemer(Eure); — 2° Appeville* [Seine-Inférieure], arrondissement de Dieppe, canton d'Offranville; — 3° Appeville-la-Haye [Manche], arrondissement de Coutances, canton de la Haye-du-Puits' ['Liber censualis', p. 191, 1842]. Ansrid I., as above, was the father of Hugh de Montfort-sur-Risle [brother of Anceline Bertrande, from whom stemmed the Harcourts]; his son was Hugh II. de Montfort-sur-Risle, who married, as said, Alice de Beaufou. Richard Turstin was contemporary to him, and inherited Appeville-la-Haye: 'Seigneurs de la paroisse d'Appeville, canton de la Haye-du-Puits, dans la Manche, la charte de fondation de l'abbaye de Lessay, nous apprend que Turstin Hadulp, ainsi que son fils Eudes, donnèrent à ce monastère, tout ce qu'ils possédaient tant en églises qu'en terres, bois, prairies , etc. en Apavilla et en Osulfivilla' [ibid.].The latter holding can be assumed to have been that of Osulf, father of Grimoult du Plessis, strongly suggesting a connection between Richard Turstin's wife, Emma, and the family of Plessis - see ch. xiv. b. * A tenant there was William d'Arques.
BRANCHE CADET D'ORVAL: 'The fief of Ollonde extended into the parish of Ourville, and had with it been comprised in the Honour of Plessis, of which Richard who was called Turstin and surnamed Haldup, with Anna his wife, and Eudo their son, appear as owners in acts of date antecedent to the conquest of England; and when they founded the abbey of L'Essay, that part which they had in Ourville and Averville and in the other mesnils, which belonged to Ourville, was made parcel of the endowment. The same Abbey had also of their gift in the vill called La Fevrerie [Favilleria], the part which Adelais de Balte [Baupte] had held; and this lady, probably sister of Turstin, may have been identical with Adelaidis, wife of Geoffrey de Magneville [Mandeville], tenant of an extensive fief in England at the time of the Survey made by William the Conqueror' [Magni rotuli Scaccarii Normanniae sub regibus clxxxviii].
DESCENDANTS OF MALAHULE [HALDUC] OF MORE; see ch. xiv. a:
1. Raoul III de Tosny, or de Conches, lord of Flamstead, m. Isabel de Montfort.
1.1. Roger II de Tosny.
1.2. Raoul IV de Tosny m. Alice of Northumberland.
1.2.1. Roger III. de Tosny m. Ida of Hainaut.
18.104.22.168. Raoul V de Tosny m. Marguerite de Beaumont, dau. of Robert of Leicestershire.
22.214.171.124.1. Roger IV de Tosny* of Flamstead m. Constance de Beaumont.**
126.96.36.199.1.1. Raoul VI de Tosny m. Pernel de Lacy, dau. of Margaret de Braose.
188.8.131.52.1.2. Guillaume de Tosny*** m. Hayes de Fraxino**** [Fresne].
*A frequent witness in England of his was William de Fresne [BN. ms. lat 12777].
** Roscelin de Beaumont, Viscount of Maine, m. Constance, illegitimate daughter of Henry I. Their son was Richard I de Beaumont, Viscount of Maine, Seigneur of Beaumont-le-Vicomte, Fresnaye, and St. Suzanne. He m. ....... de l'Aigle. Their daughter was Constance de Beaumont.
*** Alias de Conches; gave land in St. Foi as marriage gift, owned by Roger IV de Tosny.
**** Daughter of Raoul de Fraxino [Fresne/Fresnaye], son of the above William de Fresne, the grandson of Odo Rufus Fraxineto.
'En février 1230, Guillaume de Conches, doyen de Mortain, donne à Hayse, femme de Raoul de Fraxino, en augmentation de son mariage sa maison de pierre avec le terrain ou elle est bâtie dans la paroisse Sainte-Foi de Conches. Témoins: Eudes de Bailleul, châtelain de Conches; Guillaume de Minières, Mathieu de Pommerelle, Simon de Furnelles, Roger de Berville, Mathieu de Portes,* Robert Dagon, Henri de Collerville, chevaliers; Albin Potin, Richard de Portes,* Robert de Busdie [par Prevost, cart. d'Artois].
* The family of Portes were a cadet of the Tosny family; they held the Castle of Portes in the Tosny caput of Conches.
* The family of Fresne/Fresnay also held in Bretagne: à Reminiac, Guër, Corseul, Dinan, Languenan, et Plancohet, and in Maine.
xi. THE CRISPINS
One of Crispin's and Heloise's sons was Gilbert Crispin I., 985-1045, 'who because of the shape of his hair was to be known as Crispin. For in his early youth he had hair that was brush-like and stiff and sticking out, and in a manner of speaking bristling like the needles of a pine tree. This gave him the name of Crispin, from 'crispus pinus, 'pine hair'. Gilbert Crispin I. was also noted by Milo Crispin as being 'of renowned origin and nobility' [Milo Crispin, How The Holy Virgin Appeared To William Crispin The Elder And On The Origin Of The Crispin Family, ed. Migne, cols. 735-744, 1856]. Duke Robert I. established Gilbert Crispin at Tillières to defend this important border castle for him.
Gilbert married Gunnor d'Anjou, 1000-1090, second cousin, as said, of William the Conqueror. Gunnor d'Anjou was the daughter of Baldric the Teuton, 969-1035, Lord of Bacqueville-en-Caux, great-grandson of Robert de Vermandois, and Alix de Brionne, 975-1045, niece of Gilbert de Brionne, 989-1040 [W. Pickering, Histories of Noble British Families, vol.ii. 1846]. By present-day standards, it might seem unusual that a niece is so much older than her uncle, but such chronologies were by no means rare in the societies under question, wherein marriages between very young girls and much older men were common.
Baldric the Teuton, together with his brother Wigere, were allies of the Dukes of Normandy. They were the sons of Wigelius de Courci, the son of Adelaide de Vermandois, 933-975, Crispin de Bec's cousin, and Charles, Duke of Lorraine, who was the son of Charles III, King of France. Adelaide de Vermandois was the daughter of Adelaide, Countess of Burgundy, 914-967, and the aforementioned Count Robert of Vermandois, 911-968.
Marriages did not just happen. They were, as said repeatedly, almost invariably the result of previous family connections. So, when Crispin de Bec married Heloise de Guines, he was reinforcing such ties; as was the case when Gilbert Crispin married Gunnora d'Anjou, his close kinswoman.
Baldric the Teuton and Alix de Brionne also had issue a number of renowned sons, all of whom the Conqueror assisted to prosper:
1. Nicholas de Bacqueville. He succeeded to his father's fief of Bacqueville-en-Caux. He married a niece of the Duchess Gunor. He was the father of William de Martel, Lord of Bacqueville, whose descendants in France bore the name Martel. That this was the case is shown by his grandson, also named William Martel, in 1133, granting to the Abbey of Tyron, 'by and with the consent of Albreda his wife, Eudo his brother, and Geoffrey and Roger his sons, all his right and title to the Priory of St. Mary de Bacqueville.'
2. Fulk d'Aunou, so named from his fief of Aunou le Faucon, arrondissement of Argentan.
3. Robert de Courci, the third son of Baldric the Teuton, assumed the name of de Courci from his inheritance of Courci-sur-Dive, and transmitted it to his immediate descendants. His son, Robert de Courci II., took the title of Baron of Courci, with possession of one of the most important baronies in the duchy, which contained 56 fiefs. Another son, Richard de Courci, married a lady named Guadelmodis, and was the Sire de Courci present at Hastings. For his services he received from the Conqueror the barony of Stoke in the county of Somerset, and the manors of Newnham, Setenden, and Foxcote, in Oxfordshire. At least, he held them at the time of Domesday. He was a great friend of Hugh de Grentemesnil I.; some of their children became related in marriage.
4. Richard de Nevil was the first of the famous name of Nevil, derived from his fief of Neuville-sur-Tocque, in the department of the Orne, canton Gacé. The name and parentage of his wife remains unknown; but it is known that he left four sons, Gilbert, Robert, Richard, and Ralph. Baldric's fifth son was
5. Baldric de Balgenzais, who took his name from lands he held in Bouquency. [Beaugency.]
6. Vigerius de Apulensis, was named after his uncle, and was also called Apulensis, having been born, it is presumed, in Apulia.
Gunnor also had two sisters: Elizabeth, married to Fulk de Boneval, and Hawise, the wife of Erneis Tesson, whose family held Thury Harcourt in 1047, suggesting that they were a cadet of the Harcourt family.
Gilbert and Gunnor had issue, cousins to many of the nobility of Normandy, and cousins once removed of William the Conqueror:
1. Gilbert Crispin 11., 1016-1078, Castellan of Tillières, who distinguished himself at the Battle of Hastings, jointly leading a large company with Henry de Ferrers.
2. William Crispin I., 1018-1077, who died in Abbot Herluin's time, and was Vicomte of the Vexin [Milo Crispin, ibid].
3. Robert Crispin, 1020-1071, 'the youngest brother, having left Normandy wandered through many provinces until he arrived at Constantinople where he was welcomed with honour by the Emperor and made a name for himself with all, and where also, as is said, died of poison due to the envy of the Greeks' [Milo Crispin, ibid]. Robert Crispin, alias Frankopoulos, was a Norman mercenary. He was the leader of a band of his countrymen, stationed at Edessa, under the command of the Byzantine general, Isaac Komnenos, Duke of Antioch. He fought against the invading Seljuk Turks, and was poisoned shortly after the Battle of Manzikert [C. Gravett, and D. Nicolle, The Normans: Warrior Knights and their Castles, 2006]. Robert did not choose a roving life - 'Robert du Bec-Crespin, expulsé de la Normandie par Guillaume le Conquérant' [A. T. Barabé , Recherches Historiques, p. 223, 1863].
4. Emma Crispin, 1022-1075, who married Pierre de Condé. Emma's descendants, who bore the name of Condie or Cundet, inherited 'various estates in Lincolnshire' [Memoirs Illustrative of the County and City of Lincolnshire, Archeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, p. 255, 1850]. Through her g.g. grandaughter, Isolda de Bardolph, stems a lineage resulting in Lady Jane Grey, tragic and short-lived Queen of England.
5. Hesilia Crispin, 1025-1080, the wife of her cousin twice removed William Malet, see ch. xii..
They had issue:
1. Robert Malet. [Charter of Henry, Duke of Normandy, and Comte Anjou, dated at Devizes in 1152]. This granted to Ranulf, Earl of Chester, 'totum honorem de Eia, sicut Robertus Malet avunculus matris suae melius et plenius unquam tenuit. Et foeudum Alani de Lincalia ei decli quit fuit avunculus matris suae, et foedum Ernisii de Burun sicut hereditatem.' Alani de Lincalia, alias Alan of Lincoln, may have been the son of Hesilia Crispin by a second husband. Ranulph, Earl of Chester, and Alan of Lincoln, were recognised as being of the expansive Crispin lineage [Rot. Magn. Scacc., 31 Hen. I]. It may also be fairly assumed that Ernisii de Buron, alias Erneis de Buron, would not have been foedum hereditatem without also having a familial relationship.
2. Gilbert Malet, whose son was William Malet II. [Two Cartularies of the Benedictine Abbeys of Muchelney and Athelney, ed. E.H. Bates, Somerset Rec. Soc. 14, 1899: see Subsidiary Indices i., ii].
3. Beatrix Malet, who married William, Vicomte Arques, and had issue: Emma d'Arques, who married  Nigel de Monville - they founded Folkestone Priory -  Manasser, Count of Guines [Vivien Brown, Eye Priory Cartulary, p. 6, 1992]. It can be noted that Robert Malet was involved in the continuing defense of York from insurgent attack: He held the manor of Bishopthorpe in York. Sheriff Erneis de Buron held nearby Copmanthorpe. It may be of further interest to note that Robert Malet founded the Priory of Eye in 1089, as a sister-house of the Abbey of Bernay. Bernay was, as noted, a stronghold of the Crispin family, with Gibert Crispin I. witnessing the Abbey of Bernay's foundation charter in 1025 [Fauroux, Recueil, no. 35].
4. Lucy Malet. She was the wife of Ivo de Tailbois. In a charter of her husband, dated 1085, she gave the church of Spalding to the Priory of St. Nicholas of Angers. Ivo de Tailbois, obit. 1114, was buried in the Priory Church of Spalding. [Memoires Illustrative of the County and City of Lincoln, Arch. Inst. GB&I, 1848.] 'A strong confirmationof of the consanguinity of Lucy to the house of Malet is the circumatances that the manor of Aulkborough, co. Lincoln, belonging to Ivo de Tailbois at the Domesday survey, had previously belonged to William Malet; and the severance of it from the barony of his son can only be explained by a gift in frank-marriage by the father in his lifetime.' [J. Gough Nichols, The Topographer and Genealogist, p. 15, 1846.] Lucy Malet and Ivo de Tailbois had issue: Beatrix de Tailbois, who married Ribald of Middleham, brother of Alan, Earl of Richmond. Matilda de Tailbois, wife of Hugh Fitz-Ranulph, brother of Ranulph, Earl of Chester. Lucy de Tailbois, Countess of Chester, who m.  Roger de Romara,  the aforementioned Ranulph, Earl of Chester. Issue by Roger de Romara: William, Earl of Lincoln. Issue by Ranulph, Earl of Chester: Ranulph de Gernons, Earl of Chester, who in 1152, as shown above, obtained the inheritance of two 'uncles of his mother', namely Robert Malet and Alan de Lincoln. He was poisoned to death in the following year by William Peverell III., who had designs on the Earl's wife! The result was a forfeitsure of the Peverell estates to the Crown. William, Earl of Cambridge. Alice, wife of Richard Fitz-Gilbert, descendant of the aforementioned Gilbert de Brionne, ancestor of the Clares, Earls of Gloucester and Hertford. Agnes, the wife of Robert de Grentemesnil.
William Crispin I., the middle brother, was 'of outstanding manners, the best known of all; with military fame he rose above almost all his contemporaries. His famous prowess made many envious. William, duke of the Normans, called William Crispin to the castle of Neaufles and gave him, and his son after him, the castle and the vicomte of the Vexin. There William established his home to ward off French invasions. He revisited, however, the land he held elsewhwere in Normandy in the district of Lisieux.' [Milo Crispin, ibid.]
'The Norman and French forces met at Mortemer [before Lent, 6 Feb., 1054]. The Normans were led by Count Robert of Eu assisted by Hugh of Gournay, Hugh of Montfort, Walter Giffard, William Crispin, Roger of Mortemer .... There at dawn battle was instantly joined and continued on both sides with bloodshed until noon. Finally, the defeated French took to flight including their standard-bearer, Odo, the King's brother. In this battle, the greater part of the French nobility was slain; the remainder were kept in custody throughout various Norman villages.' [Excerpt from Obert, Count of Eu. By his wife, Countess Lescelina.]William Crispin I. also fought on the side of the Norman dukes against fellow Normans in the Norman Civil War that followed the succession of William The Conqueror, whose lowly birth was used by some as an excuse to try to usurp his power. Those leading the rebellion included Neil II. de Saint Saveur, g.g. grandson of Malahule of More.
The military prowess of the Crispins was well esteemed: 'And like the Fabii, or the Anicii or Manlii, carried the tokens of fame [insignia] among the Romans, so the Crispins knew even greater fame among the Normans and the French.' Milo Crispin, ibid. William Crispin I. had a wife named Eve de Montfort, 1009-1099, 'who suited him well on account of her origin and manners. Eve de Montfort bore him Gilbert, abbot of Westminster, William Crispin II., and many others.' [Milo Crispin, ibid.] Eve de Montfort died in a fire at Le Bec in 1099, aged 90, and was buried there, next to her husband. It is recorded of her that she had to do penance for her love of lapdogs! [Adolphe Porée, Histoire de L'Abbaye du Bec, 1901.] Eve de Montfort was the sister of Norman frontier lord Simon de Montfort, 1020-1087. [W. Frolich, trsl., The Letters of Anselme of Canterbury, 1990-1994, nos. 22, 98, 118, and 147.] They were the children of Amauri 1 de Montfort, 993-4/2/1031, and Bertrade de Gometz, 994-1051. Amauri 1 de Montfort was the possible son of William de Hainault, 967-1003. [Marjorie Chibnall, ed. & trans., The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, 1969-80.] There was an existing close association between the families of Hainault and Crispin, in that William de Hainault was a direct descendant of Baldwin I., Count of Flanders. William Crispin I. and Eve de Montfort, as said, were the parents of William Crispin II., 1050-1133, Vicomte of the Vexin. He is reported in some accounts as being present at the Battle of Hastings, 1066, as a young squire. He was alive in 1132, being noted in charters as holding Colleville as tenant of Ranulph of Chester, his distant kinsman.
He was an Anglo-Norman lord who held land in Wetherby, Wheldrake, Coxwold, and Goodmanham in Yorkshire, and in Ancroft in Northumberland, as mesne-tenant of William de Percy. Goodmanham [Godmundin] is a small village situated 2 miles to the north-east of Market Weighton. It was the main pagan site of worship in the north of England, housing the Temple of Delgovine - the place of God's image - dedicated to Odin.William Crispin 11. also held land, principally, in Normandy: 'William Crispin the younger gave the tithe of the mill and of his desmene which he had in Le Mesnil-Hubert, the church and tithe of Druicort, what Robert Malcovernant held of him, one house in Livarot with all its customs, half of the church and tithe of Bournainville.' [David Bates, ed., Regum Anglo-Normannorum, the Acta of William I, 1066-1087, 1998.]
According to Mathieu - Reserches Sur Les Premiers Comtes De Dammartin, 19, 60, 1996. - a probable wife of William Crispin 11. was Agnes Mauvoisin, 1065-1140, who was the daughter of Eustachia Dammartin. She was the daughter of Manasser, Count of Dammartin, 1000-1037, and Constance Capetien, 1010-1067, daughter of Robert II., 972-1031, King of France. She married Raoul Mauvoisin, Seigneur of Rosny, and Viscount of Mantes. He was a part of the Hastings invasion force, before becoming a monk at Gassicourt, dying in 1074. An act of Agnes, daughter of Eustachia, daughter of Count Manasser, granted tithes at Rosny 'for the souls of her mother and husband, William.' The association of Rosny and the name Manasser strongly suggests a connection with the Mauvoisins of Rosny. The Mauvoisins were the most powerful family in the marches of Francia, between Vernon and Mantes. Eustachia Dammartin's brother, Hugh II. de Dammartin, 1034-1103, married Rohesia de Clare, 1055-1121, daughter of Richard Fitzgilbert, 1030-1090, and Rohese Giffard, 1040-1135. Richard Fitzgilbert was a direct descendant of Gilbert de Brionne. See ch.ix. [Michael Altschul, ibid.]
8 Hrolf Turstain 885-962 m. Gerlotte de Blois 890-950.
9 Guillaume de Bec 918-1000 m. Bertha de Vermandois 920-990.
10 Crispin de Bec 945-1010 m. Heloise of Guines 958-1015.
11 Gilbert Crispin I. 985-1045 m. Gunnor d'Anjou 1000-1090.
12 William Crispin I. 1018-1084 m. Eve de Montfort 1009-1099.
13 Wlliam Crispin II. 1050-1133 m. Agnes Mauvoisin 1065-1140.
Emperor Charlmagne 747-814 m.  Hildegarde of Vinzgau 757-783.
Emperor Louis I. 778-840 m.  Ermengarde Haysbe 778-818.
Adelaide de Tours 824-866 m. Robert The Strong Count of Anjou 820-866.
Robert I. King of West Francia 860-923 m.  Aelis g.g.g. grandaughter Charlmagne.
Adele de France 895-931 m. Herbert II. Count of Vermandois 884-943.
Robert de Vermandois 911-968 m. Adelaide Countess of Burgundy 914-967.
Adelaide de Vermandois 933-975 m. Charles Duke of Lorraine 918-962.
Wigelius de Courcie 950-1000 m. Emma de Roucy 952-1010.
Baldric the Teuton 969-1035 m. Alix de Brionne 975-1045.
Gunnor d'Anjou 1000-1090 m. Gilbert Crispin 1 985-1045.
* Milo Crispin was in all probability one of the many others he wrote about. [Judith A. Green, Lords of the Norman Vexin, 1989.] He married Maud d' Oilley, daughter of Robert d' Oilley, a companion of the Conqueror, 1st Castellan of Oxford, and the daughter and heir of the Saxon Wigot of Wallingford, a kinsman of King Edward. Their ancestors, due to Saxon mispronounciation of Ouille, were the Wells of Essex, Dorset, and Somerset. [Raphael Holinshed, Chronicle of England, Scotland, and Irelande, 1577.] The probable daughter of Milo Crispin and Maud d'Oilley was Matilda de Wallingford, who married Brian Fitzcount, 1100-1153, illigitimate son of Alan Fergant, Count of Brittany; a great favourite of Henry I., and supporter of Matilda against Stephen.
* Eve de Montfort's niece, Bertrade de Montfort, 1059-14/2/1117, daughter of Simon de Montfort and Agnes d'Evreux, 1030-1087, William Crispin's second cousin, married Fulke d'Anjou IV., 1033-14/4/1109, Count of Anjou. Fulke d'Anjou IV and Bertrade de Montfort were the great-granparents of King Henry II of England. [Vernon M. Norr, compiler, Some Early English Pedigrees, 1958-1968.]
* William Crispin II. also held other land in Yorkshire: in Arnodestorp, Burnby, Clifton, Dunnington, Easthorpe in Londesborough, Elvington, Fyling, Grimston in Dunnington, Hayton, Hinderwell, Ianulfestrop, Kirkleatham, Kipling, Marshe-by-the-Sea, Nafferton, Pockthorpe, Scoreby, Sutton upon Derwent, and Warter. [Domesday Book, folio 322v.]
xii. FROM CRISPIN TO COLLEVILLE
It became the custom of Norman landowners to change their name to that of the new lands they acquired. It was not always a case of a complete change of name, though, for, in many cases, families simply acquired an additional name. In fact, many poweful families had quite a stock of names, and would use any one of them at the same time. This was even more confusing after The Norman Conquest, when families used both their Norman and English names to signify their various landholdings. We have already mentioned that the Crispin family were entrusted with the fortresses of Tillières and Neaufles. They soon gained substantial property in surrounding lands, including the border castle of Damville, and land in Colleville-sur-Mer, situated close to Graville-Sainte-Honorine, the centre of Malet power in Normandy. This latter acquisition being granted to them after the Battle of Mortemer, 1054. They held Colleville as tenants of William Malet, Sire de Graville, who came from Graville-Sainte-Honorine, between Le Havre and Harfleur. He was probably descended from Gerard, a Scandinavian prince, and companion of Duke Rollo, who gave his name to the fief of Gerardville, or Graville, near Le Havre. n.b. Like the Crispins, William Malet was of the ducal family of Normandy, being a grandson of Aethelred II of England, 968-1016, and Emma of Normandy, 980-1052.
Emma was the daughter of Richard I of Normandy, and sister of Godfrey de Brionne and Duke Richard II., and, thus, was great-aunt of William the Conqueror. In 1002, she became King Aethelred's second wife, thereby creating the dynastic link between England and Normandy, which, in part, was the pretext for the Norman invasion of England in 1066. n.b. Emma's sister, Maud of Normandy, married Count Odo II. of Blois. In 1013, Emma and Ethelred were forced to flee to Normandy after the country was invaded by Swein Haralsson, the king of Norway. After the death of Aethelred The Unready, in 1016, the throne of England passed to Canute the Great of Denmark. The new king married Emma of Normandy, and the couple had a son, Hardicanute. After Hardicanute died, in 1042, Edward the Confessor, son of Aethelred and Emma, became king. Like his mother, Edward was Norman by culture, association, and inclination.
After the Battle of Hastings, 1066, because of his Saxon connection, Duke William entrusted William Malet to attend to the burial of the dead English king. According to some accounts, the body was buried under a pile of stones on top of a cliff at Hastings that overlooked the sea. William placed a stone on the grave with the epitaph: 'By command of the Duke, you rest here a King, O Harold, that you may be guardian still of the shore and sea.' Harold's body was later re-buried at Harold's Abbey at Waltham. [W. P. Foreville, Histoire de Guillaume le Conquerant, 1952.]
The Malet Castle at Graville-Sainte-Honorine had an important strategic location, at the mouth of the Seine. The territorial associations in Normandy, between various families and the Malets, were continued in England after the Conquest. The Suffolk tenements which Gilbert Crispin held of Robert Malet, his nephew, are still called Carlton Colville and Weston Colville. Gilbert Crispin II. and William Crispin I. acquired the name Colleville [Colville] from their Norman tenantship of Colleville. In the lists published of the Companions of Duke William, the brothers Gilbert and William are sometimes surnamed Crispin, sometimes de Colleville, and sometimes appear under both surnames on the same list. It can be noted that the tenurial relationship between the Crispins and the Malets was not one sided - Robert Malet held land of Gilbert Crispin in Normandy at Le Mesnil-Josselin.
n.b. Other tenants of William Malet also accompanied him to England - [David C. Douglas, William the Conqueror: The Norman Impact upon England, 1967] - such as Walter Claville, who seems to have acquired holdings in Suffolk and Devon under William's son, Robert Malet. His home domain in Normandy was at Claville-en-Caux, in the Seine-Maritime region. It is important to make the distinction between people who took their name from Colleville and those whose name can be traced to other communes of Rouen. Colleville is situated in the canton of Valmont. It is distinct from other such communes as Cléville, canton Fauville-en-Caux, Cleuville, canton Ourville-en-Caux, Claville, canton Cleres, Cailleville, canton Caux, and Cauville, canton Montvilliers. It is often wrongly stated that people whose names derive from these communes originated in Colleville, with scribes simply misspelling Colleville in a multitude of ways. This is not the case. Walter Claville would have certainly known the Crispin brothers, but it is equally certain that he and others from communes other than Colleville were not of their direct family, as other examples may illustrate: The family which held lands at Cleuville were the Tailbois [Talebot], ancestors of the Talbot family. Hugh and Richard Talebot were companions of Duke William, and received much land in Herefordshire, and other parts of England and Wales, after 1066. [G. Andrews Moriarty, Royal Descent of a New England Settler, 1925.] Thus, any family who settled in England, after 1066, with the name Cleuville, were either a branch of the Talebot family, or a family who were their tenants in Cleuville. Likewise, the family of du Hommet, hereditary Constables of Normandy, held land at Cléville, as mesne tenants of Roger de Beaumont, Lord of Hommet, and a branch of that family, or a family who were their tenants, settled in Devon after the Conquest, calling themselves Cleville, or some near variation, after the land they held in the Seine-Maritime region. The Essex Review, An Illustrated Quarterly Record of Everything of Permanent Interest in the County, various eds., p. 118, 1957, strongly makes the point that the Clovilles of Essex were synonomous with the family of Cleville. Early charters record a William de Cleville holding land in the County in 1115. He would appear to have been the son or grandson of 'un Sire de Cléville' who fought at Hastings. [Joseph Prudent Bunel, Géographie du départment de la Seine-Inférieure, p. 169, 1857.] Cailleville was held by the family of de Harcourt, who were, as previously shown, closely related to the Crispin family. [Sir Maurice Powicke, The Loss of Normandy 1189-1204: Studies in the History of the Angevin Empire, 1913.]
On another subject requiring clarifcation, the origin of the name Colleville is often wrongly given. In the 10th. Century, it was known as Koli Villa, signifying that it was a settlement of a Danish chieftain named Koli. His name also survives in places such as Kolby in Denmark, Colby in Cumbria, England, and Coleby in Lincolnshire, England. [The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, Ed. Richard Stillwell, 1976.]
xiii. A TIME OF CONQUEST
As stated, William Crispin I., a.k.a. William de Colleville, was, according to a number of lists, a companion of the Conqueror, that is to say, he was primarily a mercenary who fought for Duke William at the Battle of Hastings, in return for promises of land.
In the sense that William de Colleville and his fellow nobles were mercenaries, they were not vassals of the Conqueror, in fact he was as much their vassal as they were his. They were a very formidable economic and military force whose interests had to be taken into account. All subsequent Kings and Queens of England were subject to the interests of this elite, rather like a present-day mafia boss who has to keep enough of his most powerful captains on his side so as not to risk being usurped. Monarchs did not make any decisions in their own right. They were the most public face of a ruling elite. If William Malet was a captain in this scheme of things, then his tenant in his Yorkshire desmesnes, William Colleville, was a lieutenant, much involved in the enforcement of the new order. Future centuries witnessed monarchs and Parliament as smoke-screens for the rule of factions of nobles. William de Colleville's son, William Crispin 11., lived in a harsh world. He was, as said, Lord of Colleville, held from Ranulph of Chester, Bishop of Bayeux. His English land ownings were on the northern frontier of Norman power. They had subdued the south and east relatively easily, but the north rose in rebellion, headed by Edgar the Atheling, whose forces attacked York in 1069. It was only by the arrival of King William that the City was saved. William Malet was the Sheriff defending York. He had been granted considerable lands in Yorkshire following the building of the first Norman castle there, on the site of Clifford's Tower. Another castle was built on the other side of the river from the original, and the garrison was increased. In September 1069, however, William Malet, his wife Hesilia, and two of their children, were captured, later freed by ransome, by a combined force of Danes and English under Sweyn of Denmark, when York fell to them after a long and bloody fight. When William Malet was relieved of the sheriffdom of York, post 1070, some of his lands in Yorkshire were granted to William de Percy.
William's original intention had been to run England by giving a prominant role to the Anglo-Saxon nobility. Indeed, immediately after the Conquest, there had not been a mass confiscation of land. William's charters of 1068/1069 show there to have been many English landowners, churchmen and royal officials. This policy was thwarted by the actions of those William had tried to help. The English nobility allied themselves with Irish, Welsh, Scots; assortments of Scandinavians, disaffected Normans and French, in a series of revolts, as in the above mentioned assault on York.
The Norman response was the The Harrying of the North, which supposedly had a devastating effect upon the inhabitants north of the Humber. Simon of Durham wrote: 'It was shocking to see the houses, the streets, and highways, human carcases swarming with worms, disolving in putridity and emitting a most horrid stench; nor were there any left alive to cover them with earth, all having perished by sword or famine, or stimulated by hunger had abandoned their native land. During the space of nine years the country lay totally uncultivated. Between York and Durham not a home was inhabited, all was a lonely wilderness, the retreat of wild beasts and robbers and the terror of travelers.'
The above account is the received version of history. That the Domesday Book -1086 - described much of the land north of the Humber as waste is to do with large areas of that region not being under secure Norman control. Norman scribes simply gave an account more pallatable to their masters by describing the north as waste as a result of Norman power. English chroniclers, for their part, describing events after 1066, naturally sought to vilify the Normans. These northern regions had been settled by Scandinavian invaders for centuries, who had escaped the tyrannies of their former homelands and were not easily subjected to any new ones imposed on them. That the Norman invaders were fiercely resisted is shown by the imposition of the Murdrum tax, which levied a fine on an entire community if a Norman was found murdered within their boundary. We can know little of the personality of William Crispin II., other than it must have been to some degree as harsh as the world he lived in. He was, as his father and grandfather before him, a defender of Norman frontier lands, and would of necessity have been accomplished in warfare and maintaining stern discipline among his vassals.
William I. finally abandoned his policy of including the English aristocracy in government in 1075. He had given the earldom of Northumbria to Waltheof in 1072, but, three years later, Waltheof plotted with two of William's barons to overthrow him. William was so disappointed that he had Waltheof executed. This was a painful decision, for William, despite what propagandists of later years said, was opposed in principle to capital punishment. The abandonment of William's policy of inclusion meant that there was not much integration between races at the highest level. With the exception of when it was in their interest to marry a Saxon heiress, the Norman elite continued to marry into their own circle. This was as true for a Colville in England as it was for a de Brus in Scotland. That Hollywood paints a picture of clearly defined nation states taking each other on in battle is also not the stuff of history. Kings of Scotland appeared 'French in race, manners, language, and culture.' [Barnwell Abbey Chronicle, 13th. Century.]
It would be idle, however, to pretend that the English folk were happy under the regime of William the Conqueror. He caused great misery by turning large tracts of cultivated land into hunting forests. His code of punishments were barbarously cruel. Yet it would be equally false to say that the plight of the ordinary Saxon was any worse than what they had been used to. William did not introduce what has been called feudalism to England, a term which was invented by historians to describe a hierarchy of land ownership and associated obligations, and which did not appear in print until 1614. Under this system, the king was at the head as the owner of all the land. He granted large estates to nobles and barons, who were called tenants-in-chief, who were bound by these grants to fight for the king. The tenants-in-chief in their turn granted part of their estates to their followers, who were then called mesne-tenants, i.e. intermediate tenants, who were bound in their turn to obey the tenants-in-chief. Mesne-tenants could regrant part of their estates. And below these classes of free tenants were vast numbers of serfs, who had very small holdings, and had in return for this to work upon the lord's land. In simplest idea it was regular; in practice and working it was confused and disorderly, for men owed all sorts of duties to many different persons. For example, the same man might hold some land from the king, some from the church, and some from a baron.
English society, pre-1066, was also based on a sort of pyramid; from king to slave. Life at the very bottom of the Anglo-Saxon pyramid suggests that the pre-Conquest period was not some golden age of liberty, for, unlike the Normans, the English ruling class engaged in the slave trade. One example of this was them selling their female servants, when pregnant by them, either to public prostitution or to foreign slavery.
* William invaded England at the head of a European army, which, with Pope Hildebrand's blessing, sought to reimpose the tax paid to his church - called Peter's Pence. He fought under a papal banner, and carried into battle a string of papal relics round his neck. However, when becoming King, he refused to give the Pope fealty.
* The conquered Anglo-Saxons were not a nation unified against a foreign foe. Archbishop Wulfstan's Sermon of the Wolf, 1014, tells the story of 'wavering loyalties among men.' He said that 'too often a kinsman does not protect a kinsman any more than a stranger'; that there was 'a heedless acceptance of alien modes of conduct.' Wulfstan's comments concerned the Danish occupancy of much of England and the payment of Danegeld to them, £48,000 in 1012, to not encroach any further. 'But all the insults we often suffer we repay with honouring those who insult us; we pay them continually and they humiliate us daily.'
* Harold Godwinson did not command the support of the majority of the English nobility. The haste in which Harold acted after the Confessor died in claiming the throne indicates the weakness of his position. Other Ealdormen, apart from his brothers, did not attend his coronation. He married the sister of the two most important absentees, Edwin and Morcar, but this did not influence them enough to fight with him. Like Duke William, the men he led at Senlac were almost all mercenaries.
xiv. COXWOLD AND YEARSLEY
William Crispin 11. and Agnes de Mauvoison had six sons:
1. Philip de Colleville, 1083-1163, from whom descended the Lords Colville of Scotland. [E. A. Freeman, The Norman People, pp. 405-406, 1874.] Philip de Colleville's son, Philip de Colville, 1125-1190, accepted an invitation of King Malcolm IV of Scotland to settle in Scotland, and founded the baronies of Culross and Ochiltree. He was witness to a general confirmation by King Malcolm IV. of all donations made by his predecessors to the monastery of Dunfermline before 1159. He was one of the hostages for the release of King William the Lion from captivity in 1174. The first possessions he obtained in Scotland were Heton and Oxenhame, in the county of Roxburgh. He also acquired lands in Ayrshire. His son, Thomas de Colville, 1163-1219, constable of Dumfries Castle, was witness to several charters of King William the Lion between 1189 and 1199. In 1210, being unjustly suspected of a conspiracy against that monarch, he was imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle, but was released in 6 months. By Amabilis, his wife, he had a son, William de Colville, 1202-1263, who granted to the monks of Newbattle the lands hat belonged to his father. He settled in Morham. He was the proprietor of the barony of Kinaird in Stirlingshire, as confirmed by a lease granted by him to the abbot and convent of Holyrood House, dated 15/9/1228. It would seem to have been his daughter, Eustacia, the wife of Sir Reginald Chene, who was, according to Nisbett's Heraldry, 'the heir of the principal house of Colvill.' Sir John de Colevyle - how nearly related we are not informed - held Oxnam [Oxenham] in Roxburghshire, and Uchiltree or Ochiltree in Ayrshire, in the time of Alexander III. [1249-1285]; and his descendants were styled, first of the former, and afterwards of the latter place. In 1449, Sir Richard de Colville set upon James Auchinlech, with whom he had a private feud, and slew him and several of his retainers. Auchinlech had been 'a near friend' to the powerful Earl of Douglas, and the Earl solemnly swore to be revenged. Collecting his followers, he ravaged Colville's lands, laid siege to his castle, captured and plundered it, and put all that it contained - its lord included - to the sword.
2. William Crispin III., 1087-1135, who, in 1119, nearly killed Henry 1 at the Battle of Bremule. He repeatedly fought against Henry I., alongside his cousin, Amaury de Montfort, in his sphere of influence around L'Aigle and Gisors - fortress areas near Neaufles. He also fought with his cousin against the French who sought to usurp Amaury de Montfort's lands. Milo Crispin noted that William Crispin III. admired his grandmother, Eve Crispin, 'with fitting love.' He also records his death in French captivity, and the granting of his wish to be buried at Le Bec, situated between Le Havre and Rouen in the Risle valley. He married Joanna de Trèves, 1100-1157. [Ctl. St. Aubin, ii, no. DCCCCXXXI, 1114.] Their son, Joscelin Crispin, 1120-1185, who held the guardianship of Emma Languetot, and her lands in Huntingdonshire, married Isabella de Dangu, 1125-1180, daughter of Robert de Dangu. [BN, ms. lat. 18369, pp. 55-57.] They had issue: William Crispin IV., vivant en 1223, Baron du Bec-Crespin, who married Eve de Harcourt, daughter of William de Harcourt. [Le Prevost, 11, 6-8, 1862-1869.] Their son was Maréchel] Guillaume Crispin V., vivant en 1225, who married Amice de Roye. [Actes de Philippe Auguste, iii.. no. 1376.] Robert Crispin, who married Agnes de Rouvray. Eustachia Crispin. Emelina Crispin. Eve Crispin, who married Robert de Harcourt II., obit. 1208, son of the above mentioned William de Harcourt. Agnes Crispin, who married Geol de Baudemont.
3. Amaury Crispin, 1090-1168, Seigneur de Champtoceaux. He married the heiress Warmasia de Champtoceaux, 1107-1170. [Regest III, no. 729. Ctl. St. Aubin, i., no. cxiv.]
4. Simon Crispin, 1095-1145.
5. Manasser Crispin, 1097-1160.
6. Thomas de Colleville, 1100-1170, the youngest son of this Anglo-Norman family, obtained, by gift of his father,Yearsley, also spelt Everley, Ifferley, and Yresley, a name deriving from Efor's Leigh, meaning field of the wild boar, near York, where he granted lands to Byland Abbey: 'In the reign of Stephen, Thomas de Colvyle gave pasture in the wood of Eversley [Yearsley] to Byland Abbey.' [Excerpt from The Yorkshire Archeological Journal, vol. xiv. See also Burton, Mon. Ebor., 72.] He married Matilda d'Aubigny, 1120-1180, who was third witness, after two canons, to a charter in which her husband granted lands to Newburgh Pryory, c.1150. She was probably a close relative of Roger de Mowbray, see anon; perhaps his cousin or half-sister, a sister of Sampson d'Aubigny. [Institute of Historical Research, Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae, 1036-1300, vol. vi., pp. 87-89, 1999.] A Pipe Roll, Henry II., c.1170, states that 'Matilda de Colleville renders account of £ .... that her sons may secure the inheritance of their father's lands, She has paid it into the treasury. And she is quit.'
Soon after the Conquest the family of Colville was seated in Coxwold. 'The Colvilles are enumerated among the benefactors to Newburgh Priory, and also to Byland Abbey; and from them was descended the Fifeshire family of the same name. We are not aware either how or when their connection with Coxwold was severed, but their old hall remains, though vastly changed since they left it.' [Excerpt from Bulmers Directory, 1890.]
'Lord Thomas de Colvyle gave to God and the monks all the land which is between the pool of their mill and Thorpe. He gave also all Bersclyve and Bertoft, and the appertenances of the vill of Cuckwald [Coxwold], lying to the north toward Whitaker, to do there with whatsoever they would for ever.' [Excerpt from Foundations of Bylands Abbey, Gentleman's Magazine, 1843.] The man to whom he was mesne-tenant, Roger de Mowbray, 1119-1188, was a great aristocrat, and a man of huge wealth. His descendants were later made Dukes of Norfolk. He had vast numbers of gowns for every occasion, and was particularly keen on a bright scarlet cape that he wore, becoming known as The Scarlet Lord as a result. On a more serious note, he was renowned for his charity. Whenever he went, his retainers handed out money to the poor, for he hated to see poverty around him. n.b. Roger de Mowbray was, as were William and Alan de Percy, a kinsman of the Crispins, certainly by the wider standards of what then constituted kinship. They shared the same Norwegian ancestry. In this regard, they did not consider themselves to be members of seperate families. They were members of the same kinship group, whose interests were best served by their combined economic and political power.
* It is sometimes wrongly stated that the Colvilles who settled in Scotland were descended from Gilbert Crispin 11. His family was primarily Norman, although holding lands in England, where his daughter, Eleanor Crispin, married Robert de Hatton of Cheshire. His son, Gilbert Crispin III., 1060-1107, married Hersendis de Brezolles. The Tillières branch of the Crispin family had a share in seigneurial revenues at Brezolles. [Daniel Power, The Norman Frontier, pp. 246-247, 2005.] His grandson, Gilbert Crispin V., 1140-1190, married Eleanor de Vitré, 1158-1232. He was her second husband, her first being William D'Evreux; her third being William Fitzpatrick, second Earl of Salisbury. William Fitzpatrick was the grandson of Sybil de Chaworth, whose family are mentioned later in this account. Gilbert Crispin V. died during the Siege of Acre, Palestine. His daughter by Eleanor de Vitré was Joan Crispin, 1175-1223, who married Thomas Malmains, 1160-1219. Their son was Nicholas Malmains, 1195-1240, Sheriff of Suffolk. Gilbert Crispin V. was also probable ancestor of the Colvilles of Carshalton, Surrey, where, temp. John I., Maud de Colville held land with her husband, William of Flanders. Other sons of Gilbert Crispin II. were Ribold and Landry. He confirmed to the abbey of St-Evroult, with his sons, and William de Breteuil, lands originally belonging to Raoul, Comte de Ivri, suggesting a relationship to this powerful lord. He donated the entire fief of Hauville to the monks of Jumieges for the salvation of the souls of 'the great prince Richard I. [his great-grandfather], of my glorious master William, duke of Normandy, of my father and my mother, my wife and children.' [Falaise Roll, p. 137.]
* The land held by Roger de Mowbray, and his mesne-tenant, Thomas de Colville, centred around Coxwold, was in the centre of a hostile wappentake. Wappentake is the name given to Viking districts. For example, the village of Sadberge, between Stockton and Darlington, was once the capital or Wappentake of the Viking area north of the Tees known as the Earldom of Sadberge, which stretched from Hartlepool to Teesdale. Wappentakes were found in those parts of England settled by Scandinavian settlers, and continued to be important administrative centres in medieval times.Coxwold was situated in the Wappentake of Northallerton, in North Yorkshire. The word wappentake literally means Weapon Taking, and refers to the way in which land was held in return for military service to a chief.
xiv. [a] DESCENDANTS OF MALAHULE
The Percy family were descended from the family of:
Malahule/Malahulc of More married Maude de St. Pol. As said, chronologies would suggest her to be the probable daughter of Hernequin de Boulogne et St. Pol and Bertha de Ponthieu. Also as said, the land granted to Malahule by Baldwin 11 was centred around present-day Lille, the heraldry of the Percy family reflecting these Flemish roots. Malahule and Maude were the parents of 1. Richard de St. Saveur, 885-933, who took his name from one of the family fiefs in Normandy. Another family fief was that of Perci, near Villedieu, in Normandy. Richard de St. Saveur's son was 2. Neil 1 de St Saveur, 920-972, who married Sporte La Danoise, 917-960, a.k.a Espriota de Senlis. Neil 1 de St Saveur and Sporte La Danoise had a son named 3. Roger de St. Saveur, 950-1010, who married a daughter of Eugeran de Porte. [ Portes is 5 miles from Conches, the effective caput of the Toeni family.] Their sons were 4a. Neil II. de St. Saveur, 987-1045, and 4b. a younger son, name unknown, who lived in the fief of Perci, though it was owned by his brother. This younger son was the father of 5b. Baron William de Percy, 1034-1096, ancestor of the Percy family in England. This genealogy is recorded in the Records of the Abbaye Saint-Martin de Mondaye, of which the family of St. Saveur were benafactors. [L. Delisle, Histoire du château et des sires de Saint-Sauveur-le-Vicomte, 1867.] Neil 11 de St. Saveur's son was 5a. William d'Aubigny [Albini], 1020-1056, who took his name from his fief of St. Martin d' Aubigny in Le Cotentin. He was ancestor of the Earls of Arundel. He married Adeliza du Plessis, 1024-1067. Their son was 6a. Roger d'Aubigny, 1040-1084, who married  Amice Montbrai, 1054-1085. Their son was 7a. Nigel d'Aubigny, 1080-1129, who married Gundred De Gourney, 1095-1147. Their son was 8a. Roger d'Aubigny [Mowbray], 1117-1188, who changed his name by mandate of Henry 1. He, as said, was the overlord of the Colvilles, as William de Percy had been before him. [Burke's Dormant & Extinct Peerages Of The British Empire, 1883.]
Another son of Malahule was Hugh de Cavalcamp: Hugh de Calvacamp was the father of - 1. Hugh, Archbishop of Rouen from 942 to 989, appointed to that see by William I., surnamed Longsword, the son of Rollo ; and of, 2. Randolph, on whom his brother, the Archbishop, bestowed the fief of Todiniacum, or Toeni, alienating it from the patrimony of the see. [Ada Arcliiepp. Rothomag., by a monk of St. Ouen, temp. Pap. Greg. VIL, ap. Mabillon, Vett. Analecta, p. 223.] Randolph was the father of Randolph, Sire de Toeny [Charter of Rich. 11.] , father of Roger de Toeni, surnamed the Spaniard [Charter of Foundation of the Abbey of Conches, ap. Gallia Christiana, torn. xi., Instrumenta, col. 128.; and Gui. Gemet., lib. v. cap. 10., ap. Duchcsne, Script. Norm., p. 253.], who rebelled on the accession of William the Bastard, Duke of Normandy [Gui. Gemet., lib. vii. cap. 3., ap. Duchesne, p. 268.]; and of whose sons- 1. Randolph, the eldest survivor, acquired large property in England at the Cqnquest, and became ancestor of the Lords de Toeni, extinct temp. Edw. II.; and 2. Robert, a younger son, obtained immense estates in Staffordshire and elsewhere, and founded the original house of Stafford, and the knightly family of the Gresleys. This latter Randolph is described as the hereditary standardbearer of the Normans. [Order. Vital., lib. iii., ap. .Duchesne, p. 493., and lib. vi. p. 576; Rom. de Rou, vol. ii. p. 195.] Roger de Toeni, 'the Spaniard', is described by William of Jumieges as 'de stirpe Malahulcii, qul Rollonis patruus fuerat, et cuni eo Francos atterens, Normanniarn fortiter acquisierat,' i. e. he was of the stock of Malahule; and he rebelled in indignation at a bastard being made duke of Normandy. [Gui. Gemet., ap. Duchesne, p. 268.; and Benoit, tom. iii. p. 8.]
Another son of Malahule was Ralph de Bayeux. = Balso de Bayeux. = Ancitel de Meschines. = Ranulf I. de Meschines = Ranulf II. de Meschines.
Malahule was a chieftain of the Thorn Clan, passing the clan's emblem, the thorny [rose] hedge, to many subsequent families. [Martim de Albuquerque, Notes and Queries, p. 530, 1861.] That Haldric was the probable father of Bernard the Dane is supported by the following fact: Bernard's son, Torf, held the fief of Torny, a clear reference to the Thorn Clan, as paternal inheritance. [J. G. Nichols, T&G, p. 385, 1858.]
Bernard the Dane was 'the progenitor of both the Houses of Harcourt and Beaumont. Several of these Beaumonts were buried in the Chapter-House of Préaux. Humphrey de Vieilles, son of Turulf of Pont-Audemer, by Duvelina, sister of Gunnora, the Duchess, had an estate called Préaux.' [Martin de Albuquerque, ed., Notes and Queries, p. 139, 1824.] He held the fiefs of Harcourt, Caileville, and Beauficel. He married Sprote de Bourgoyne, a daughter of Richard The Justicar, first Duke of Burgundy, whose sister, Richildis, was, see table iii., great-grandmother of Gerlotte de Blois. Caileville was on of the original fiefs of the family of Bec in Normandy.
xiv. [b] THE FAMILY OF FRESNE
Adeliza du Plessis was the sister of Grimoult du Plessis, who lost his estates, situated mainly in Coutances, after siding against William the Bastard at Val des Dunes. The name Plessis was of topographical origin, signifying [O.F] a pallisade, and [Lat.] an enclosure, referring to the castle held by the family at Plessis-Grimoult. [The Priory of Plessis-Grimoult was endowed by the Beaumont/Harcourt family; almost invariably a sign that there was a familial connection between them and the founder's family - Mem. Soc. Ant. Norm., vol ii., 23, no. 238.] The original name of the family was Fresne, or, more anciently, Freyne, signifying an ash tree, a derivative of which is the surname Frame. [ G. F. Black, Surnames of Scotland; Their Origin, Meaning, and History, p. 278, 1946.] The father of Adeliza and Grimoult was titled Osulf le Fresne. Their holdings in Coutances abutted those of the family of the wife of the aforementioned Onfroi de Vieilles, who, as said, was of the family of Haye/Haie; of Haye-du-Puits, Manche, arr. Coutances. [The lord of this barony, at the date of the conquest, was Raoul, sénéchal of the Earl of Mortaigne, and father of Robert de la Haie, a contemporary of Henry I. Raoul seems to have been the son of Hubert de Rye, to whom was entrusted the governorship of the castle and county of Nottingham, and who is frequently mentioned in Domesday Book.] In the Battle of Beaumont-le-Roger, in 1036, Onfroi de Vieilles fought against Roger de Toeni, and his close ally, Osulf du Fresne. Such military and political alliance usually stemmed from familial and consequent topographical connections. Later acts of the Abbey of Conches support this notion, with this Fresne family being noted as feudatories of the Anglo-Norman Toeni family, holding of them land centred around Mesnil-Hardray, canton Conches. In the same regard, Grimoult du Plessis was lord of le Freyne, canton Trévières, situated near Colleville-sur-Mer; a fief of the Crispin family, and thus close to Cleville, held by Roger de Beaumont, and Cailleville, held by the Harcourt family - all of the Malet family caput of Graville-Sainte-Honorine, as previously stated.
Connections with the family of Beaumont: A casual glance at the various families of Beaumont in 10th. century Normandy may lead to the conclusion of them being distinct entities. This was not the case. The families of Beaumont-sur-Oise [et Seine] and Beaumont-le-Vicomte, situated near the River Sarthe, Maine et Perche, had a common progenitor, Radulphus [Ralph] de Beaumont. His son, Ralph II. de Beaumont, married Godehilde de Bellesme [there is no charter evidence for this, but later family associations make it not improbable], whose brother, Guillaume I. de Bellesme,* was great-grandfather of Mabel Talvas, who married Roger de Montgomery, son of Josseline of Pont-Audemer, sister of Onfroi de Vieilles. This would strongly suggest a familial link between the family of Radulphus and the Beaumonts of Pont-Audemer. In this regard, it is not improbable that Radulphus de Beaumont was a brother to Torf the Rich, being another son of Bernard the Dane. The various Beaumont families shared a common Flanders heritage - high ground in Beaumont-sur-Oise was called Bellus Mons, and a fief was called Beaulieu, after the features so named in Flanders. [Robert Kawtier, Atour de la France, p.246, 1987.] It can be remembered that: The topographical name Beaumont was first mentioned in an act of the Abbey of St. Martin de Tours, 855, as Bellus Mons, that is, the high ground to the south of Bailleul-en-Vimeu, part of the Château Coquerel Estate - from which the family of Beaumont of Pont-Audemer took their name.
Radulphus was a feudatory of the Comte du Mans, i.e. Maine, acting as his bailie, i.e. steward. Anslech de Bastembourg was another such feudatory; his mother-in-law, as shown, being Richilde de Maine. As with many such stewards Radulphus became powerful, attaining the rank of Vicomte. Radulphus was a benefactor of L'Abbeye de St. Aubin, a cell of L'Abbeye de St. Saveur. [ Philippe le Bas, Dictionaire Encyclopedique, p. 887, 1845.] He and his descendants were lords of the castellums of Beaumont-le-Vicomte, and nearby Le Fresne. His successors were Ralph de Beaumont II., Ralph de Beaumont III., Ralph de Beaumont IV., and Ralph de Beaumont V. His g.g.g. grandson was Radulphus de Fraxineto, i.e. Fresne, a.k.a. Odo de Fraxineto, companion of the Conqueror, who also assisted him in the conquest of Maine, fighting against his probable cousin, Hubert III. de Beaumont, Vicomte de Beaumont, et Maine, et Vendome, son of Ralph de Beaumont V., who had rebelled against the Conqueror, his sworn liege lord. Radulphus de Fraxineto gained much in terms of land ownership from his loyalty, as it was common custom to reward a relative of someone who had renounced his fealty. His armorial bearings were Gules, two bars per fess indented, argent and azure. He was a signatory to the foundation charter of St. Père, c. 1080. Fellow signatories were the Beaugency cousins, Radulfus Landrici and Lancelin de Beaumont, grandsons of Lancelin IV. de Maers, see ch. xiv. c. Given that religious houses were founded by a particular family, and that future donations to them were the sole perogative of that family, and of families with close ties of marriage to them, it would appear that the connection between Radulphus de Fraxineto and the family of Beaumont-sur-Sarthe is established through the presence of the above co-signatories. The presence of other signatories also suggests that, as stated, the various families styled Beaumont had a common progenitor, and were a powerful political and social entity over a wide geographical area: Other signatories being Goscelin de Haie, of the family of Onfroi de Vieille's wife; Henry de Beaumont, Onfroi's son, and Aloriius de Pont-Audemer, Henry de Beaumont's cousin. Radulphus de Fraxineto styled himself de Fresne in a foundation charter of Briouze, 1090. This would suggest that, as with the Beaumonts, the family of Fresne were spread over a wide geographical area, with Radulphus being connected to the family of Fresnaye-au-Sauvage, near Briouze, and to the [f]Rame family of Lillebonne, see below. The family of Braose were strongly connected to the families of Colville and Harcourt; to the branch that became Heriz. They are first mentioned in the cartulary of l'abbaye de Samer; as stated, Maude de St. Pol's father was buried there. Further connections to a St. Pol lineage are shown by his son, William de Fraxineto, being a signatory of a foundation charter of William d'Albini II.; direct descendant of Malahule.
Topographic-based names were transposed from region to region, with closely related families naming their estates in Normany after ones so held in Flanders. In Flanders we find the fiefs of Fresnes [anciently Fresnum] and Bailleul-en-Vimeu, both situated near Abbeville, probable [Ponthieu] maritagium of Maude de St. Pol on her marriage to Malahule/Haldric, see ch. vii., para. iii. Fresnum appears to have been a palisaded castellum, with its lords being castellans to the Seigneurs de Bailleul en Flandre; a political and military arrangement that almost invariably signified a close familial one. Before they became castellans to the Bailleul family in Flanders, the Fresnes had resided at Ponthieu. A branch of both families became possessed of land in Maine, as military allies of the Frankish Monarchy, where the nature of their relationship was repeated, with the Seigneurs de Fresne-sur-Authie; diocese Haie, which was also held by the family of Onfroi de Vieille's wife, being castellans of the family of Bailleul; that is, to the division which had become the Seigneurs de Beaumont-sur-Sarthe. The Seigneurs de Fresne-sur-Authie also held land in Maine under a branch of the Thorigni [Toeni] family, descendants of Malahule; with it not being improbable, given the later nature of relationships, that Malahule was the common progenitor of both the families of Beaumont and Fresne [The later arms of the family of Frame, see below, were three lions rampant, with other descendant families of Malahule being similarly represented, e.g. Hawes, azure, a fess wavy between three lions passant or. Thorn of St. Alban's, azure, a fess between three lions passant guardant or. Hays, a.k.a Haie/s, see above, ermine, a fess engrailed or, between three lions rampant proper. Horton [Hawthorn], argent, a fess gules between three lions rampant, sable. Heys, argent, a fess sable between three lions rampant, gules.]
The close relationship between the families of Beaumont and Fresne were repeated in Normandy by different branches of their families. In Normandy we find the fief of Fresne-Cauverville, arrondissement Pont-Audemer, fief of the Beaumont family in Normandy, situated close to Bailleul-la-Valée. The name of a branch of the Fresne family in Normandy had devolved into [f]Rames. [An example of such orthographic flexibility is found in the example of the castellum of Vulframecourt, which was also referred to as Vulfresnecourt. Professor Powicke informs us that the family of Rames originated in Normandy from the village of Rames, which is situated on the western outskirts of the forest of Lillebonne. According to the historian Janin, the seigneurie de Lillebonne were 'the Vieille family d'Harcourt,' that is, of the Beaumont family of Onfroi de Vieilles of Pont-Audemer. In an act of the Holy Trinity de Rouen, Oinfroi de Vieilles is a witness, along with a son, and 'a young lord' named Richard de Lillebonne. In the Norman custom of the time, this Richard had his face slapped by Oinfroi so that he would remember being a witness in later years. This corporal deed would most likely make Richard a nephew of Oinfroi. Indeed, an act of William I., c. 1070, shows that the two principal landowners in Lillebonne were Roger de Montgomery and Yves de Bellesme. As we know, Oinfroi's sister Josseline married Hugh de Montgomery, they being the parents of Roger, and, it can be assumed, Richard de Lillebonne, overlord of the [f]Rames family.
Thus, we can see the emergence of a close network of families, bonded together at each generation by a series of oblgations and responsibilities. The family of Fresne, be it also called Plessis, Fraxineto, or Rames, were closely related to the family of Beaumont-Harcourt, serving them across various geographical regions, and over a continuous period of time.
* Guillaume I. de Bellesme built Chateau d'Essaye d'Essecourt, situated near Fresne-Cauverville, Bailleul-la-Valée, Pont-Audemer, and Bernay. As stated previously, the administer of Bernay Abbey, situated in a bastion of Crispin family power, was Ralph, brother of Onfroi de Vieilles. Guillaume I. de Bellesme was the father of William Talvas, Comte d'Alencon, whose grandaughter, Mabel Talvas, married, as said, Roger de Montgomery. But this lady, says the monk of Utica, 'caused his abbey to be greatly burdened with quartering of soldiers; for which, and other oppressions exercised towards the nobility, she was murdered in her bed.' By this wife Earl Roger had issue, as briefly mentioned in the text, five sons and four daughters: Robert de Belesme; Hugh de Montgomery; Roger of Poitou; Philip, a priest; Arnulf, a soldier of fortune, Lord of Pembrokeshire, who like his father, was liberal in his benefactions to the Church. Of his four daughters, Emma, the eldest, was abbess of Almanisca; Maud was the wife of Robert de Moreton, half brother to the Conqueror; Mabel married Hugh de Novo Castello; and Sibyl became the wife of Robert Fitz-Hamon. [William Beattie, The Castles and Abbeys of England, p. 333, 1842.]
Guillaume I. de Bellesme was also the father of Mathelin de Bellesme, Seigneur D'Essaye, i.e. Esse = Ash. His descendants were titled the Seigneurs de Fresne. In post-Conquest England they held land in Ashe in Musbury, Devon, and were sometimes titled de Fraxinus. This branch of the Bellesme family derived its appelation through the previously mentioned marriage of Godehild de Bellesme and Ralph II. de Beaumont; close kinsman of the Fresne family.
xiv. [c] HERIZ
As stated, Hubert III. de Beaumont's father was Ralph V., Vicomte de Beaumont et Vendome. He had married Emma de Montrevrault, daughter of Etienne de Montrevrault and Emma de Vendome. Hubert III. de Beaumont was Vicomte de Beaumont, du Maine, de Fresnay [le Fresne], de Lude, et de St. Suzanne. His brother, Raoul de Beaumont, inherited these titles after 1098. Raoul married Agathe de Vendome, daughter of Foulques L'Oison, Comte de Vendome, 1012-21/11/1066. Foulques was the son of Bodon de Nevers et Vendome, 993-1030, and Adele d'Anjou. She was the daughter of Foulques III. d'Anjou and Elizabeth de Vendome, aunt of the aforesaid Emma. Bodon was the son of 1. Lancelin IV. de Maers, 970-1028, first 'seigneur héréditaire de Beaugency', a.k.a. Landric/Landricum, Comte de Nevers, et Montceaux, et Beaugency, who had married Mathilde de Bourgoyne, thus receiving Nevers and Auxerre. Mathilde was a descendant of Harald Klak, being the g. g. grandaughter of Mathilda of Ringelheim, sister of Siegfried de Guines, grandson of Godfried de Guines. She was the daughter of Ermentrude de Roucy, and Otto, Comte de Bourgoyne, Macon, and Nevers, son of Adalbert II. d'Ivrea [roi] de Italie. Ermentrude de Roucy was the daughter of Renaud de Roucy, son of Herbert II. de Vermandois [de Senslis]. Lancelin IV. de Maers served Duke Henry of Burgundy, Hugh Capet's brother, and was distinguished in charters as gloriosus miles.
Lancelin's great-grandfather, Lancelin I. de Maers, a.k.a. Landric de Metz, was a co-signer of charters and military commander of Richard the Justicar, 880-921, father of Bernard the Dane's wife. Such a close connection would suggest a familial link. The Historia of Hugh of Potiers states that he was the nephew of Bishop Adalgar of Autun, of which province Richard the Justicar was count. He distinguished himself at the siege of the little castle of Metz, and was awarded with a castellanship in the Nivernais. The Historia states that he married a woman of Anjou. He also held land under the Theobald de Blois, father of Gerlotte de Blois, wife of Hrolf Turstain; again a familial link is suggested.
His son was Bodo de Maers, castellan of the Nivernais. His son, Lancelin II. de Maers, married Roscille d'Anjou, sister of Fulk II. d'Anjou, obit. 960, who married Gerberge de Maine; their son being Bouchard I. de Vendome. [Cart. l'abbaye Bonne-Nouvelle.] The son of Lancelin II. de Maers is named in the cartualary de l'abbaye de la Sainte-Trinitlé de Vendome as Landric Sore. This was a corruption of Landric Saure. The river Saure, a tributary of the Moselle, rises at Vaux-sur-Sure, and flows through the Wallonia region of Belgium, in the vacinity of Liège. Landric Saure was the father of Lancelin IV. de Maers, and of Elizabeth de Maers, who married her second cousin, Bouchard II., Comte de Corbeil, Meulan, et Vendome, obit. 26/7/1012.
The Barons of Landry had occupied the Chateau of Beaugency. [F. Miltoun, Castles and Chateau of Old Touraine and the Loire, p. 49, 1906.] In the time of Landric Soare, Beaugency was held by Wigelus de Courci, a.k.a. Wiger de Beaugency, and it is reasonable to assume that a tenancy in Beaugency was obtained by Landric through marriage to a member of the de Courci family. Beaugency is situated in the Loire Valley, in the same vacinity as Beaulieu-sur-Loire, site of Castle Assay; a corruption of Essaye, which, as in the above example, equates to Ash = Fresne.
Lancelin IV. de Maers was also the father of Lancelin V. de Maers, obit. 1061, who married Paule du Maine. [Nicolas Viton, et. al., L'art de vérifier les dates, p. 549, 1818.] She was the daughter of Herbert I., Comte du Maine, and Bertha de Chartres, who married, secondly, Alan III. of Brittany. Their daughter, Hawise of Brittany, being the mother of the aforementioned Alan Fergant, ancestor of the the family of de la Zouche, from whom descended Johanna Percy, wife of Arthur Harris of Prittlewell.
A third son of Lancelin IV. de Maers was 2. Henry de Beaumont-sur-Sarthe, a.k.a. Henricus de Beaumont, who obtained his tenancy through marriage to a daughter of the aforementioned Ralph de Beaumont III.; probable descendant, as said, of Bernard the Dane. He was the father of 3. Lancelin de Beaumont, a.k.a. Alselin Fitz Henricus, who Domesday records as being a landowner in Nottinghamshire. His brother, Bodon, was sometimes known as the Comte de Vendome d'Heristal. This was a distinguishing device which firmly fixed his families post-Scandinavian origins as being of Heristal, present-day suburb of Liège. It can be presumed that Landric de Metz was the Heristal von Metz mentioned in early charters. In the case of William de Heriz, a.k.a. Hares/Herice, obit. 1499, of Leicestershire, a descendant of the Wiverton branch of Heriz, it was stated in court records, pertaining to him changing his name to Smith, that his patronymic dated to the French Counts Vendome d'Heristal.
Alselin's son was 4a. Ivo Fitz Herice, a.k.a. de Heris. [Rotuli de Liberate ac de misis et praestitis.] He had a number of sons: 1. Ralph, who held the Barony of Notts in 1165: 2. Robert Fitz Herice, mentioned in a charter of Barberie Abbey, executed by Henry II.: 3. Josceline, mentioned in Hunts, 1156 [Rot. Pip.]: 4. William, who held, 1165, two fees in Notts and four in Lincoln: 5. Humphrey, who was of Berks, 1158 [Rot. Pip.] William de Heriz, aforesaid, seems the likely progenitor of the Heriz families of Claxton, county Durham, [VCH: Durham, iii., p. 244] and of Wetheral, county Cumberland; this latter family being signatories to charters of the Bruses of Annandale. [Ctl. David I., nos. 196, 197.] William de Heriz witnessed several charters of David I.; and the names of Thomas, Henry, Ivon, and Nigel de Heriz appear on other deeds and charters of somewhat later date. Nigel was Forester, in the Southern districts, to Alexander II. William de Heriz was one of the barons who swore fealty to the King of England in 1296. Robert de Herris, in an original charter of Robert Bruce, is designated Dominus de Nithisdale; and Sir John Herice was 'of great consequence' in the reign of his successor, David. Another Sir John - probably the son of the last - is first styled of Terregles, co. Dumfries. Fourth in descent from him was Herbert de Heriz, created a 'Lord of Parliament' by James IV. soon after his accession in 1488, by the title of Baron Herries of Terregles.
xiv. [d] FROM HARCOURT TO HARRIS
What now follows is a very brief summary of a particular family of Harris, descended from the Harcourt family of Heriz, and, therefore distinct from another family of that name; descendants of the Comtes de Vendome d'Heristal; although, it can be noted, both these families were closely connected to different branches of the Beaumont family, of Maine and Normandy, and, thus, were both members of the same kinship network. I have tried not to inundate the reader with too much detail, opting for the lesser sin of ommision.
i. Ranulph Peverel was the father of Payn [Pagan] Peverel, fl. 1096-1133, baron of Brunn, father of Robert Peverel. He was the father of Rohesia [Rose] Peverel. [Vide Monast. vol. ii, no viii.] The ancestry of these Peverels can only be summised, yet as forfeited Baronies were generally given to relatives of the despoiled Baron, the Peverells were probably of near kindred to the Le Bruns, a probability confirmed by the following circumstances. Geoffrey de Waterville married a coheiress of Payn Peverell. One coat of Waterville is Gules, three fleurs de lys or, a chief barry wavy argent and azure. Gules, three fleurs de lis or, is the coat borne by Le Brun.
ii. Rohesia married Rollo de Harcourt, a.k.a. Robert de Harcourt, who was of this branche de Harcourt:: Hrolf Turstain, a powerful baron in early Normandy, married Gerlotte de Blois; one of their sons being Anslech de Briquebec. He married Gillette de Beaumont, their daughter being Ertemberge de Briquebec, who married Torf the Rich de Harcourt, son of Bernard the Dane, chief administrator of early Normandy. Their sons were Touroude de Pont-Audemer, who married Duvelina de Crepon; they were ancestors of the Beaumont family of Pont-Audemer, and Turketil de Harcourt, who was Seigneur de Turqueville et de Tanqueraye, and was mentioned in the cartulary of Bernay, c. 1001. He married Anceline de Bertrande, daughter of Ansfrid the Dane and Helloe de Beulac. Ansfrid was another son of Hrolf Turstain, as was Guillaume de Bec, from whom stemmed the Crispin family.Turketil and Anceline were the parents of Lesceline, married to Godfrey de Brionne, and Anchetil de Harcourt, who took the name Hericourt from the family fief of Hericourt-en-Caux, also known as Heriscourt/Herizcourt, which was comprised of the vils of Carville-sur-Hericourt, and St. Denis d'Hericourt, canton Ourville-en-Caux. [Antiquaries gave the family name as Harcourt, reflecting the later holding of Harcourt, named nearly as the first, in canton Brionne.] The families of Estouteville and Hericourt were closely connected in the defense of this area. The Estouteville family were tenurially connected to the Crispin family.The family de Hericourt had previously occupied the fief of Hericourt-en-Therouanne, St. Pol, canton Formery [Framery.] Hericourt later devolved to the family of de Epinay.
Anchetil de Harcourt was assumed to have married Eve de Boessy-le-Chastel; an assumption based on later Harcourts holding Boessy-le-Chastel. Eve was more correctly known as Eve de Tillly, whose family were the seigneurie de Boessy-le-Chastel. This Tilly family were the Till, lords of St. Germain, descendants of Crespin Ansgot, son of Guillaume de Bec; their arms were: a bend azure, over a fleur de lys, gules. [Soc. Antiquaries, 1788.] The children of Anchetil and Eve were: Errand de Harcourt, who married to Emma d'Estouteville. Robert the Strong de Harcourt, b. c. 1035. John de Harcourt; also styled Heriz. [Yeatman's Observations.] Eve subsequently married William de Braose, Lord of Bramber, by whom she had Philip de Braose, called the brother of Robert de Harcourt, son of Anschetil, in a charter dated 1104. [Pipe Roll Soc., vol. 71, 544.]
John de Harcourt was a Derbyshire tenant of the Ferrers family of Ferrieres-St-Hilaire, near Bernay, Normandy, who, through this holding can be assumed to have close connections to the familyof Gilbert Crispin I., son of Crespin Ansgot, whose influence was centred in Bernay. This close association was confirmed by Gilbert Crispin II. and Henry de Ferrers jointly leading a charge of the English forces at Senlac. Henry de Ferrers married Bertha de L'Aigle; their son, Robert de Ferrers, 1st. Earl Derbys., married Margaret Peverel, daughter of William Peverel I. of Nottingham, as per Dugdale.
Whatever the ancestry of this William Peverel, whether a natural son of the Conqueror or not, he seemed to be connected to the family of Ranulph Peverel, given the nature of tenurial association. Judith A. Green - The Aristocracy of Norman England, p. 45, 2002 - observes that 'It is not impossible that they were related. Ranulph Peverel may have come from western Normandy, for one of his tenants was William Troisgots. William Peverel of Nottinghams estates were concentrated in the north Midlands, but he also held some land in Essex, and his daughter [Adeliza] married Richard de Redvers, who held land in the Contentin and Lower Normandy.'
vi. Robert the Strong married Collette D'Argouges. They were the parents of the above mentioned Rollo [Robert] de Harcourt, and William de Harcourt, ancestor of the branche principale of the Harcourt family. Rollo [Robert] de Harcourt came to England under the patronage of his close kinsman, Robert de Beaumont, later to be Earl of Leicester. He continued to hold land in the north-western part of Neuborg. In England, he was known as Heriz; being a diminuitive of Herizcourt.
Robert de Heriz, ob. ante. 1128, who held Stapleford, Tibshelf, Wingfield, and Oxcroft, was mesne tenant of William Peverel I. Robert was Sheriff of Nottingham, 1110-1122. [Judith A. Green, The Government of England under Henry I., p. 221, 1989.] He was a King's Commissioner who witnessed charters of Robert de Ferrers, 1st. Earl Derbys. His daughter was Albreda de Harcourt. She married William de Waterville, hereditary governor of Benneville-sur-Touque in 1138, who had assumed his father's nickname of Tressubut, i.e. maimed foot. William's father, Geoffrey married, as said, Asceline Peverel, daughter of Payn Peverel. Albreda and William had the following issue: 1. Geoffrey, fl. 1180. 2. Robert, ob. 1193. 3. Hillaris, ob. 1241, married to Robert de Bellers, ob. 1203, of the family of Mowbray. 4. Agatha, married to William d' Albini [Belvoir]; her first husband being Hamo fil Hamo. 5. Rohesia, married to Everard de Roos, ancestor of the Roos family of Hamlake. Hillaris and her husband are buried at Lilleshall Abbey, to which Hillaris made grant to maintain one canon to pray for the souls of her family, ancestors, and successors. [Lilleshall Ctl.]
His sons were Gaufrid de Heriz, who held Stapleford; his daughter Amicia married Richard de Camera, and was ancestor of the family of Strelley, closely thereafter linked to the Stanhope family; Hugh de Stapleford, who held the lesser part of Stapleford, and Ivo de Heriz I., who was Sheriff of Nottingham and Derbyshire, 1127-1129. [W. A. Morris, The Medieval English Sheriff to 1300, p. 82, 1927.] This Ivo also held land in Lower Pillerton, Warwickshire, under Hugh de Grentemesnil II., son of Hugh de Grentemesnil I. and Adeliza de Beaumont-sur-Oise, descendant of Radulpus de Beaumont, who held it of Henry de Beaumont, Earl of Warwick. [Pipe Roll, 30 Hen. I.] Hugh de Grentemesnil II. was the father of Petronilla de Grentemesnil, wife of Robert III. de Beaumont, Earl of Leicester.
Ivo married Emma de Bilborough, daughter of [H]erbert de Bilborough, knight of William Peverel I. 'Erbert, a knight of William Peverel's, held this Manor [of Gonalston] in the time of King Henry I. and left it to Emma his eldest daughter, and one of his co-heirs, who, marrying to Ivo de Heriz, brought this manor into his family.' [Thomas Cox, Anthony Hall, Robert Morden, Magna Britannia p. 104, 1738.] Emma's younger sister, Ivicia, obtained Bilborough.
Their sons were William de Heriz, obit. 1179, 'a true Harcourt' - Journal Derbys. Arch. Soc., p. 135, 1879 - whose lands were forfeited to the Crown. He married Adeline de Whatton; his bearings were azure, three hedge-hogs or. His principal seat was Wiverton. His children were stated to be Roger and Hugh de Hersey/Herce - Curia Regis Roll, 12 John I. - but not by Adeline de Whatton. It can be reasonably be proposed that William de Heriz had firstly married a member of the Loudham family. Eustace de Loudham was under sheriff of Notts. in 1213, and sheriff of Yorkshire in 1224-26 - CPR., 1216-1225, p.524 - and sheriff of Notts in 1233. He held land of John de Lacey, Constable of Chester. Walter, his son, was steward of the Lacey barony of Pontefract. [EYC. VIII., p.197.] Walter, ob. 1272, was given joint custody and marriage of the heir of Hugh de Hercy II. in 1268 This Walter had a daughter called Alice or Maud, who shortly after Walter's death married John de Heriz II., see below.
Hugh de Hercey held Pillerton-Hersey, co. Warwick; his brother was the father of Malveisin [Malvesyn] de Hercey of Grove, whose name is indicative of connections to the family of Mauvoisin of Rosny, with him probably being related to William Mauvoisin, fl. 1204-35, Lord Of Serquigny, and of St-Clair-d'Arcey, from whence a branch of the family of Arques/Arches derived. [Ctl. Beaumont, no. xxxv; Ctl. Vaux-en-Cernay, no. clxxx.] Serquigny and St-Clair-d'Arcey are situated near Beaumont-le-Roger, Beamont-la-Ville, and Beaumontel.
Robert de Heriz II., obit. 1198, Sherriff of Nottingham, who paid relief in 1181 to obtain William's lands. He married Agnes Alcher. Agnes was the daughter and co-heiress of Gilbert Alcher, who held land in Sudbury, Derbyshire, of the Agard family, tenants of the Ferrers, who could trace their lineage to Richard Agard de Foston, fl. 1125; arms: arg. a chevron engrailed, gu., between three boars' heads. The Agard family were closely connected to the Stanhope family of Elvaston. The other Alcher co-heiress married William de Montgomery, whose family held Cubely; later to descend to the Stanhope family, who made it their chief residence. A branch of Robert's descendants remained in Sudbury, once again styling themselves Harcourt, with a famous scientist and cleric being among their number.
Robert and Agnes had issue: Ivo II de Heriz II., obit. 1225, who married Hawise Briwere, or, as it became, Brewer. She was a descendant of Drogo de Briwere of Flanders, then of Breviere, Caen, and sister of William de Briwere, to whom King John gave the forfeited estates of the Peverel family, thus indicating a familial relationship between the families of Briwere and Peverel.The Exchequer returns for Derbys. show Ivo holding of 'the constable of Chester', of the family of de Lacey. Their sons represented the various lineages of Heriz:
Branche Pierpoint: John I. de Heriz, whose wife, Sarah de Heriz, married, secondly, Jollan de Neville. John I. de Heriz and Sarah had issue:  Ivo III. de Heriz, constable of Peak Castle, 1255, founded by William Peverel I. This Ivo was closely connected to Thomas de Furnival II., Sheriff of Derbys. and Notts, who witnessed donation charters of Blythe Monastery, 1280, with 'John de Heryce and Hug. de Pierpoint' being co-signatories. [Dodsw. Coll. W. 132.]
His grandfather, Gerard Furnival I. married Maude Lovetot, descendant of Gilbert de Brionne, their sons being Thomas's father,Thomas Furnival I., who married Bertha de Ferrers, daughter of William Ferrers II. and Sybil de Braose; and Gerard Furnival II., lord of Caldecott, Leicestershire. Gerard Furnival Married Joan de Morville; their daughter, Alice, marrying Thomas Foljambe, ancestor of both the wife of Vincent Harris of Mundon and, though his grandson, Godfrey, of Mary Wentworth, wife of William Brewster of the Mayflower.  Henry de Heriz, d.s.p. 1273.  John II. de Heriz, obit. 1299, who married Maud/Alice de Loudham, whose father and grandfather had been witnesses to charters of Ivo II. de Heriz. [Foulds, Thurgarton Cartulary, p.cxlvi-clvii.] The Loudham bearings were argent, three escucheons sable. [Registrum Johannes Ducis Lancastria.] This line ended in the heirs female, thus: The son of John II de Heriz, John III de Heriz, ob. 1329, [CIPM vii. no. 234] had a daughter, Maud de Heriz, who married Richard de la Riviere; their daughter, Sarah, marrying Robert de Pierpoint.
Branche Wiverton: William Heriz of Wiverton, who, as his father, held variously under the de Lacey family in Derbys., Justice Itinerant of Notts. in 1236, who married Maud Basset, daughter of Ralph Basset, c.1215-1257. He was a descendant of the Norman magnate, Thurstan Basset, c. 1035-1080, of Ouilly, Normandy, whose grandson, Ralph Basset, c. 1090-1145 , of Wallingford, Justicar of England, married Maud de Ridel of Witheringe; their two sons, Ralph and Geoffrey, being the ancestors of the Bassets of Drayton and Weldon, with this Ralph being the grandfather of the Ralph aforementioned, who had married Margaret de Someri, 1232-8/6/1293, daughter of Roger de Someri, c. 1210-1273, and Nicole d'Aubigny; daughter of William d'Aubigny, 1165-30/3/1220, Earl of Arundel, and Mabel de Meschines, 1177-1233; daughter of Hugh de Meschines, 1147-30/6/1181, 3rd. Earl of Chester, and Bertrade de 'Evreux de Montfort, 1155-12/7/1189; daughter of Simon de Montfort II., and Amicia de Beaumont; daughter of Robert de Beaumont III., Earl of Leicester, and Petronilla de Grentemesnil.
Their daughter was Joan Heriz, 'lady of Wiverton', fl. 1277, who married Jordan le Breton. Their son was Roger le Breton of Walton, who married Roberta Deincourt, daughter of John Deincourt and Agnes Percy. [Cal. i.p.m Henry VII. vol. iii., 370] Their son was Robert le Breton. [Cal. i.p.m, vol. vi., 408] His daughter was Isabel le Breton, aged 26 in 1350, who married Sir John Loudham [Cal. i.p.m, vol. ix., 392-3], son of Sir John Loudham and Alice de Kirketon. This Sir John's sister was the Maud or Alice de Loudham who married John de Heriz II.
Their son was Thomas de Heriz, who held in Husbands Bosworth, Leicestershire, which had been a Domesday holding of William Peverel I., held under Gilbert de Gand, whose daughter, Alice, married Ilbert de Lacey, ancestor of the Heriz family overlords. Two carucates and two bovates became part of the fee of the Basset family of Weldon [Leics., I. 331]; their cousins, the Bassets of Drayton, held in Wiverton, thus showing the extremely close and intermingled nature of kinship networks at this time. The chief manor of Bosworth was held by Ansketil, c. 1130, which passed to John de Lodbrok on his marriage to Joan de Bosworth, c. 1247. [Farnham, Leics. Medieval Pedigrees, 15.] The mesne lords of this fee were the Harcourts, branche principale. [cal. i. p. m., I., cxi.]
Thomas was succeeded by his son Thomas de Heriz, whose family established themselves in Breedon-on-the-Hill, Leicestershire, near the Derbyshire/Nottinghamshire border, and, hence, near to Widmerpool, an Heriz family holding. William de Ferrers, son of the previously mentioned Robert de Ferrers, 1st. Earl Derbys., and Margaret Peverel, daughter of William Peverel I., founded a Priory at Breedon in c. 1180. William de Ferrers was married to Sybilla de Braose, of the family aforementioned, closely connected to the Harcourts who became this family of Heriz. [Stephen Glover, Hist. County of Derbys., p. 523, 1829.] Breedon lies next to Melbourne, Castle Donnington, and Caldecott. It would not be unreasonable to presume, given the close correlation in medieval society between tenurial and familial connections, that Thomas de Heriz and his heirs married into the families of Cooke of Castle Donington, near Caldecott; one of whom bought Melbourne Hall, Derbys., from whence the Caldecotts of Holton, arms: or, between three cinquefoils, gules, originated. This Heriz family would have been associated with the nearby Mildmays of Leesthorpe; the Smiths of Ashby Folville; the Beaumont family* of Cole Orton, and the Bacon and Cranmer families of various Leicestershire abodes; all of whom were to be represented in Essex, with the Mildmay and Beaumont families being particularly represented in Dunmow, domain of Arthur and William Harris, originally held under the patronage of the Ferrers. It can also be noted that the family of Ferrers, who became the Ferrers of Tamworth, had a seat in Breedon until more recent times; another family that lived there was that of [J]Olliffe, in whose family a letter of Ferrers of Tamworth was retained. [J. H. Hiltoun, Jolliffes of Staffordshire, p. 119, 1892.] The Olliffe family were to later be connected to the Harris family of Essex.
n.b. Neither is it improbable that this Heriz family had ties of marriage to descendants of Robert Ferrers and Margaret Peverel; they being of close tenurial association, which was often reflected in a familial one; such an association possibly explaining Heriz connections to the family of Smith/Smythe, origine Ashby Folville, who can be deduced etymologically and tenurially to be a branche de Ferrers; Ashby Folville being held at Domesday by the Countess Judith and Henry Ferrers I. Such a familial link is further strongly suggested by the later Heriz and Ferrers families marrying into the same kinship network. With reference to paras. xxvi. and xxvii. following, a very curtailed mention of such related families is now given: Anne Ferrers, daughter of the last Lord Ferrers of Chartley, ob. 1450, married into the House of Devereux, Earls of Essex. The younger son of the second Lord Ferrers of Chartley married Elizabeth Boteler, heiress of Robert, Lord Boteler of Wemme. On the extinction of Chartley branch, the representation of the house passed to the Ferrers of Groby, see para xxvii., whose 5th. and last lord had a son, Henry, whose daughter passed the Barony to Sir Edward Grey. A branch of the Breedon family of Heriz remained in Breedon, as Harrys, temp. Eliz. I., with their arms, the typical three hedgehogs, being displayed in the church of St. Mary and St. Hardulph. [J. Montgomery Seaver, Harris family History, p. 10, 1929.] Of the branch that was to be of Essex and Suffolk: To Thomas another Thomas de Heriz; to him William de Heriz; to him another William de Heriz, and to him John de Heriz, and to him William de Heriz. [i. p. m., Leics, misc., c. 1395.] It can be noted that they were predominantly styled de Hares or Harrys.
* The above mentioned Beaumont family descended from Charles, a younger son of King Louis VIII. of France, who married Agnes de Beaumont of Beaumont-le Vicomte, Maine, the descendants of this marriage carrying the Beaumont name and arms; a lion rampant, or. Their 4th. son was Earl of Buchan in Scotland, ob. 1340. His son, John de Beaumont, married Eleanor Plantagenet, great-grandaughter of Henry III. A branch of their descendants settled in Cole Orton; a branch of theirs settling in Dunmow. Old associations were rekindled; Thomas Beaumont of Cole Orton, ob. 1530, marrying Anne Harcourt.
This family of Heriz seemed to be connected to that of the Stokes of Husbands Bosworth; the above mentioned John Heriz I. and Lancelin de Stokes had been co-signatories in gifts to the Abbey of Rufford. [Rufford charters, fol. 129.] The Stokes were similarly connected to the family of Albini. According to his pedigree of the Albinis, Amicia, daughter of Henry Albini, Lord of Cainhoe, vita 1107, married Mathew, son of Walthieu de Ponington, and by him, 'who gave the whole of Albenya to Rufford', had one daughter and sole heir, Amicia, who married Lancelin de Stokes, son of Lancelin, of whom, in 12 Henry III. , are proved by a fine of that date to have been in possession of the 'Manor of Abney'. This manor [Domesday] had been the possession of William Peverel I.
The Stokes seem to have been connected to the family of Grey: From another Rufford charter [fol. 127] we obtain the knowledge that Richard de Grey made a grant to the Abbey of "half of the manor of Abney, which he had of the grant of Lancelin de Stokes and Amicia, his wife, and the ancestors of the said Amicia." There is also a connection between the Grey and Heriz families: the above mentioned John Heriz III. had married Matilda de Grey, daughter of Reginald de Grey. Maud Basset's brother, Ralph. married Hawise de Grey.
The descendants of this family of Heriz obtained land in Essex as a result of their direct descent from Ranulph Peverel, and connections to William Peverel I. and the Ferrers family. Ranulph held estates in that county, at the time of Domesday, in Aberton, Bowers Gifford, Chickney, Fairsted, Hatfield Peverel, Hazeleigh, Inga, Layer, Malden, Terling, Woodham Mortimer, situated 3 miles from Cold Norton, and Wygborough. Layer, variously spelt, had been the holding of an Anglo-Saxon chieftain called Moduin, held of Eustace de Boulogne, who also held land in Cricksea. Thus, it is probable that Cricksea also came into the possession of Ranulp Peverel and his descendants through the process of appropriation. Layer later came to be known as Layer-de-la-Haye, with Walter de la Haye holding land there in 1128. [Ctl. Abbey of St. John, Colchester.]
The family of Heriz thus chronicled had several branches, and others by the name of Heriz, related by varying degrees of cousinship, were to follow them into Essex; the Heriz family of Withcote being one example. The Chetwynd MSS states that they were also from Husbands Bosworth, with the Barneham MSS confirming them to be of an 'antient family of Leicestershire' - one of the descendants of which married into the Packington family; her daughter, Anne, marrying  Sir Humphrey Ferrers, and  Philip Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield.
The last mentioned William de Heriz seems to have obtained inheritance in West Sussex and Essex at the commencement of the 15th. Century. He held Fitz-Heriz-Lands, near Lodsworth, a part of the West Sussex, Petworth, estate of the Percy family, Earls of Northumberland. Robert de Montgomery, Earl of Shrewsbury, held Lodsworth after the Conquest, and, as shown, the Heriz family had strong connections to the Montgommerys, not least through their shared links to the Alcher family. His son was William Harris of Prittlewell, Essex, who married a daughter of Sir John Jernegan, of Somerleyton, knt. who, in 1459 married Isabel, the daughter of Sir Gervase Clifton, knt. and died in the year, 1503, leaving two sons, Sir Edward, his successor, and Sir Richard, with several daughters; one, Elizabeth, marrying, Sir Thomas Stanhope, and the other, Anne, marrying the said William Harris of Prittlewell. Sir John's great-great grandfather, Sir John Jernegan, of Somerleyton, upon the death of his cousin, Sir John Noyoun, inherited a moiety of the Fitz Osbert estates, and married Joan De Kelvedon, the daughter and coheiress of Sir William De Kelvedon, of Kelvedon, in Essex, and the widow of Sir John Loudham, of Frense, in Norfolk, a branche cadette of the Nottingham Loudhams. His son, Sir John Jernegan, of Somerleyton, knt., succeeded him, and in 1374, married Margaret, daughter of Sir Thomas Vise De Loup, i.e. wolf-faced, who bore for his arms three wolves' heads, sable on a field argent. These arms were to be held by a descendant of William Harris, thus proving the Jernegan connection.
William Harris was the father of Arthur Harris of Prittlewell, who married Johanne de Percy, of Petworth, grandaughter of Henry de Percy, 3rd. earl Northumberland, who married Eleanor Poynings, daughter of Baron Robert Poynings [son of Robert Poynings and Elizabeth Grey of Ruthyn], who held the barony of Fitspayne. Leland's Roll of Battle Abbey shows that the Fitzpayne family were a branch of the [Payn] Peverel family. The son of Henry Percy and Eleanor Poynings was Henry Percy, 4th. earl of Northumberland, 1446-1489, who married Maude Herbert, daughter of William, 1st. earl of Pembroke, a friend of Edward IV., and Ann Devereux, daughter of Sir Walter Devereux. Their daughter was Johanna Percy, b. c. 1480, who married the said Arthur Harris. [Thomas Christopher Banks, The Dormant and Extinct Baronage of England, pp. 343/4, 1837.] A fuller account of Johanne de Percy's ancestry would involve the families of Neville, Zouche, Quincey; tracing back to Robert III. de Beaumont and Petronilla de Grentemesnil. Henry Percy and his wife, Maude, were both buried at Beverley Minster; she covered in a cloth of gold, wearing slippers embroidered with silk, and holding a lamp and candle.
[Sir Luke de Poyning, brother of Robert, obit. 1376, married Isabel Saint John, a descendant of King John. Their daughter was Joan de Poyning, who married Henry de Ferrers, 4th. Lord Groby, 1356-1388. Their son was William Ferrers, 5th. Earl, who married Philippa Clifford; whose mother was Maud Beauchamp. Their daughter was Elizabeth Ferrers, see para. xix., who married Sir William Culpeper of Preston Hall, Kent, whose family acquired the Wakehurst barony of Sussex through marriage, encompassing the estate of Rowley, named from a brook 'flowing from a mill called Rowle Mill.' Elizabeth Ferrer's brother, Henry, held Dunmow, Essex; estate of Arthur Harrys. Another brother, Thomas, who married Elizabeth Freville, was father of Thomas Ferrers of Tamworth Castle, whose family inherited the holding of Breedon. The Poynings inherited the estates of the de Plaiz family, whose arms quartered Poyning and Beche, the latter a Crispin family. William Ferrers married, thirdly, Elizabeth Standisshe, daughter of Robert, widow of William Botiller; of the family of Thomas Percy's wife; he being Johanne's brother.]
It can not be determined whether Arthur Harris and Johanne de Percy were the parents of William Harris of Southminster, ob. by 14/11/ 1556, High Sheriff of Essex. [There does not appear to be any evidence of transmission of the Louvaine arms of Percy, or a lion rampant azure, perhaps understandable at a time when the Percy family were political outcasts.] Supporting the notion of a close connection between Arthur and William Harris is that, as said, Arthur Harris held the Dunmow estate from the Ferrers family. In the reign of Queen Mary, William Harris was paid 32 shillings by the Royal Commissioners from monies owed to him by the estates tenants, which they had recovered. [E. Oxley, The Reformation of Essex, 1965, p. 112.] Thus, William was connected to the estate; and his descendants maintained close links with the family of Culpepper, indicating that there was at least a close connection between Arthur and William Harris. What can be absolutely determined is that William Harris was of Jernegan lineage, and passed inheritance to his descendants in West Sussex. By his first wife, Johanne Smith, he was the father of William Harris of Loughton, who bore the Vis-de-Loup arms, and was married to Jane Semer [Seymour] of Bocking; and Vincent Harris of Munden Hall, situated 3mls. S. E. of Maldon. His father had leased this hall, 17/6/1543, and had been styled William Harrys of Mundon. [L&P. Henry VIII., xviii.  p. 551] Vincent Harrys alias Harris married Mary Foljambe. [F. G. Emmison, Wills of Essex Gentry and Merchants, vol. iv., p. 93, 1978; see also Sudbury Church Register.] Her ancestors held land in Sudbury, Derbys., where the aforementioned Agnes Alcher, wife of Robert de Heriz II., was heiress. Sir Thomas Foljambe was Bailliff of the High Peak in 1272. The will of Sir Godfrey Foljambe, 23rd. Hen. VIII., shows that the family came to possess Loudham, Notts., probably through marrying a heiress of the Loudham family. Vincent and Mary entertained Queen Elizabeth I. on one of her royal processions, indicating they were of substantial wealth and property. Vincent's son, Sir Thomas Harris also leased Mundon Hall. [Henry Ellis, Speculi Britanniae, p. 37, 1840] Vincent's father married  Joan Cooke; their son being Arthur Harris of Woodham Mortimer, sole executor of Vincent's estate, who married Dorothy Waldegrave, daughter of Sir William Waldegrave of Smalbridge. Their son was Sir William Harris of Creeksea, ob. 20/11/1616, who married Alice Smythe, ob. 10/11/1615, daughter of Sir Thomas Smythe of Weston Hanger. Their son was Sir Arthur Harris of Creeksea, ob. 1631, who married  Anne Cranmer; their son being Sir Cranmer Harris, ob.1652, who married Martha Holford, and  Ann Salter, daughter of Sir Nicholas Salter of Enfield, widow of Sir Henry Bowyer of Denham.
Sir Arthur Harris held land in West Sussex, as shown by MSS 9588, held in the West Sussex Archive, dated 23/5/1616, which was a 'license to demise for seven years from Sir Arthur Harrys, Lord of the Manor of Rumboldswhyke and Anne his wife, to William Powndes and Mary his wife.' The same MSS confirms that the Manor was previously held by William Bowyer; therefore it is highly probable that Arthur Harrys acquired it in right of his wife, Anne Salter, whose first husband was, as stated, Henry Bowyer, son of William. A member of the Culpeper family of Rowley, Thomas, was a steward of the Bowyer estates, as inherited by Sir Arthur Harrys. William Harrys, Sir Arthur's father, held Ashurst, Wiston MSS 6087, anciently held by William de Braose; Peworth MSS 39323 shows a John Culpeper of Ashurst Lodge.
William Harris and Alice Smythe were the parents of: Sarjeant John Harris, 1588-14/10/1638, who held land in Woodham Ferrers, formerly owned by his great-grandparents. [F. G. Emmison et. al., Feet of Fines for Essex, p. 167, 1964.] Woodham Ferrers was a former estate of the Ferrers family. He married Dorothy Caldecott, of the previously mentioned Leicestershire family. He was a nephew of Sir Thomas Smythe, Treasurer of the Virginia Company, and followed his uncle to Virginia.
John Harris resided on the east side of the James river in Charles City County, at West Shirley Hundred, being burgess there, where he died, before 14/10/1638. His son was Thomas Harris, 10/6/1614-30/3/1672, of Isle of White County, Virginia. John Harris had a brother named Thomas, but he does not appear to be the oft quoted Captain Thomas Harris of Virginia, as his will was probated 8/7/1617, with Captain Harris living to 1658.
In more recent times, the Smythe family descended thus: John Smythe of Corsham, ob. 1538, Wilts., son of John, son of William, married Jane Brouncher. Their son, Thomas Smythe, ob. 1591, of Weston Hangar, Kent, married Alice Judde, daughter of Andrew Judde, ob.1586, Lord Mayor of London, and Mary Mervyn of Downs Court, Kent, daughter of Thomas Mervyn, ob. 1523, and Alice Marshall of Beverley, Yorkshire. They were the parents of the above mentioned Alice and Thomas Smythe, and also of Sir John Smythe of Weston Hangar, who married Elizabeth Fineaux; their son being Thomas Smythe, Lord Viscount Strangeford, who married Barbara Sydney, daughter of Robert Sydney, Ist. Earl of Leics.; she married  Sir Thomas Culpeper, Governor of Virginia.
This brief sketch of one family, and their journey from Normandy to America, is a story of how marriages were contracted within a kinship network of closely related families, each generation reinforcing these bonds through further marriages. Those mentioned within this account were almost invariably married to someone related by some degree of cousinship, a premise that others may use to delve further into this tightly interconnected family. The kinship network provided both protection and a means of advancement during the turbulent times it operated. It advanced the descendants of the proud Northern Race of Bernard the Dane to the shores of the New World of America, where those of his lineage testify through their research that their forefathers are of interest to them, and will always be kept in memory.
xiv. [e] ANCESTRY OF JOHANNA DE PERCY
1. Robert III. de Beaumont and Petronilla de Grentemesnil, see ch. x [a], had a daughter, 2. Margaret de Beaumont, a.k.a. Harcourt, who married Saher de Quincey, of Cuinchy, arr. Béthune, Earl of Winchester, father of Loretta de Quincey, who married William de Valoignes; their daughter, Lora de Valoignes, was the wife of Sir Henry Baliol, descendant of Reginald de Baliol, see below; their son being William le Scot. Margaret de Beaumont and Saher de Quincey also had among other issue, a son, 3. Roger de Quincey, who married Helen MacDonald. They had three daughters: 'coheirs of Roger de Quency [d.1264] - Margaret, who married William de Ferrers, earl of Derby, Elizabeth, who married Alexander Comyn, Earl of Buchan, and 4. Helen, who married Sir Alan la Zouche.' [Victoria County History, Oxfordshire, vol. 8, p. 58.] Helen de Quincey and Alan de la Zouche, descendant of Alan Fergant, Count of Bretagne, had a daughter, 5. Margery de la Zouche, who married Robert Fitzroger Clavering. [Foss, Judges of England, ii., pp. 527-9, 1848; Quincey/Beaumont arms: a la gauche, un écu portent une quintefeuille; Birch, Cat. Seals, Brit. Mus., ii., pp. 391-2, 1892.] Their daughter, 6. Euphemia Fitzroger Clavering, married Sir Randolf Neville, kinsman of Jollan de Neville, who was the second husband of Sarah de Heriz, relict, as said, of John Heriz of Gonalston, obit. 1241.
Euphemia Fitzroger Clavering and Sir Randolf Neville were the parents of 7. Sir Ralph Neville, who married Alice Audley. Their son, 8. John Neville, married Maude de Percy, descendant of Malahule of More. Their son, 9. Ralph de Neville, married Joan de Beaufort, only daughter of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, son of Edward III., by Catherine Swinford, afterwards his third wife. She was twice married; first, to Robert Ferrers, son of Robert lord Ferrers of Wem and Oversley; bearings: vairy, or and gules, by whom she had two daughters, Elizabeth and Mary. Elizabeth Ferrers was the wife of John, baron Greystoke, and Mary Ferrers, of Ralph Nevill, a younger son to Ralph, earl of Westmoreland.
The second husband of this Joan Beaufort was, as said, Ralph Nevill, the first earl of Westmoreland, and by him had issue: 10. Eleanor de Neville, who married Henry de Percy [son of the renowned 'Hotspur', who had married Elizabeth Mortimer.] Their son, 11. Henry de Percy, 3rd. earl Northumberland, married Eleanor Poynings, daughter of Baron Robert Poynings, descendant of Edward I., who held the barony of Fitspayne. Their son was 12. Henry Percy, 4th. earl of Northumberland, 1446-1489, who married Maude Herbert, daughter of William, 1st. earl of Pembroke, a friend of Edward IV., and Ann Devereux, daughter of Sir Walter Devereux. Their daughter was 13. Johanna Percy, b. c. 1480, who married Arthur Harris of Prittlewell, Essex. [Thomas Christopher Banks, The Dormant and Extinct Baronage of England, pp. 343/4, 1837.]
[Sir Luke de Poyning, brother of Robert, obit. 1376, married Isabel Saint John, a descendant of King John. Their daughter was Joan de Poyning, who married Henry de Ferrers, 4th. Lord Groby, 1356-1388. Their son was William Ferrers, 5th. Earl, who married Philippa Clifford; whose mother was Maud Beauchamp. Their daughter was Elizabeth Ferrers, who married Sir William Culpeper of Preston Hall, Kent, whose family acquired the Wakehurst barony of Sussex through marriage, encompassing the estate of Rowley, named from a brook 'flowing from a mill called Rowle Mill.' Elizabeth Ferrer's brother, Henry, held Dunmow, Essex; estate of Arthur Harrys. The Poynings inherited the estates of the de Plaiz family, whose arms quartered Poyning and Beche. William Ferrers married, thirdly, Elizabeth Standisshe, daughter of Robert, widow of William Botiller; of the family of Thomas Percy's wife; he being Johanne's brother.]
Henry Percy and his wife, Maude, were both buried at Beverley Minster; she covered in a cloth of gold, wearing slippers embroidered with silk, and holding a lamp and candle.
xiv. [f] ORIGINS OF THE PEVEREL FAMILY
In 908, the Thuringian March [frontier district], set up by Charlemagne against the Slavs, was seized by Otto, duke of Saxony, whose son, Henry I, halted a Magyar invasion of Thuringia at Riade in 933, and strengthened the defenses of the region. Henry I. [the Fowler] married Sigfried de Guine's sister, Mathilda. Henry's mother was of the Marche family.
Boson le Vieux, son of Sulpice, and grandson of Geoffrey, Count of Charroux, i. e., of Marche, of which Charroux is the chef lieu; he is called Count of Marche in the foundation charter of the Church of Divat, in 944. He had two sons, successively Counts of Marche, Boson, and Adelbert, Count of Haute Marche and Perigord. He was the father of Bernard, Count of Marche, whose son Adelbert, Count of Marche, was father of Boson, Count of Marche. He met his death in 1091, making siege to the Chateau de Confolens, when his estates passed to his sister Almodis, and thus to her husband, Roger de Montgomery, the Earl of Lancaster, Count of Marche.
n.b. Geoffroy le Brun came over with William the Conqueror in 1066. He was of the same family as the Counts of Marche - in Poitou - of many of whom le Brun was the soubriquet, afterwards the surname.
Henry I. is said to have given the Barony of Brunn, in Cambridgeshire, to Payn Peverel. As forfeited Baronies were generally given to relatives of the despoiled Baron, the Peverels were probably of near kindred to the Le Bruns,a probability confirmed by the following circumstances: Geoffrey de Waterville, as above, married a coheiress of Payn Peverel. One coat of Waterville is gules, three fleurs de lis or, a chief barry wavy argent and azure. Gules, three fleurs de lis or, is the coat borne by Le Brun. Osbern Peyforer was an extensive Domesday tenant in Kent; his descendants bore six fleurs de lis, which are also the arms of the Lenhams of Lenham, in Kent. One or more fleurs de lis were borne by the Pluckleys, Cobhams, and Fresnes, all Kentish families. Jeffrey de Peverel, soon after the Conquest, held fourteen knight's fees, chiefly in Kent, which made up the Honour of Peverel. Now if Peyforer be synonymous with Peverel - a variation not greater than many in Domesday - it is difficult from the foregoing to resist the conclusion that the families bearing these names were of kindred origin with the Le Brun; and these latter there seems no reason to doubt were, as they are said to be, of the royal blood of France, as they certainly did bear three fleurs de lis for their arms.
Given the above considerations, it is not improbable that the progenitor of those named Peverel was of the family of Henry the Fowler and Mathilda, sister of Sigfried de Guines.
xv. ANARCHY RULED ?
Thomas de Colville, as his father, lived in a harsh world. William the Conqueror's son, Henry 1, died in 1135 without legitimate male issue, his only legitimate son drowned in 1120. With the death of Henry I, a civil war erupted over the question of who would succeed to the throne. Their were two claimants: Firstly, Matilda, daughter of Henry I., and designated heiress; her husband was Geoffrey Plantagenet, count of Anjou; their son was Henry Plantagenet, destined to become Henry II. This Geoffrey is the direct descendant, as said, of Eve de Montfort's niece, Bertrade de Montfort. She was assisted in her campaign by Robert of Gloucester, her half-brother, eldest bastard son of Henry I., and her uncle, David of Scotland. Secondly, Stephen of Blois, Count of Boulogne and Mortain, and son of William the Conqueror's daughter, Adela. See extended genealogies, ch. viii. Stephen was a direct descendant of Theobald 1., Count of Blois, brother of the aforementioned Gerlotte de Blois. The result was supposed anarchy between 1139 and 1153. The disputants bid for the loyalty of the barons, and many of the barons shifted allegiance as it suited their family interests.
The Peterborough version of The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle describes a dreadful period of chaos: 'The land was left untilled, and the impliments of husbandry abandoned. Torture, murder, pillage, fire, slavery, were the weapons the fired soldiery fought with, and the castles were the homes of licensed robbers. Abbeys were converted into fortresses, and the soldiery, secure within their moats, set all law and justice aside.'
This was almost certainly a great distortion of events, one which has been taught to generations of schoolchildren, and cited as an example of what happens when government breaks down. Peterborough was one of the few areas where government had ceased to be effective. Somewhat paradoxically, after the description of chaos is a lengthy account of how prosperous Peterborough Abbey was during this period! The fact is that what little fighting took place in the civil war was in Wiltshire and Gloucestershire, in the middle of Stephen's reign. It was not that the English had experienced anarchy, but rather that they had come too close to it for comfort. Future historians engaged in re-writing history to suit the purposes of governments who could cite a dreadful example of an alternative to their rule.
More factually, King David of Scotland's army invaded England in 1138. David's forces were defeated at the Battle of the Standard, in Northalerton, by the levies of Yorkshire, inspired by a wagon that bore on its mast the standards of theYorkshire saints - St. Peter of York, St. Wilfred of Ripon, St. John of Beverley, and St.Cuthbert of Durham. Thomas de Colville and Roger de Mowbray were a part of this victorious army. Roger was noted as having performed with valour. [Aelred of Rievaulx.] Two miles on the road to Darlington a stone obelisk marks the site of the battle.
Home-life was also troublesome. In this period, the centre of life in castles and manors was the great hall, a large chamber safely built upon the second floor. These halls were poorly lit, due to the need for massive walls with small windows for defense from attack. There were no chimneys, and the fireplace was in the middle of the hall. Smoke escaped by the way of louvres in the roof.
There were compensations. The upper class enjoyed a varied diet. Meat, fish, pastries, and all manner of vegetables were common, as well as fresh bread, cheese, and fruit. Spitted boar, roast swan, or peacock might be added at a feast. Weak ale was the most common drink, as water was often the source of disease, and was drunk soon after brewing. Meat was cut with daggers, and all eating was done with the fingers from trenchers, or hollowed out husks of bread. One trencher was used by two people, and one drinking cup. Scraps were thrown on the floor for the dogs to finish.
Wives of noble status supervised officials who, in turn, directed the rest of the staff. In this period, however, the influence of the Church and its teaching led to women being considered more or less explicitly the source of physical temptation. The relevailles ceremony - a religious ceremony in which a priest blesses a woman after childbirth - is very revealing in this respect, as it shows that the woman alone was considered to be tainted.
By contrast to the nobleman and his lady, peasant families lived in rough huts on dirt floors, with no chimneys or windows. Often, one end of the hut was given over to storing livestock. Furnishings were sparse; three legged stools, a trestle table, beds on the floor softened with straw or leaves. The peasant diet was mainly porridge, cheese, black bread, and a few home-grown vegetables.
xvi. THE ROAD TO STANHOPE
Thomas de Colleville had two sons:
Firstly Philip de Colville, 1140-1220, who was ancestor of the Colvilles of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, and the Everlys of Yorkshire. He held land in Thimbleby and Sigston, Yorkshire. He was founder of the Nunnery of St. Stephens, Foukeholm, and of St. James Hospital, Northallerton. [William Page, History of the County of York, p. 116, 1974.] He married an heiress called Engelise Ingeram, 1150-1210, of Ingleby Arncliffe, situated 8 miles north-east of Northallerton; Stainton Dale, near Scarborough, and East Heslerton, which is situated half way between Malton and Scarborough. Philip Colville also owned land in Lutton, Lincolnshire, Ancroft, Northumberland, and St. Helen Auckland, Durham, which is located quite near to Stanhope.
Their son was William de Colville, 1165-1230, who held one night's fee of Robert de Gaunt, in the honour of Bourne, Lincolnshire, and 14 others in the same county, who, temp. Richard I., gave land to Whitby Abbey. [J. C. Atkinson, ed., Cartularium Abbathiae de Whiteby, 1879, 1881.] He acquired land at Muston and Waddington, near Lincoln. [F. R. Lees, Templars, pp. 105-110, 1869.] He was also Lord of Bytham, which was near the site of Vaudey Abbey. In the next reign he was in arms with the barons against the King, and excommunicated by the Pope; and in 1216 taken prisoner at Lincoln. 'Whereupon Maud, his Wife, being sollicitous for his Redemption, obtain'd Letters of Safe-conduct to come to the King, for treating with him to that purpose; and thereby making his Composition, had the King's Precept to William Earl of Albemarle, to render his Castle of Bitham, in Com. Lincoln, which had been seised for that Transgression.' [ E. Kingsly, Baronial Wars, p. 112, 1804.] William Colville's wife was Maud d'Aubigny, 1171-1217. Again, the exact family to which this Maud d'Aubigny belonged can not be safely ascertained. William Colville and Maud d'Aubigny had issue:
Roger de Colville, 1193-1230, of Bytham Castle, Lincolnshire, who married Beatrice de Stuteville, 1194-1266, of Brandesburton, East Yorkshire. Roger de Colville and Beatrice de Stuteville had a son, Walter de Colville, 1225-1277, who married Isabella de Albiniaco, 1229-1266, of Aubourn and Counthorpe, Lincolnshire. Their son was Sir Roger de Colville, 1251-1288, who married Margaret de Braiose, 1260-1335, of Stainton Manor, Norfolk. [G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, 1910-1938. See also F. L. Weis, Magna Charta Sureties, 4th. ed., 1991.]
Robert de Colville, 1200-1276, who held lands at Thimbleby and Arncliffe. His sons were Walter de Colville, 1228-1276, and Thomas de Colville, 1230-1290, who held land in Coxwold, Oulston, and Yearsley. Thomas de Colville's desmesnes formed one knight's fee of Roger de Mowbray II. He had two sons, William Colville, 1258-1299, and Sir Robert Colville, 1265-1322. A son of the former first styled himself Everleigh/Everly. A son of the latter, Sir Robert Colville, married Elizabeth Conyers, and was ancestor of the Colvilles of Yorkshire. [Yorkshire Archeological Journal, vol. xiv., 1898. See also C. E Heley, Early Yorkshire Assize Rolls, 1895.]
Robert de Colville of Thimbleby and Arncliffe, as his father, also sided with the barons, and had been sent by them, with Roger de Jarponville, to sue for peace with the King. He was taken prisoner by Fulk de Breant; and the next heir, Walter, of no less turbulent spirit, again rose in rebellion, and was imprisoned, as his father and grandfather had been before him. He was one of the fiery-spirited men that fought under the banner of Simon de Montfort; but surrendered at Kenilworth, and was allowed to compound for his lands. He died in 1276, and with him the vicissitudes of his family were brought to a close. His grandson, Edmund, acquired Weston-Colville in Cambridgeshire, through Margaret de Ufford, his wife; and his great grandson, Robert, who served in Edward III.'s French wars, was a baron by writ in 1342. This barony expired with Robert's grandson, at whose death no nearer heirs were to be found to his estate than the descendants of Robert's great aunts, the two sisters of Edmund de Colville. Elizabeth, the eldest, was represented by Ralph Basset; and Alice, by John Gernon.
Though the barony had thus come to an end, there was still a collateral branch of the house 'of great antiquity in Cambridgeshire. Sir Henry de Colville was Sheriff of Hunts and Cambridge, 35 Henry III. Philip de Colville, 53 do. defended the castle of Gloucester against that King's son, and had a pardon the same year.' [Blomfield's Norfolk..] They had been early enfeoffed of Carlton Colville, in Suffolk; and Sir Henry's son, Sir Roger, who first assumed the lion rampant since borne by the family, obtained a market and fair there in 1267. He had been Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk the preceding year. He was a person of tyrannical and arbitrary character. Upon the return of Edward I. from the Holy Land, he was charged with an undue exercise of his right of free-warren, raising a weir in the river and appropriating it to his own use, extorting money, etc.. There is a charter extant which shows the vast estate possessed by this family in Carlton and its neighbourhood. Carlton Hall passed away from them early in the fourteenth century, when they retired to estates obtained by marriage with the heiress of de Marisco in West Norfolk and Cambridgeshire. This Desiderata de Marisco was the wife of the next Sir Roger, styled 'the rapacious knight' of Caxton in Cambridgeshire, to whom she also brought Newton Colville in Norfolk, which became the principal residence of their descendants for nearly five hundred years. One of them was killed in France in the wars of Edward III.; another, a devoted loyalist in the Great Rebellion, was one of the intended knights of the Royal Oak. Like most Cavalier families, they probably suffered in purse what they gained in reputation. At last, in 1792, Robert Colville sold the old place in Norfolk that had been so long their homestead; and Newton Hall was pulled down. His son, Sir Charles, married a Derbyshire heiress, who brought him Duffield Hall and Lullington, near Burton-on-Trent.
Secondly, Richard de Ifferley, 1142-1210, who is mentioned in the Boldon Book of 1183 as holding lands in Stanhope, Durham: 'Richard de Ifferley holds 48 acres, and renders 8s. for his life, and his heir after him shall render 10s.' Richard de Ifferley held lands at Stanhope from the See of Durham, with the office of Seneschal. [E. A. Freeman, ibid.] He married Emma de Longvilliers, 1152-1220, daughter of Eudo de Longvilliers I., 1110-1170, Seneschal to the de Lacy family, and Agnes de Neville, 1120-1190.
E. A. Freeman, for whom genealogy was a distraction from his academic work, identified Richard de Ifferley's son as Bernard de Ifferley, 1180-1255, who may well have been the Bernardus Magistratus often mentioned as witness to charters concerning land grants in Durham, c.1220. He married Margaret de Chaworth, 1198-1260. She was the sister of Ellen de Chaworth, 1190-1263, who was married to Bernard's cousin, John de Longvilliers I., 1178-2/10/1254. These family connections are detailed in ch. xvi.
Professor Freeman used court evidence - Rot. Orig. Cur. Scac. i. 86 - to identify that a son of Bernard de Ifferley was called William de Stanhope. He made the assumption that Bernard's grandson, Richard de Stanhope, was the son of this William. This does not agree with the lineage given by 5th. Earl Stanhope, better known as Lord Mahon, also an eminent historian, who, in 1835, was under secretary for foreign affairs. He was interested in antiquities, being a trustee of the British Museum, and in 1869 founded the Historical Manuscripts Commission. His works continue to be of great importance on account of his unique access to antiquarian manuscripts. I have every faith in the accuracy of what he reports. He worked closely with his friend, the eminent academic and antiquary, Sir Henry Ellis.
5th. Earl Stanhope [Notices of The Stanhopes As Esquires And Knights and Until Their First Peerages In 1605 And 1616, unpublished, 1855] quotes from The History of Durham by William Hutchinson, 1794, vol. iii. p. 295, to state that:
'The first of the name Stanhope we find holding lands in Stanhope was Richard de Stanhope, the son of Walter de Stanhope, who died seised of a messuage of 22 acres of land in the fifth year of Bishop Bury, 1338-1339, charged with a mark yearly to Peter de Stanford. In the ninth year of Bishop Hatfield, 1354, one of this family, William, died seised of 24 acres of land and 15 acres he had acquired of Robert Featherstonhalgh, and left a daughter, Margaret de Stanhope, his heir, after which period we do not find any of the Stanhopes named in the records.'
This lineage is also documented thus: 'The first recorded ancestor of this knightly and noble family is Walter de Stanhope, whose son Richard died in 1338, or the following year.' [Mark Anthony Lower, Patronymica Britannica, p. 327. 1860.]
The combined detection of Freeman and Mahon suggests that Bernard had two sons, Walter de Stanhope, 1222-1290, and William de Stanhope, 1225-1270. Walter de Stanhope married his cousin, Margaret de Longvilliers, 1228-1310. Walter's son was Richard de Stanhope, 1262-1338. He married his cousin once removed, Ellota de Longvilliers, 1273-1333. They had issue: Sir Richard de Stanhope, 1300-1370, dates as inquis. post mortem, Robert de Stanhope, 1303-1349, who both fought against the Scots at Berwick in 1334 and 1335, and William de Stanhope, 1305-1354.
n.b. That Walter de Stanhope was the progenitor of those decribed hereafter is affirmed in a letter from Charles, Lord Stanhope, to his sister, Lady Tollemache, dated 12/10/1608. This letter was accompanied by an emblazoned pedigree of the Stanhopes, from Walter de Stanhope, father of Richard, who died in 1338, to James, first Lord Stanhope of Elvaston. [Harl. MSS. no. 1555.]
These Stanhopes and their descendants continued to bear the arms of Colville, viz. a cross, until the 15th.Century, when the present modification was adopted.
These Stanhopes were obviously not large landowners. 'The conjecture of Stanhope being the possession of that family is not supported by any evidence come to our knowledge, save only the small portions of property after mentioned to be held by those of the name Stanhope.' [Hutchinson, vol. iii. p.292.]* Thomas de Colville, the aforementioned constable of Dumfries, gave land, in Galloway, to Vaudey Abbey, to pray for the souls of dead Scottish Kings.The fact that a Lincolnshire Abbey received land in Galloway for the souls of Scottish Kings is only explicable because of the existence of an aristocratic family with members in both kingdoms. [G. Barrow, The Anglo-Norman Era in Scottish History, 1980.] The network of relations was vitally important, providing support in times of need, and promotion when influence permitted. The family of de Colville, although geographically dispersed, was a powerful political entity.
* It would be all too easy to give a full account of the very strong genealogical connection between the Longvilliers and Crispins; this, however, would risk the further tedium of some readers, and an abridged version is offered by way of committing the lesser sin of omission. Eudo Longvilliers was a younger brother or cousin of Arnoul, Count of Guines, 1102-1169, being a son or nephew of Wenemar of Ghent, 1070-1138, and Gisele de Guines, 1074-1132. Wenemar of Ghent was a direct descendant of Thierry II., Count of Ghent, 930-988, and Hildegarde of Flanders, daughter of the previously mentioned Arnulf the elder, Count of Flanders, and Adele de Vermandois. Gisele de Guines was a direct descendant of Ardolphe, Count of Guines, 966-997, younger brother of the previously mentioned Heloise de Guines. A grandson of Arnoul, Count of Guines, styled himself Arnoul de Longvilliers, taking his name, as his older English relative, from the family fief of Longvilliers.
* The Bolden Book was a work commisioned by Bishop Hugh Pudsey, to whom Richard de Ifferley was Senechal. Hugh de Pudsey [Puiset] was a cousin of King Stephen, both being of the aforementioned family of de Blois. To repeat, King Stephen's sister, Maud, married Richard D'Avranches, 2nd. Earl of Chester, g.g.g. grandson of Rolf Turstain, pointing to earlier associations between these families. The celebrated Domesday Book had stopped short of the Tees, and the Boldon Book gives an invaluable insight into land ownership and life in the Palatinate in the late 12th century. We find cartloads of venison being transported between Stanhope and Durham. 'Moreover, all the villans make at the great hunts a kitchen, and larder, and a kennel, and they find a settle in the hall, and in the chapel and in the chamber, and carry all the Bishops carrody from Wolsingham to the Lodges.' Some of the personal names are fascinating. We find a Richard the ruddy holding 20 acres, and Ralph the crafty holding 12 acres 'for as long as it pleases the Bishop.'
* This period of history was characterised by a high volume of serious crime. [What changes?] The justices who visited Lincoln in 1202 found 114 cases of homicide, 89 of robbery, usually with violence, 65 of wounding, 49 of rape, and a great many others. Moreover, most crimes never came before the court, for unwillingness to lay charges.
* The place-name Stanhope comes from two Old English elements, stan or stone, and hop or side valley, thus it means the stone-sided valley. The name was originally given to the valley of the Stanhope Burn which enters the river Wear at this point, but then became transferred to the settlement which grew up at the junction. The place-name Stanhope is first mentioned about 1170 in a charter relating to the family of Bishop Hugh de Pudsey. Stanhope Park occurs in many medieval documents as one of the Bishop of Durham's hunting preserves.
xvii. TROUBLED TIMES
Sir Richard Stanhope, 1300-1370, Knight, son of Richard, and grandson of Walter, fixed his residence at Newcastle-upon Tyne. He possessed 'ample' estates in Northern England. [MS. Veel, p. 973.] He was chosen mayor of that town in 1364. He obtained, in 1350, a grant of the third part of the village and fishery of Paxton on the Tweed, in consideration for services against the Scots. Sir Richard married the heiress Alice de Houghton, 1310-1360. Houghton lies between Clumber and East Retford, and formed part of the domain of the Longvilliers, being initially called Houghton Longvilliers, and more recently called Haughton. They had two sons:
Firstly, Sir John Stanhope, 1328-1381, M.P. for Newcastle in 1359, and its mayor in 1366. He was also Escheator for Notts. and Derbyshire in 1365, and Sheriff of Notts. and Derbyshire in 1373. He gained, post 30/5/1369, Rampton, Notts., by marriage, 1366, to the heiress Elizabeth Maulovel, 1346-1395. In 1350, he is mentioned in a list of persons who had the King's permission to travel to Rome: 'Johannes de Stanhope, cum uno garcione et uno equo.' [Rymer's Foedera, vol. v. p. 683, 1704-1735.] Sir John Stanhope and Elizabeth Maulovel had issue: Margaret Stanhope, 1366-1413. John Stanhope, 1367-1432. Richard Stanhope, 1368-1436. Stephen Stanhope, 1370-1423. Robert Stanhope, 1372-1400. Ralph Stanhope, 1374-1440. John Stanhope first succeeded his father. He was twice married, firstly to Elizabeth de Cuily, daughter of Thomas de Cuily of Oxton; and, secondly, to Elizabeth Pierrepoint, daughter of Sir Edmund Pierrepoint of Holme Pierrepoint. He had no issue by either.
Secondly, Sir Richard Stanhope, 1330-1380, dates as inquis. post mortem, MP. for Newcastle-on Tyne, who Earl Stanhope, see Notices, makes out as Lord of Elstwyke [Northumberland] and Usworth [Durham], not his father. He married Alice de Moderby, heiress, through her brother and sister, of lands in Great and Little Usworth. He had a son, named John de Stanhope, aged 24 in 1380. His lands appear to have passed away to a son of his wife by another marriage. [Robert Surtees, History of Durham, vol. ii. p.46. 1816-1840.]
The second son of Sir John Stanhope and Elizabeth Maulovel, and his heir, on the decease of his elder brother, Sir Richard Stanhope, was Knight of the Bath at the coronation of Henry IV., 1399, and also M P. for Nottingham. He was also Sheriff of that county and of Derbyshire. He died on Easter Monday, 1436, seised of the manors of Rampton, Egmanton, Skegby, South Cotham; the third part of the manor of Tuxford, and the manor of Ansty, Warwick.
These Stanhopes lived through one of the most turbulent times of English history. In 1349, a devastating plague called the Black Death arrived in England from the Continent. It began with a swelling in the armpits, high fever, violent spasms, and vomiting of blood. Black spots broke out over the body. Death was almost inevitable. One third of the entire population died. Whole villages stood empty. To say that labour was scarce is far below the mark. In places it was not to be had for love or money. The rate of wages soared. The very existence of the class that Sir Richard Stanhope represented was threatened. They passed a law - the Labourers' Statute - stating that wages must remain at pre-plague rates. They might as well have tried to stop the wind from blowing. England was in a revolutionary condition. Priests in the pulpit took the people's side. One in particular, a priest of Kent, John Ball, preached a theory of a new and startling kind: All men were equal. Society as it stood was rotten. That the rich man should parade in his velvet and his ermine, while the poor man shivered in his frieze, was against the laws nature, justice, and God. The Black Death had followed hard on the heels of what has been called a little ice age. There were great floods between 1315 and 1317. Temperatures plunged. There were sheep and cattle plagues. Crops failed. We are told in the Annals of Bermondsey that in 1348 the poor ate dogs, cats, the dung of doves, and their own children.
The train was ready for the great explosion. It needed now but some sudden spark to fire it. In 1377, a poll tax was levied to pay for the costly wars with France. Three years later, this unpopular levy was repeated - a shilling per head from every family in England. A shilling was equivalent to a weeks wages. The people's blood was up, and in a moment they were up in arms. Essex was first; Kent followed, and Canterbury was overrun with revolutionary mobs. Risings in the north and west were slow, but the home counties were soon in a blaze. There was no standing army, no regular police, and the upper classes were forced to take refuge in the woods. Halls were burnt and looted; monasteries attacked. In London, a mob attacked the Savoy Palace, home to John of Gaunt, uncle to the King, and the best hated man in all the land. Prisons were attacked, and prisoners released. The mob surrounded the Tower, where the young King and his court took refuge.That the rebels leader, Wat Tyler, was slain as he addressed the Royal Court the following day at Smithfield Market, and that the rebels were made false promises of reform by the young king, is well known. What is not is that orders were given for a terrible revenge. Peasants were everywhere arrested, tried, hung, quartered, disemboweled by dozens at a time. Hollywood never made a film of this.
xviii. MARRY THE HEIRESS
The second son of Sir John Stanhope and Elizabeth Maulovel, Sir Richard Stanhope, had two wives: Firstly,  Johanna de Staly, 1370-1410, daughter of Robert de Staly:Inscript. Rampton Chuch, as recorded c.1850.
'Hic jacet Ric. Stanhop Miles et Johanna uzor ejus quae fuit
filia Rob. de Staly qui obiit primo die Aprilis Anno Domini
MCCCC ....... et predicta Johanna obiit ...... mo die Septembe.
Anno Domini Mccccx, quo .......'
These Stalys had anciently been important Anglo Saxon thegns, and had regained their lands through a marriage between Adam de Staly and Alice de Percy, daughter of William de Percy of Kildale. Adam de Staly's ancestor, Uctred, was a tenant of Roger de Mowbray, and, as such, would have been well known to Thomas de Colleville. The name of the family is given as Staley or Stalley in the Herald's Visitation of Nottinghamshire, MS. Brit. Mus., 1614.
Sir Richard Stanhope and Johanna de Staly had issue:
Sir Richard Stanhope, 1390-2/3/1432. Robert Stanhope, 1391-1434. He married Adela Markham, half-sister of Elizabeth Markham, see below. Thomas Stanhope, 1392-1424. James Stanhope, 1393-1447. Elizabeth Stanhope, 1395-1452. Agnes Stanhope, 1396-1452. She married Robert Strelley, son of Sir Nicholas, descendant of the family of Heriz.
He married, secondly, Maud, sister and heir to Ralph, Lord Cromwell, of Tattershall Castle in Lincolnshire, Treasurer of England from 1433 to 1443, who had secured his inheritance of Heriz estates. By her he had one son, Henry, who died young, and two daughters, who, in right of their mother, held great fortunes. The elder, Joan Stanhope, 1415-12/3/1481, not 1490, as is often wrongly stated, married, 1446, Humphrey Bourchier, 1425-1471, a cousin of Edward IV., and third son of Henry Bourchier, 1st. Earl of Essex, 1404-1483, and Isabella Plantagenet, 1409-2/10/1484. Isabella Plantagenet, born in Conisbrough Castle, was the daughter of Richard Plantagenet of Conisbrough, 1376-5/8/1415, who was beheaded for plotting against Henry IV. He was the son of Edmund Plantagenet, 5/6/1341-1/8/1402, 1st. Duke of York, and Isabella of Castilla, 1355-23/12/1393. Edmund Plantagenet was the son of King Edward III., 13/11/1312-21/6/1377, and Phillippa of Hainault, 24/6/1311-14/8/1369.
The younger daughter of Sir Richard Stanhope and Maud Cromwell, Maud Stanhope, 1420-1497, married  Lord Willoughby de Eresby, that is, Robert Willoughby, 6th. baron. They had issue a sole daughter and heiress, Joan, who married Sir Richard Welles, son and heir apparent of Leo, Lord Welles. The Willoughby family had obtained Eresby through marriage to Alice, daughter of John Bec, Lord of Eresby, descendant, as said, of Goisfred de Beche of Domesday.  Sir Thomas Neville, son of Sir Richard de Neville, 5th. Earl of Salisbury.  Gervase Clifton. She was buried in Tattershall Church.
His son, Sir Richard Stanhope, who died before him, married Elizabeth Markham, 1390-1438, daughter of Sir John Markham, the younger, 1368-1409, Chief Justice of the King's Bench, and Margaret Leeke, 1374-1425, daughter and coheir of Simon Leeke of Cotham, Notts. [Throsby's edition of Thoroton's History of Notts, vol. iii. pp. 226-233, 1797.] Sir Richard Stanhope was buried in Tuxford Church.
The two manors of Markham, anciently written Marcham, both near Tuxford, West and East Markham, were the property of the above Sir John Markham. The Markham family were originally of the family of de Lizours. Roger de Lizours was a mesne-tenant of the great Norman magnate Roger de Busli, holding land in East Markham. He had gained this tenantship by marrying the heiress of a local Saxon thegn called Ulchel. Roger's son was Fulc de Lizours. A charter of 1110 states that Fulc 'gave to the monastery of St. Mary of Blithe and the monks there a toft.' He assumed the name of his place of residence, calling himself Fullc de Marcham. His son was Sir Alexander de Marcham, 1145-1210, Castellan of Nottingham Castle.
The marriages between the families of Lexington, Markham, Longvilliers, Maulovel, and Stanhope are of a complex nature. A little understanding of them, however, throws much light on the vast network of cousins, in-laws, aunts and uncles, that constituted the medieval extended family, which provided the connections that made advantageous marriages possible.
Sir Alexander de Marcham's son, Sir William Markham, 1181-1267, who inherited the estates of his father, married the heiress Cecilia de Lexington, 1195-1230, one of six children of Richard de Lexington, 1170-1220, and Matilda de Cauz, 1180-1225. Their son, Robert Markham, 1210-1289, dates as inquis. post mortem, married Sarah Snitterton, 1220-1274, heiress of Jordan de Snitterton, in the county of Derby, ancestor of the Shirleys.Their daughter, Bertha Markham, 1248-1305, married William de Longvilliers, 1250-1281, Lord of Gargrave, dates as inquis. post mortem. The Longvilliers acquired a third part of Tuxford by this marriage with Bertha Markham, who had inherited it from her grandmother.
William de Longvilliers and Bertha Markham had issue, among which were: Ellota de Longvilliers, who married, as said, Richard de Stanhope, and Thomas de Longvilliers, 11/4/1279-20/8/1349, Baron of the Realm, who married Maud de Creting, 1290-1320. Their daughter was the Longvilliers heiress Petronilla Longvilliers, 1307-1341. n.b. Her name is given as Petronilla, not Elizabeth, in an inquisition of 1341, and also in the Subsidy Roll of 1327. She married Robert Maulovel, 1290-1335, descendant of Nigelus of Rampton, mesne-tenant of Roger de Busli. [Rev. Daniel Lysons, vol v. Magna Britannia, 1817.]
Their son was Stephen Maulovel, 1325-1363, who married Frances de Mering, 1330-1360, dates as inquis. post mortem. Stephen Maulovel was cousin and heir of John Longvilliers V., 1347-30/5/1369, who was the son of John Longvilliers IV., 1322-1361, the brother of Petronilla Longvilliers.
Both Robert and Petronilla died while Stephen Maulovel was a minor, and so the estates were held by the King. Stephen was of age in 1346, and in that year did homage of the lord of Tickhill, paying one knight's fee and one quarter knight's fee. He was the father of Elizabeth Maulovel, wife , as said, of Sir John Stanhope the elder.
14 Thomas de Colleville 1100-1170 m. Matilda D' Aubigny 1120-1180.
15 Richard de Ifferley 1142-1210 m. Emma de Longvilliers 1152-1220.
16 Bernard de Ifferley 1185-1255 m. Margaret de Chaworth 1198-1260.
17 Walter de Stanhope 1222-1290 m. Margaret de Longvilliers 1228-1310.
18 Richard de Stanhope 1262-1338 m. Ellota de Longvilliers 1273-1333.
19 Sir Richard de Stanhope 1300-1370 m. Alice de Houghton 1310-1360.
20 Sir John Stanhope 1328-1381 m. Elizabeth Maulovel 1346-1387.
21 Sir Richard Stanhope 1368-1436 m. Johanna de Staly 1370-1410.
22 Sir Richard Stanhope 1390-1432 m. Elizabeth Markham 1390-1438.
Eudo de Longvilliers I. 1105-1170 m. Agnes de Neville 1120-1190.
Eudo de Longvilliers II. 1146-1210 m. Clemencia Malhart 1163-1249.
John de Longvilliers I. 1178-1254 m. Ellen de Chaworth 1190-1263.
John de Longvilliers II. 1230-1255 m. Alice Pennington 1235-1283.
William de Longvilliers 1250-1281 m. Bertha Markham 1248-1305.
Sir William Markham 1181-1254 m. Cecilia de Lexington 1195-1230.
Robert Markham 1210-1272 m. Sarah Snitterton, 1220-1274.
Bertha Markham, 1248-1305 m. William de Longvilliers 1250-1281.
Thomas de Longvilliers 1279-1349 m. Maud de Creting 1280-1320.
Petronilla Longvilliers 1300-1341 m. Robert Maulovel 1285-1335.
Stephen Maulovel 1325-1371 m. Frances de Mering 1330-1360.
Elizabeth Maulovel 1346-1395 m. Sir John Stanhope 1326-1381.
xix. THE LADY OF THE MANOR
What can we know of Elizabeth Markham and the life of the other medieval ladies herein mentioned? Why should we know of them? I repeat what was said by way of introduction: The aim of any history, even a small one as this, should be to stir interest and appreciation, for without that all study of the past is dead and labour lost.
We often picture a medieval woman as young and beautiful, who was charming to men, and waited for her knight to rescue her from the tower. This could not be further from the truth. In medieval society, women gained their status through advantageous marriages. Women from wealthy families were normally engaged to be married by their fathers while they were still in their cradles. A girl was held capable of consenting to marriage at the age of seven, and could have her first child by the age of thirteen.
The girl's father was the sole person who selected a suitable husband. If he died before she was married, he would have made sure to have left her a suitable dowry, to either wed her or put her into a nunnery.
Many girls of wealthy families were educated by being sent to nunneries. Young girls were taught to read and write, tell stories, read romances, and learn of ladies fashion and of manners.
Such girls were also sent to the households of great ladies; this way they could learn the etiquette of refined society. Some fathers thought it was more important for a girl to be better equipped with proper manners than intellect.
A woman of high status could be a land owner. The woman who owned land or was considered a person of importance. When such woman married, everything she owned became her husbands for the duration of her marriage. After the death of a husband, she could claim one third of her properties, and, if she chose to re-marry, they would remain hers.
Wives had to be able to take their husbands places at all times. This was very hard work. She had to be capable of taking her husband's place during his absences. She had to look after the manor, collect rents, and supervise the farming.
She had to know about law, in case her lord's rights were ever violated. She had to be able to plan expenses wisely. In a very large manor, several small rooms were set up to accommodate the making of consumable goods. Ale was brewed in the brew-house. Bread was baked in the bake house. Butter and cheese were made in the dairy.
The lady of the manor's duties also included governing the house at all times. She monitored daily duties and distributed functions, only going into town herself to buy the finest fish, best wines, and exotic spices from local merchants; thus she also had to know how to bargain. She had to have knowledge of gardening, and be able to hire help to assist her. She could draw up wills and make contracts. She could sue or be sued.
xx. THE KING'S MEN
Sir Richard Stanhope and Elizabeth Markham, whom I hope is now more appreciation by us, had three sons, Sir John Stanhope, Nicholas Stanhope, William Stanhope, and one daughter, Joan Stanhope. Sir John Stanhope, 1412-1473, dates as inquis. post mortem, not to be confused with his cousin so named, was many years M.P. for Notts., and thrice was the Sheriff of Nottingham and Derby. He succeeded his grandfather in 1436. In the civil wars of the time, he took part with the House of Lancaster. He married, firstly, Catherine, daughter of Richard Molineaux, and widow of Sir Robert Ratcliffe, by whom he had no issue. He married, secondly, Elizabeth Talbot, 1420-1451, daughter of Sir Thomas Talbot, grandson of Sir Gilbert Talbot and Petronella Butler, of Bashall, in the county of York, parish Mitton Magna, and n.b. Alice Tempest, daughter of Sir John Tempest of Bracewell. See Notices. The ancestor of these Talbots first obtained the manor of Bashall in 1256, by grant from Edmund Lacy, Constable of Chester. They became extinct in the male line temp. Charles I.. [Dr. Whitaker, History of Whalley, p. 402, 1801.]
Earl Stanhope observed that Sir John Stanhope had erected 'a tombstone on the south side of the chancel of Rampton church, to the memory of his wife.' It read: 'Hic Jacet Elizebetha .... filia Thos Talbot Milit de Bashall .... Septemb. Anno Domini mccccli .... Cujus animae propitietur Deus. Amen.' She was of the ancient family of Tailbois, previously mentioned as tenants of William Malet in Normandy. Sir Thomas Talbot and Alice Tempest also had issue: Sir Thomas Talbot, and Edmund Talbot, erroneously implicated in the betrayal of Henry VI..
Sir John Stanhope and Elizabeth Talbot had issue: Henry Stanhope, 1438-1472. Thomas Stanhope. Randolph Stanhope, 1442-1486. Robert Stanhope, 1444-1496. William Stanhope, 1445-1473. Elinore Stanhope, 1449-1483. Helizabeth Stanhope, 1450-1497. Margaret Stanhope, 1452-1608. Anna Stanhope, 1454-1621.
Henry Stanhope married Joan Rochford of Stoke Rochford, in the county of Lincoln. Their only son, Edmund, was buried in the chapel at Houghton, which was a burial-place of the Stanhopes while they lived at Rampton, although some of them are interred at Tuxford and at Rampton. Edmund's daughter and heir, by Alice his wife, was Margaret Stanhope, obit. 1/1/1539, who married Thomas Skeffington, of Skeffington, Leicestershire. Their son and heir was William Skeffington, 1518-22/9/1571, who married Mary Cave, obit. 7/9/1558. On the decease of Margaret Stanhope, Thomas Skeffington inherited part of the manor of West Markam, and lands in Little Darlington, Ryton, and Stoke Rochford.
As late as 1850, according to Earl Stanhope's account, the tomb of Joan Stanhope was preserved at Houghton Church. The grave-stone has a large cross engraved upon it, with the words in large Gothic letters - Jesu Mercye Lady Helpe.
Sir John Stanhope's son, Sir Thomas Stanhope, 1440-1494, of Rampton, was in 4 Edward IV., 1475, 'retained by indenture to attend the king in person in his wars with France, with one man-at-arms and ten archers, receiving £20 19s. 6d. in band towards his wages on that account.' [Rymer's Foedera, vol xi. p. 844, 1704-1735.] It is only too easy to mention that so and so fought in such and such a battle, without pausing to consider what that really meant. The warfare between France and England, engaged in by Sir Thomas Stanhope, witnessed the increasing use of new weapons, which meant that the ruling classes were losing their traditional superiority on the field of battle. Time after time, armoured aristocrats, such as Sir Thomas Stanhope, were slaughtered by peasants and urban militia using longbows, crossbows, pikes and gunpowder. Thomas was a brave man, then, whatever your view about the rights or wrongs of his cause. Stop and try to imagine the horrors he faced in battle. It is as almost impossible to do so as to imagine wars taking place if those who perpetrated them had to do the fighting themselves.
Sir Thomas married Mary Jerningham, 1460-1500, daughter of, as said, John Jerningham, 1430-1503, of Somerleyton, in Suffolk. Their elder son, Sir Edward Stanhope, 1462-6/6/1511, of Rampton and Houghton, was a principal commander of the army that beat Simnel's followers, at Stoke, in 1487. Ten years later, Sir Edward Stanhope fought against the Cornish rebels at Blackheath, and was knighted on the field of battle. In 1502, he was Steward of Wakefield and Constable of Sandale Castle, in the county of York. Like his predecessors, he was also Sheriff of Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire. On the 4th. October, 1509, he 'imparked 240 acres at Houghton by enclosing them with a paling for the purpose of rearing wild animals.' [Nottingham Enclosures Commission, 1517.] From John Stanhope, a younger brother of this Sir Edward Stanhope, are descended the Stanhopes of Horsforth, who became settled at Cannon Hall, Cawthorne, West Yorkshire. John Stanhope's descendants were:
The Stanhopes of Horsforth and Cannon Hall
John Stanhope of Lancashire. John Stanhope of Horsforth. In 1565, a branch of the Stanhopes came from Lancashire into Yorkshire, and eventually settled at Horsforth, Low Hall, near Calverley Bridge. Walter Stanhope of Horsforth. John Stanhope of Horsforth. John Stanhope of Horsforth. John Stanhope of Horsforth, who married Margaret Lowther, daughter of Sir William Lowther of Swillington. Walter Stanhope, of Horsforth. Walter Stanhope married Anne Spencer, heiress of William Spencer of Cannon Hall, Barnsley, Yorks. They had an only son, Walter Spencer-Stanhope, 4/2/1749-4/4/1821, of Horsforth and Cannon Hall, who assumed, by sign manual, 10/2/1776, the additional surname and arms of Spencer, as heir to his uncle, John Spencer.
John Spencer was a huntsman, a bold rider, a hard drinker with a violent temper and speech, but open and warm hearted, with good manners, and a paternalistic approach. He was scholarly and possessed a large library. He was never interested in politics but became a racehorse owner and ran cockfights on Sunday in Cawthorne Park.
Walter Spencer-Stanhope inherited the Horsforth estates from his uncle John Stanhope, Esq., of Horsforth, barrister-at-law, familiarly known as 'Lawyer Stanhope,' obit. 1769. Walter Spencer-Stanhope was educated at Bradford Grammar School, the University College, Oxford, and studied law at the MiddleTemple. He took an active part in politics, and. through his family connection with the Lowthers of Lowther Castle, was elected Member for Carlisle in 1774. 'He spoke frequently in the House, and with much humour.' He was a close supporter of William Pitt the Younger, and William Wilberforce, the Yorkshire anti-slavery campaigner. He was also the commanding officer of the local Volunteer Corps known as the 'Staincross Volunteers.' He married, 1783, [ 32hrs] Mary Winifred Pulleine, obit. 16/12/1850, of Carlton Hall, Richmond, Yorks; daughter of Thomas Babington Pulleine Esq., and his wife Winifred, daughter of Edward Collingwood, of Dissington Hall, Esq., by Mary his wife, daughter and co-heir of John Roddam Esq., of Roddam. Walter Spencer-Stanhope and Mary Winifred Pulleine had 15 children, among which were:
John Spencer-Stanhope, 27/5/1787-1883, Esq., of Cannon Hall and Horsforth Hall, J. P., D.L., F.R.S. He married, 5/12/1822, [ 33hrs] Elizabeth Wilhelmina Coke, 1791-1873, third daughter of Thomas William Coke of Holkham Hall, Norfolk, later Earl of Leicester. They had issue: Sir Walter Thomas William Spencer-Stanhope, 1827-1911, KCB., of Cannon Hall and Horsforth Hall, Yorkshire. 'In Memory of / Sir Walter Thomas William SPENCER STANHOPE / K.C.B. of Cannon Hall and Horsforth Hall / Co. York M.A. J.P. and D.L. for West Riding Co. York. / Late Captain 1st West York Yeomanry, Cavalry and / Hon. Col. Of 2nd Battn. York and Lancaster R.V. / M.P. for South Division of West Riding of York, / 1872 - 1880. Born 21st Dec. 1827. Died 17 Nov. 1911. / And of his Wife / Elizabeth Julia / Daughter of Sir John BUXTON, Bart. / of Shadwell Court, Norfolk / Who entered into rest 30th September 1880.' [Plaque, All Saints Church, Cawthorne.] He had 5 sons and 6 daughters.
Edward Spencer-Stanhope, 30/10/1791-4/8/1866. He married, 9/9/1820, Arabella Calcraft, 1795-1840, daughter of General John Calcraft of Cholderton, Hants., and left one son and two daughters. He assumed, by Royal License, the name and arms of Collingwood, in 1816, pursuant to the will of his great uncle, Edward Collingwood, who left him the Collingwood estates. On the death of his only son, Edward Spencer-Stanhope , in 1868, the elder daughter, Arabel, married to the Rev. Robert Gordon Calthrop, became possessed of the estates, and by Royal License, 3/4/1868, they assumed the surname and arms of Collingwood only.
William Spencer-Stanhope, 4/1/1793-1864. He assumed the name of Roddam in 1806, on succeeding to the estates of his kinsman and godfather, Admiral Roddam, of Roddam in Northumberland, to whom Hilary Clinton, formerly Roddam, is related. He married, 1835, Charlotte Pulleine, daughter of Henry Percy Pulleine, Esq., of Crakehall, by whom he had one daughter, Charlotte Pulleine Roddam, who married, 1858, John Craster, Esq., of Craster Tower, Northumberland. By his second wife, Selina Henrietta Cotes, daughter of John Cotes, Esq, of Woodcote, he left one daughter, Mary Selina. On Mr. Roddam's death, without male issue, the estates in Northumberland passed into a different family.
Rev. Charles Spencer-Stanhope, b. 14/10/1795. Charles was many years Vicar of Weaverham in Cheshire, and fifty-two years non-resident Vicar of Cawthorne. He married Frederica Mary Philip, daughter of Robert Philip of Goodenough, Prebendary of Carlisle and Southwell, by his wife n.b. Cecilia Markham, daughter of the Archbishop of York. Their children were the Rev. Charles Walter, Vicar of Crowton, Cheshire, and Captain Frederick Stanhope, 1805- 29/10/1874.
By his second wife, Elizabeth Bourchier, daughter of Foulk Bourchier, Lord Fitz-Waren, and g.g. grandaughter of King Edward III., Sir Edward Stanhope was father of Anne Stanhope, Duchess of Somerset, 1497-1587, the wife of Protector Somerset, 1500-1552. [Foulk Bourchier's wife, Anne, was sole heir of Thomas Plantagenet of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, younger son of Edward III.] Elizabeth Bourchier married  Sir Richard Page of Beechwood, Hertfordshire, who 'shared with Sir Michael Stanhope the supervision of the King.' - more anon - [Stephen Alford, Kingship and Politics in the Reign of Edward VI., P. 89, 2002.]
Sir Edward Stanhop's first wife was Adelina Clifton, 1474-1496, Mary Jerningham's second cousin, daughter of Sir Gervase Clifton, 1438-12/5/1491, of Rolleston, Nottinghamshire, esquire to King Edward IV. and Knight of the Bath at the Coronation of King Richard III, and Alice de Neville, 1445-1500, widow of Richard Thurland; daughter of Thomas de Neville, 1405-1485, and n.b. Elizabeth Babington, 1415-1470. [Thoroton's original History of Notts, p.392, 1677.] Sir Gervase Clifton was the son of Robert Clifton, 1408-7/4/1478, of Clifton, Notts., and Alice Booth, 1415-1463. Robert Clifton's brother, also called Gervase, was the father of Isabella Clifton, wife, as said, of John Jerningham. The ancestor of these Cliftons was Sir Robert Clifton, of Clifton, Notts., obit. 1327. [Esch. i. Edward III. no. 33.] He married Emma Moton, daughter of Sir William Moton. [Herald's Visitations of Nottinghamshire, MS. Brit. Mus., 1614.]
Sir Edward stanhope and Adelina Clifton's had issue:
Richard Stanhope, 1490-21/1/1528, of Rampton, who died without male issue. He married Elizabeth Strelley, not her sister Anne. See Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica, vol. viii. pp. 264-273, 1843, which quotes from an epitaph in the old church of Kingston-upon-Soar, Nottinghamshire. Elizabeth Strelley was one of the four daughters and co-heirs of John Strelley. By this marriage, the Stanhope family became connected to the families of Somerville and Shipley. Richard Stanhope and Elizabeth Strelley had issue: Their daughter, Saunchia Stanhope, married John Babington of Dethick. It is recorded that 'the Stanhopes received the name of Saunchia by descent from the Strelleys, who had inherited it from the house of Willoughby.' [Collectanea , vol. viii. p. 343.] Note the previous family connection between the Stanhopes and Strelleys. Saunchia was born May 10th, 1513. Her father died on January 21st, 1528, when she was 13 years old, but before his death he had arranged for Saunchia's wedding to John Babbington, see above family connection, a younger son of Anthony Babbington, of Kingston-on-Soar. This agreement was made on February 10th., 1520. She was then seven years old. [Rev. H Chadwick, The History of the Manor of Rampton in Nottinghamshire, Transactions of the Thoroton Society, 24, 1920. See also Harl. MS. 1180.] By way of Saunchias marriage, Rampton passed out of Stanhope ownership. By way of amusement, it can be added that in that branch of the Stanhopes they appeared to be fond of unusual names, for Saunchia and her husband christened their eldest child, for here the name affords no clue as to gender, Original Babbington! He married ...... Galley. A sister married ...... Horsley. Another sister married ...... Legat. [Thorot., vol. ii., p. 220.]
John Stanhope, b.1492. Elizabeth Stanhope, b. 1493. Marianne Stanhope, b.1495. Sir Michael Stanhope, b.1496. Sir Michael Stanhope's life and death might merit some close attention:
xxi. THE LIFE AND DEATH OF SIR MICHAEL STANHOPE
Sir Michael Stanhope, 1496-26/2/1552, who succeeded to the family estates on the decease of his brother, and was placed on the Commission of Peace for Notts, in 1537. On the dissolution of the monasteries, 1536-1540, that is, the forced taking and redistribution of the vast and valuable lands of the Catholic Church, Michael Stanhope was granted Shelford priory, rectory, and manor; and also the priory of Lenton, together with the rectories of Gedlyng, Burton Jorze, and North Muskham, in the county of Nottingham; Rouceby and Westburgh, in the county of Lincoln, and Elvaston and Okbrook in Derbyshire. As a child, I was taught, and did not question, that this redistribution of wealth sprang from Henry VIII. not being allowed to divorce by the Catholic Church. Behind all such propaganda lurks the darker human motives of naked greed. Any understanding of Henry VIII. and his courtiers shows them to be people not the least part troubled by moral concerns, and every way deeply concerned with how to acquire the land and wealth of others.
It was no easy gain, however. When heads of monastic houses refused bribes of pensions to give up their estates, they were often imprisoned, tortured, or hung. This was the basis of Sir Michael Stanhope's wealth He was a courtier and parasite of the king, one of those who surrounded him, like vultures, gorging themselves on the fallen carcase of the Catholic Church. The result of such redistribution of wealth was mass poverty and homelessness, for many relied on the monastries for their living. The new land-grabbing Protestant aristocracy were hated. Riots, especially in the North, severely threatened the power of the regime, whose response was drastic. Defeated rioters were hanged and disemboweled, their bodies being left to hang in their villages as a warning to others. The rioters hatred did not abate, for such as Sir Michael Stanhope were the allies of one of the most despotic rulers that ever lived. To merely disagree with Henry VIII. was to invite unpleasant death. Sir Walter Raleigh said: 'If all the patterns of a mercilless tyrant had been lost to the world, they might have been found in this prince.' He was the first King of England that brought women to the block, and caused them to be tortured and burned. He was the only king who sought consolation for the imagined offences of his wives by plundering their relatives of their money. Not content with this, as any true tyrant, he sought to control opinions. He declared that the bible should not be read in public, and could only be read in private by people of noble or gentle birth. It was to this regime that Sir Michael Stanhope owed his ascendency. This is not to pass judgement. There is always the case for saying that people should be judged by the standard of their times, and, in this sense, Sir Michael Stanhope was no different from many of his fellows who believed in a natural order in society: 'In London the rich disdaineth the poor. The courtier the citizen. One occupation disdaineth another. The merchant the retailer. The retailer the craftsman. The better sort of craftsman the baser. The shoemaker the cobler.' [Thomas Nashe, 16th. Century poet.]
His career had begun in the household of Thomas Manners, Earl of Rutland, and he became, after two years in the royal stables, esquire to Henry VIII. Soon after the accession of Edward VI., Michael Stanhope was knighted, serving in Parliament as one of the knights of the county of Nottingham; appointed Lieutenant of Hull, keeper of the royal parks in Nottinghamshire, Suffolk, and Surrey; chief gentleman of the Privy Chamber, and deputy to his brother-in-law, Edward Seymour, the Protector Somerset, in the guardianship of the king. The young king, Edward VI., was the son of Henry VIII., and his third wife, Jane Seymour, Edward Seymour's sister, and was like a shuttlecock in a game of rival courtiers. Thomas Seymour, Edward's younger brother, cited precedent for dividing power more equally between the leading men of the kingdom when the monarch was not of age to rule alone. For this, and encouraging senior courtiers to intercede on his behalf, he was beheaded. Kindred counted nought.Michael Stanhope was the link between Edward Seymour and the court. He controlled the royal purse. He also controlled access to the king: Michael Stanhope had 'issued a commaundment that if eny man shuld knock at the dore [of the king's chambers] thei shuld call hym up and waken hym before thei did open the dore.' [Cecil Papers. Hatfield House Library.] He did this on the command of his brother-in-law. He also, in 1547 and 1548, took items from the king's rooms in Whitehall Palace, and sent them to the chambers and houses of Edward and Anne Seymour.
All such power was lost on the Protector's fall. On the 16th of October, 1551, Somerset was arrested, and on the following day, Sir Michael Stanhope and other adherents were sent to the Tower, on a charge of conspiring against the life of Dudley, Earl of Warwick.
Again, it is important to look behind the official reasons given for this charge. Dispite the acquisition of Church lands, the treasury was empty. The currency had been debased, and all over the country, especially in the Eastern and Midland counties, there was seething discontent on the issue of enclosures. Not content with stealing land, and attracted by the profits to be made by the sale of wool, the aristocracy were turning ploughland into pasture; and as sheep needed less labour than tillage, there was an army of unemployed, some of whom took up the trade of brigandage. Riots followed. The most serious of these was in the Eastern counties, where a squire named Robert Ket took the lead of a mob which pulled down enclosures and tried unpopular landlords. Somerset hesitated to move against them, resulting in the rebellion becoming more dangerous. This made him the enemy of very powerful people. The rebellion was only dispersed through the ruthless action of Dudley, Earl of Warwick, Somerset's chief rival in the Council. An example of how worried the ruling class were at this time is given in a sermon preached in all English Churches in 1547:
'ALmighty God hath created and appointed all things in heaven, earth, and waters, in a most excellent and perfect order. In heaven he hath appointed distinct or several orders and slates of archangels and angels. In earth he hath aligned and appointed kings, princes, with other governors under thern, in all good and necessary order. The water above is kept and raineth down in due time an season. The sun, moon, stars, rainbow, thunder, lightning, clouds, and all birds of the air, do keep their order. The earth, trees, seeds, plants, herbs, corn, grass, and all manner of beasts, keep themselves in their order: all the parts of the whole year, as winter, summer, months, nights, and days, continue in their order: all kinds of fish in the sea, rivers, and waters, with all fountains, springs, yea, the seas themselves, keep their comely curfew and order: and man himself also hath all his parts both within and without, as soul, heart, mind, memory, understanding, reason, speech, with all and singular corporal members of his body, in a profiltable, necessary, and pleasant order: every degree of people in their vocation, calling, and office, hath appointed to them their duty and order: some are in high degree, some inlow, some kings and princes, some inferiors and subjectgs, priests and laymen, masters and servants, fathers and children, husands and wives, rich and poor; and every one hath need of other; so that in all things is to be lauded and praised the goodly order of God, without the which no house, no city, no commonwealth can continue and endure, or last. For where there is no right order, there reigneth all abuse, carnal liberty, enormity, sin, and Babylonical confusion. Take away kings, princes, rulers, magistrates, judges and such estates of God's order, no man shall ride or go by the highway unrobbed, no man shall sleap in his own house or bed unkilled, no man shall keep his wife, children, and possessions in quietness, all things shall be common; and there must needs follow all mlschief and utter destruction both of souls, bodies, goods, and commonwealth.' [An Exhortation Concerning Good Order, and Obedience to Rulers and Magistrates.]
Sir Michael was tried on a charge of felony, condemned at a mock trial, and sentenced to be hanged, and on the commutation of this sentence, he was beheaded on Tower Hill, killed with three other Knights, Sir Thomas Arundel, Sir Miles Partridge, and Sir Ralph Vane. The warrant for his execution was dated February 25, 1552. [Rymer's Collection, vol. xv., 1704-1735.] He was beheaded the next day, strongly protesting his innocence. In modern terms, he was the victim of a mafia family power struggle. Both Somerset and Dudley were ruthless and grasping people. Somerset ruled through a group of carefully chosen administrators, of lesser social standing, including his brother-in law, Sir Michael Stanhope. Somerset was 'looked down upon by everybody as a dry, sour, opinionated man.' [Van der Delft, Dutch Embassador, 1547.] Dudley's ascendency cost him dearly, and readily condemned Michael Stanhope, his all too enthusiastic supporter, with him.
Dudley's ascendency was, however, short-lived. He realised his position was insecure. To make it safe, he contrived to have a sovereign under his influence. For that purpose, he chose Lady Jane Grey to be the successor of her cousin, Edward VI. She was, as said, distantly descended from Emma Crispin. He married her to his son, Guildford Dudley. The young king was persuaded to make a will in her favour, and this was scarcely made when Edward died . Lady Jane, a gentle and learned girl of 16, was declared queen on July 10th., 1553. Her father-in-law and other members of the Protestant nobility were, however, shocked to see that Mary, a staunchly Catholic daughter of Henry VIII., had the support of both the old Catholic nobility and that of the new Protestant nobility who feared Dudley. Mary marched to London with an army to claim the throne; Lady Jane was deposed without a struggle, and imprisoned on July 19th.. Dudley and many of his kind renounced Protestantism. This did not save Dudley from the scaffold. Protestant Bishops, such as Hooper, Ridley, Cramner, and Latimer, were burnt at the stake, "lighting that day," as Latimer bravely said, "a candle that would not be put out." Three hundred humbler victims also lost their life in the fires of Smithfield. The story of these people was enshrined in Foxe's Book of Martyrs, 1563. It became a common possession of the English people, and made 'Bloody Mary' an unforgettable name.
Lady Jane was also killed. About 10 o'clock on the morning of February 12th., 1554, Jane watched from her window in thr Tower as her husband was led on his way to Tower Hill. She was still watching when his body was brought back into the Tower, his head wrapped in bandage at his side. Those in her company reported later that she wept openly at the sight, and was heard to utter his name.
Jane then made her way to the scaffold. Yeoman of the Guard surrounded the wooden structure that had been built the day before. At the scaffold, Jane was joined by several Tower chaplains. She said to one of them: "God grant you all your desires and accept my own hearty thanks for all your attention to me. Although indeed, those attentions have tried me more than death can now terrify me." She then climbed the stairs, 'nothing at all abashed .... neither her eyes moistened with tears, although her two gentlewomen .... wonderfully wept.'
She recited the fifty-first psalm in English. She then gave her gloves and handkerchief to her lady-in-waiting, Mrs Ellen. Mrs Ellen helped her to remove her headdress and neckerchief, and dispense with her heavy outer garment. The executioner then knelt and asked for Jane's forgiveness, which she gave "most willingly." There followed a five minute silence, whereby officials awaited a last-minute reprieve from Mary.
The executioner then told Jane where to stand. She replied, "I pray you despatch me quickly." She began to kneel, then hesitated and said, "Will you take it off before I lay me down?" The executioner answered, "No madame." Jane then tied the handkerchief around her eyes. Unable to locate the block, she became anxious, asking in a faltering voice "Where is it? What shall I do? Where is it?" Those who stood upon the scaffold seemed unsure of what to do. Someone climbed the scaffold and helped her to the block. Her last words were, "Lord, into thy hands I commend my spirit."
According to tradition, her head was then held aloft with the words, "So perish all the Queen's enemies. Behold, the head of a traitor."
Michael Stanhope's half-sister, Anne Duchess of Somerset, was kept a prisoner in the tower until July, 1553, not being released until the accession of Queen Mary, her great friend. She died Easter-day, April 16, 1587. Earl Stanhope, in his 'Notices', wrote: 'Anne of Somerset is said by some writers to have had much pride and arrogance of temper; which may the rather be believed, since it appears that, during the Protectorate of the Duke, she was engaged in some dispute for precedence with the Queen Dowager, Katherine Parr. Something of the same spirit might be imputed to the first line of her epitaph: 'A Princess descended of noble lignage.' She married, secondly, Francis Newdigate of Hanworth, steward of her late husband. [Hampton Court Rolls, 1583.]
Sir Michael Stanhope's widow, Anne Rawson, 1516-20/2/1587, was the daughter of Nicholas Rawson of Avely, more anciently written Alveley, a small village near Purfleet on the Thames. 'Alured Rawson, citizen of London, and merchant of the Staple of Calais, was Lord of this Manor of Aveley in 1509. His son, Nicholas Rawson, 1470-1523, of Giddy Hall, Romford, Essex, married Beatrix Cooke, 1485-14/1/1554, daughter of Philip Cooke, 1452-1497, and Elizabeth Belnap,1450-1515, and left one daughter and heir, named Anne, who was married to Sir Michael Stanhope.' [The History of Essex, Rev. Philip Morant, pp. 76-78, 1768. See also Thoroton's Notts., by Throsby, vol. i., p. 290.] Alured, a.k.a Avery, Rawson was the son of Richard Rawson, obit. 1484, citizen and mercer of London, and Sheriff of London in 1478 and 1483, and Isabella Craford, obit.1497. [Wills Perogative Office.] They were buried at St. Mary Magdalen's, Old Fish Street. Richard Rawson was the son of Richard Rawson of Fryston and Cicely Paulden, a.k.a Baldein. Richard Rawson of Fryston was the son of Robert Rawson of Fryston, who lived temp. Rich. II., and Agnes Mares, daughter of Thomas Mares. The origin of the family can very probably be traced to the Saxon Ravenchil, later Ravenchild, who held three carucates of land in Shipley. [Domesday, Evriciscire, p. 381, col. i.] The later Rawsons were strongly connected to Shipley. [The Gentleman's Magazine, p. 179, 1790.]
Anne Stanhope was allowed to retain the priory of Shelford, during her life, for the judicial murder of her husband was not personal but business. She was buried in Shelford Church. 'Lady Anne Stanhope lived widow 35 years, in which time she brought up all her younger children in virtue and learning, In her life-time she kept continually a worshipful house, relieved the poor daily, spent the most time of her latter days in prayer and using the church where God's word was preached. She died in the faith of Christ, in hope of a joyful resurrection.' [Inscription on the monument of Sir Michael Stanhope, elder of the name, in Shelford Church, as existing in 1841.]
She and Sir Michael had three daughters:
Eleanor Stanhope, 1531-1577, who married Thomas Cowper of Thurgarton. He was the son of John Cowper, obit. 1543, and Mary Mainwaring. John Cowper was the son of John Cowper of Bosden and Grace Corbett, daughter of Sir R. Corbett. Thomas Cowper and Eleanor Stanhope had issue: Ralph Cowper, obit. 1582, who married Miss Howe; their son being John Cowper, obit. 1630, who married Catherine Dutton, grandaughter of John Egerton, first Earl of Bridgewater. John Cowper was buried in Stockport Church - 'John Cowper de Bosden.' His son was John Cowper, obit. 1681, who married Mary Brereton, daughter of William Brereton Esq. Their son was John Cowper, obit. 1700, who married Mary Handford, daughter of W.R. Handford Esq. They had issue: John Cowper, heir. Martha Cowper, who married Sir Richard Edgeroft, Bart. Mary Cowper, who married John Hampson, Esq. Sarah Cowper, who married Sir Thomas Bennison. Elizabeth Cowper, who married Sir Thomas Hyde. John Cowper, heir, married, 1701, Sarah Copestrick, daughter and heir of Walter Copestrick of Langley Park. they had issue: John Cowper, obit 1728, who married Hannah Strettell. They had two sons and a daughter: John Cowper, who married Anne Dodge of Sowesby, Yorks; Thomas Cowper, who married Sarah Pauldon; Elizabeth Cowper, who married Samuel Dale of Handford.
Juliana Stanhope, 1534-1583, unhapilly married to her mother's ward, John Hotham of Scarborough. The ancestor of the Hotham family was Sir John de Trehouse, who obtained the Manor of Hotham, in Yorkshire, from William the Conqueror. John Hotham was High Sheriff of Yorkshire in 1584. He and Juliana Stanhope had issue: Elizabeth Hotham, Jane Hotham, and Juliana Hotham.
Jane Stanhope, 1536-3/1/1617, who married Sir Roger Townshend of Raynham in Norfolk; from them descended the Viscounts Townshend. Their son was John Townshend of Raynham. In 1596, he accompanied the Earl of Essex on his expedition against Spain, and was at the taking of Cadiz, where he was knighted by the earl. He and Sir Matthew Browne, who had also been Knighted at Cadiz, fought a duel on Hounslow Heath. They both died, Sir Matthew on the spot, Sir John Townshend a liitle later, on 2/8/1603. He had married Anne Bacon, obit. 20/5/1630, daughter and heiress of Sir Nathaniel Bacon of Stiffkey. They had issue: Sir Roger Townshend, created a Baronet in 1617, Stanhope Townshend, who died in London of a wound received in a duel in the Low-countries, and Anne Townshend, wife of John Spelman, Esq. [George John Gray, Athenae Cantab., p. 355, 1861.] Sir Michael Stanhope and Anne Rawson also had five sons, 'besides Margaret, Wytten, and Edward, who died in their infancy.' Inscription as above.
xxii. SIR MICHAEL'S SONS
This brief account of the careers of of Sir Michael Stanhope's sons shows them to be, as him, servants of the Establishment, but whereas previous generations of Stanhope men had carried out this service in battle, they, as him, confined their fighting to the law courts. Whether sitting on commissions that decided what books could legally be published, or feigning admiration for Queen Elizabeth, the evident aim of these men was to enrich themselves through unquestioning and flattering service to their overlords in the social order. Many years ago, whilst sitting behind a small wooden desk, listening to history being dispensed by 'gods' in the guise of teachers, I was told about the golden days of Elizabethan England. The tales were full of heroes who fought the Spanish and robbed them of their gold. These heroes were the stuff of Hollywood films, and were all, or so it seemed, played by Erol Flynn wearing tights. Evidently, my teachers had not consulted the archives of the Tower, the State Paper Office; the journals of the Lords and Commons, the rolls of Parliament, and the mass of original letters that survived, when forming their opinions. They taught history as if it were a romantic story. The historian Lingard gives an all too different account:
'The nation was divided into opposite parties - the oppressors and the oppressed. Many ancient and honourable families had been ground to the dust; new families had sprung up in their places; and these, as they shared the plunder, naturally eulogised the system to which they owed their wealth and their ascendancy. But their prosperity was not the prosperity of the nation, it was that of one half obtained at the expense of the other.' [J. Lingard, A History of England from the First Invasion of The Romans to the Accession of William and Mary, 1855.]
Without going into details, the Elizabethan Council had used religion as an excuse to enrich its members and their followers, who professed to be Protestant, by appropriating the property of rich Catholics. Catholic martyrs went to their death in Elizabethan times for sheltering Catholic priests, who were seen as potential traitors during a time of hostility between England and 'Catholic' Spain.
Divisions in Elizabethan society were, however, not solely decided by religious allegiance. There was only a small proportion of Protestant society who could afford to wear the starched ruffs, padded doublets, and farthingales - framed hoops worn under the skirt - as featured in Hollywood history. Violence was part of everyday life. Armed gangs were as common as murders.
The following Stanhopes lived and prospered during these times:
Sir Thomas Stanhope, 1532-3/8/1596, Sheriff of Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire in 4 Eliz., and Nottingham alone in 16 Eliz.; who died at Stoke, and from whom the later peers of the Stanhope family are descended. Sir Thomas Stanhope was the eldest of eight surviving children. He was determined that his family would regain and then maintain their status. He was knighted by Queen Elizabeth in one of her stately progresses at Kenilworth Castle in 1575. A peerage from James I. ranked no higher, for she was 'Queen Elizabeth of famous memorie, that ever carried a sparing hand in the bestowing of honour.' [Extract from the monument to Sir George Hart, in the Church at Lullingstone, in Kent.] Sir Thomas Stanhope increased his wealth by purchasing the manors of Whatton, Bingham, and Toveton, and, significantly, by marrying the heiress Margaret Porte, 14/10/1542-1597, daughter of Sir John Porte of Etwall and Cubely, one of the Justices of the King's Bench, and Dorothy Montgomery, second of three daughters and coheirs of Sir John Montgomery, obit 7/4/1513, of Cubely in Derbyshire. By this way, the Earls of Chesterfield became Lord of the Manor and patron of the Rectory of Cubley, the ancient seat of the Montgomery family. It was for a time the seat of the Stanhopes. Margaret Porte's sisters, Elizabeth and Dorothy, were married respectively to Sir Thomas Gerard of Kingsley and Bryn, 1552-1601, Sheriff of Lancashire, and George Hastings, Earl of Huntingdon, see anon. [Derbyshire, Rev. Daniel Lysons, being vol. v. of Magna Britannia, London, 1817.]
Sir Thomas Stanhope and Margaret Porte had issue: Sir John Stanhope of Shelford. An Oxford University entry, Col. Magd., dated 20/6/1574, states 'John Stanhopp arm. fil. in com. Not. nat. an. 15.' Edward Stanhope, 1562-1630. An Oxford University entry, Col. Magd., dated 20/6/1574, states 'Edwardus Stanhopp arm. fil. in com. Not. nat. an. 12.' Thomas Stanhope, 1564-1618. Anne Stanhope, 18/2/1576-18/11/1651, married to John Holles, 1st.Earl of Clare, 5/1564-4/10/1637. John Holles was the son of Danzell Holles and Anne Sheffield. He was raised to the peerage in 1616, as Baron Houghton, and, in 1624, paid £10,000 for the Earlship of Clare. He married Anne Stanhope, 'beautiful in her fardingales and antiquarian headgear', much to the ire of the Shrewsburys of Worksop. He had been bespoken to one of their daughters. The ensuing hostilities are well worth reading about! According to the inquis. post mortem taken on the decease of her father, Margaret Porte was 14 years of age, in 1556, when she married Sir Thomas Stanhope. This was not an exceptionally young age at which to marry.
His most hated enemy was Gilbert Talbot, 7th Earl of Shrewsbury. The earl's wife claimed that Sir Thomas's wickedness had caused him to become 'more ugly in shape than the ugliest toad in the world.' She hoped that all 'plagues and miseries' would befall him and that he would 'be damned perpetually in hell fire.' He did have a tender side, though, naturally not mentioned by his enemies, which is shown in a letter to Lord Burghley, addressed as his cousin, High Treasurer of England, dated 15th. July, 1590. He says of his daughter Anne: 'I love her very well, and have given her education accordingly.' Sir Thomas was interred in Shelford Church on the 26th September, 1596.
Sir Edward Stanhope, 1538-1603, the elder, represented successively Notts. and Yorkshire in Parliament, where his seats were Edlington and Grimston. He was treasurer of Gray's Inn, recorder of Doncaster, and a member of the Council of the North. He was buried at Kirby Warffe in Yorkshire. He married, in 1578, Susan Coleshill, daughter of Thomas Coleshill, of Chigwell, in the Isle of Axholme, Lincolnshire, and had issue, four sons, and two daughters:
Sir Edward Stanhope of Grimston, 1578-1655, who married Margaret Constable, 1590-1662, daughter of Sir Henry Constable, 1555-15/12/1607, of Burton Constable, Sheriff of Yorkshire, and Margaret Dormer, 1570-1637, see later family connection. Sir Henry Constable was the son of Sir John Constable, 10/1/1526-25/5/1579, of Burton Constable, Holderness, and Kirkby Knowle, and Margaret Scrope, 1534-1572, daughter of John le Scrope, 1504-22/6/1549, Lord of Bolton. The Scropes had close family ties with the Percys and Nevilles. There were also strong ties between the family of Constable and the families of Hotham, Tempest, and Radcliffe. His marriage settlement, dated 2/6/1605, brought Sir Edward 'manors and all property' in Edlington, Stainton, and Maltbye; and rectories in Swinefleet and Readnesse.
Sir John Stanhope*, 1580-1627, of Mellwood in the Isle of Axholme, who married Mary Howley, 1585-1650; their daughters were Margaret Stanhope, who married Robert Dynely, see Harl. Soc., vol. xxxix, and Ursula Stanhope, obit. 17/5/1654. She married George Walker, obit. 15/9/1677; he died at Kilmore, N. Ireland, and is buried there. Their children, all born in England, were: Ann Walker. George Walker, Governor of Londonderry. He was the 'hero of the Siege of Londonderry.' 'About the tenth of April, information was received, by Rev. George Walker, that the Irish army were approaching Londonderry, and he immediately communicated this intelligence to Lundy. Mr. Walker was Rector of the parishes of Donoughmore and Erigal Keeroge, in the county of Tyrone, and, although at an advanced age, entered with true Christian zeal into the contest, and, girding on the sword, placed himself at the head of a regiment which he had raised.' [Edward Lutwyche Parker, History of Londonderry, p.15, 1851.] Godfrey Walker. Gervase Walker. Margaret Walker.
George Stanhope, 1582-1655, D.D, was chaplain to King James 1 and King Charles 1. We are told that he underwent 'grievous distresses' for his loyalty to King Charles, being deprived of his living of the rectory of Wheldrake. His son, the Rev. Thomas Stanhope, 1620-1680, was Rector of Hartshorne, Derbyshire, and chaplain to his kinsman, the Earl of Chesterfield. He married Barbara Allestrye, daughter of George Allestrye, Esquire. Their son was George Stanhope, 1660-1728, the renowned theologian, and Dean of Canterbury.
Thomas Stanhope, 1583-1600.
Lady Susan Stanhope, 1584-1643, who married Sir Percival Hart.
Frances Stanhope, 1585-1623, who married Patrick Maule, 29/5/1585-22/12/1661, Sheriff of Forfar, Earl of Panmure. [Joseph Hunter, John William Clay, Famillae Minoum Gentium, pp. 986-988, 1894.]
* In the reign of James I., High Melwood had become the property of Sir John Stanhope, of Stotfold, in the county of York. John Stanhope, the son of Sir John, and Darcy the grandson, seem to have resided principally at High Melwood, as they are both buried in Owston Church. John stanhope, the son of Darcy, also resided here, and was buried in Owston Church in the twenty ninth year of his age. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. Robert Farmery of High Burnham, by whom he acquired that property.This Sir John Stanhope and his wife were buried in that part of the Church of Hooton Pagnel which is called the Stotfold Choir. Stotfold is a single house in the parish of Hooton, similar to High Melwood in the parish of Owston, a distinct lordship to itself, and one of the old gentle- hommeries of England. They left issue two daughters, Elizabeth and Isabella. Elizabeth married Mr. Richard Acklom, by which marriage High Melwood came into that family, and then into the family of Earl Spencer, who married the great-grandaughter of Mr. Acklom, and who sold High Melwood to the Rev. Thomas Skipworth, of Belton. The house was a large stone building, surrounded by a moat, pleasantly situated on the side of the hill, with a southwest aspect. Not a vestige of it remains. When the property came into the family of Acklom it was disparked, and converted into an arable farm.
Sir John Stanhope, 1545-9/3/1621, 1st. Baron Stanhope of Harrington, in the county of Northampton. He fulfilled various offices for Queen Elizabeth, who conferred the honour of knighthood on him, and of whom he was a great favourite: 'During Raleigh's absence, Elizabeth turned the beams of her favour on Sir John Stanhope, who could not remain two days from court without being enquired for.' [James Augustus St. John, Life of Sir Walter Raleigh, 2005.] He was raised to the peerage by King James I. in 1605. He was brought up at Shelford, and, on entering public life, was thrice returned to Parliament, for Marlborough, Truro, and Rochester respectively. As Treasurer of the Chamber, he was instructed to pay a certain William Shakespeare and company the sum of 21s. for their services. He married  Joan Knollys, daughter of Wm. Knollys, by whom he had no issue;  Margaret MacWilliams, 1566-1611, daughter of Henry MacWilliams of Stanborne, by whom he had one surviving son - Harleian MSS. 15891, f. 119 - Charles Stanhope, 1595-1675, inheritor of Edward the younger's estate at Caldecott, who succeeded as second baron, but died without issue, when the title became extinct. He had also two daughters: Catherine Stanhope, 1586-15/6/1657, who married Robert Cholmondeley, 26/6/1584-1659, Viscount Cholmondeley, afterwards Earl of Leinster. Elizabeth Stanhope, 1593-1643, who married Sir Lionel Talmash, 1/8/1591-6/9/1640, ancestor of the Earls of Dysart. Sir John Stanhope, temp. Elizabeth I., leased, from Gilbert of Gaunt, the Manor and Rectory of Bridlington, on condition of paying a salary of £8 a year to a priest. He was also a signatory to the Proclamation of the Succession of King James I.
Sir Edward Stanhope, M.A, LL.D, 26/2/1547-16/3/1608, the younger, one of the Queen's Counsel in the High Court of York, who is buried in St. Paul's Cathedral, near the great north door; his epitaph being drawn up by William Camden, the antiquary. He was successively, from 1560 to 1569, scholar, minor fellow, and major fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. He received, in 1600, together with his younger brother, Michael, a grant from the Crown of the Manor of Hucknall Torkard. He was knighted at Whitehall in 1603. He was Chancellor of the Diocese of London, Vicar-General of the Province of Canterbury; member of a commission to authorise what books could be legally printed, and Rector of Terrington in Norfolk, a post held under the patronage of his nephew, William Cowper. His will showed a strong affection for all his family, as well as bequeathing his large gold chain, weighing 37 ounces, and all his plate not gifted to his family, to Mrs. Elizabeth Blackwell, wife of the Registrar of the Court of Arches, and daughter of Thomas Wilford, Chamberlain of London.
Arms : Quarterly, 1. [Stanhope] Quarterly Erin. & G. a martlet for difference. 2. [Maulovel] V. 3 wolves courant O. З. [Longvilers] S. a bend between 6 cross crosslets A. 4. [Lexinton] A. 3 saltires S. a crescent for difference. Crest : a tower Az. charged with a martlet. issuing from the battlements a demi-lion rampant O. ducally crowned G. holding in the jamb an ogress. Motto ; Deo sic Regi.
Sir Michael Stanhope, 1548-1625, of Sudbourne, near Woodbridge, in Suffolk, [nb.] not Sudbury, as Collins and others make it. He was knighted in the first year of King James 1. He married Anne Read, daughter of Sir William Read of Osterley, Middlesex, and by her had three daughters, his co-heirs: Bridget Stanhope, married to George Fielding.* Jane Stanhope, who married Viscount Henry F. Fitzwater, son and heir of the Earl of Sussex. Elizabeth Stanhope, who married Lord George Berkley Mowbray Seagrave and Bruce, of Berkley Castle, in the county of Gloucester; this George being the xxi. Baron by descent.
* George Fielding was created, 22/11/1622, Lord Fielding of Lecaghe and Viscount Callan, in the peerage of Ireland, and also Earl of Desmond, after the death of Sir Richard Preston, knt., then enjoying the latter dignity : which Richard, Earl of Desmond, was drowned on his passage from Dublin to England in 1628, and leaving only a daughter. Fielding, Lord Callan, succeeded to the earldom. His lordship married Bridget Stanhope, daughter and coheir of Sir Michael Stanhope, knt., by whom he had: William Fielding, second Earl of Desmond, who inherited as third Earl of Denbigh. George Fielding, of St. Edmundsbury, who married a daughter of Sir John Lee. Sir Charles Fielding, an officer of rank in the army, and a privy councillor in Ireland. John Fielding, in holy orders, D.D., Canon of Salisbury and Chaplain to King William III., who married Bridget Cockayne, daughter of Scipio Cockayne, esq., of the county of Somerset, and had three sons and three daughters, of whom the youngest son, Lieutenant-General Edmund Fielding, married [firstly] Sarah Gould, daughter of Sir Henry Gould, knt., and had, with other issue, Henry Fielding, the celebrated author of Tom Jones. His second son was George Fielding, c. 1674 -28/8/1738, buried in St George's Chapel, Windsor. He was Lt. Col. of the Royal Regiment of Blues, and Groom of the Bedchamber to Queen Anne and George I.. He married Ann Sherman, 28/1/1682-c.1755, daughter of Bazaleel Sherman of Mitcham, Surrey, who dealt in coffee and other such luxury items, and Anne Norton. Their only child was Sarah Fielding, obit. 1795, who married, 1733, John Willis, the third son of the Right Reverend Richard Willis, Bishop of Gloucester,1714, Salisbury, 1722, and Winchester, 1723-24, and his wife Isabella Goddard?. Their second son was Richard Willis,1739 - 2/12/1802, of Churchford Hall, Capel St Mary, Suffolk, who married Anne Barnham. Their eldest son was Richard Willis 3/9/1766 - 15/12/1842, who married Anne Apperley, obit. 19/11/1853, daughter of Thomas Apperley and Esther Partridge. Their daughter was Sarah Anne Willis, b. 2/1/1801, in Monmouth, Wales. She married John Joseph Kane, 31/5/1796-1/10/1876, of Lincolnshire, captain of the 4th. Regiment of Foot and the Monmouthshire Militia, eldest son of John Daniel Kane, Lt. Col., 4th. Regiment of Foot, of Dublin, and Louisa Phillips. He served in the American war, of 1812, at the battle of New Orleans. His son was Edward Kane, who married Mora Bellini, their daughter being Blanche Irene Kane, who had a daughter Blanche Elmo Kane, by unknown father; Blanche Elmo Kane married Francis Joseph Ryan. Their son was Francis Albert Ryan, who married Patricia Aikens; their son being John Francis Ryan, who married Anne Young. Their daughter is Kate Ryan, married to Jason Wingrove, to whom I am indebted for the above lineage.
Earl Stanhope, see 'Notices', remarked of Sir Michael Stanhope of Sudbourne: 'There was once a magnificent monument to him in Sudbourne church, the more magnificent, perhaps, because it was erected in his own lifetime by himself.' [It did not mention his daughter Bridget. He had disinherited and disowned her as a result of a dispute over land she had inherited from her mother.] Here is its text:
'Here resteth, in assured hope to rise in Christ, Sir Michael
Stanhope, Knight, who served at the feet of Queen Elizabeth
of most happy and famous memory, in her privy chamber
xx. years, and of our sovereign King James, in the same
place, the rest of his days, who married Anne, daughter to
Sir William Read, of Osterley in the county of Mddlesex,
Knight, by whom he had 2 daughters, Jane married to
Henry Viscount F. Fitzwater, sonn and heire-apparent to
the Earle of Sussex; and Elizabeth, married to Lord George
Berkley Mowbray Seagrave and Bruce, of Berkley Castle,
in the county of Gloucester, this George being the xxi
Baron by descent. All honor, glory, praise, and thanks
be unto thee , O glorious Trinitie. Christ Jesus came into the
world to save sinners, of whom I am chief. 1 Tim. i. 15.
Thou has redeemed me , O Lord God of Truth. Psalm
xxxi. 5. I desire to be dissolved, and to be with Christ. Phil.
i. 23. Death is to me advantage. Phil i. 21. I will take
the cup of salvation, and call upon yje name ofthe Lord.
Psalm cxvi. 13. He that glorieth, let him glory in the
Lord. 1 Cor. i. 31.
What of the life of these Stanhopes? Hunting was a favorite pastime for rich people. Queen Elizabeth loved to hunt. The hunt allowed the rich nobles to show off their fine horses, hawks, clothing, and weapons.
The most popular Elizabethan entertainment for all classes was the theatre. The public theatre came to London around 1576. The earliest theatres resembled the innyards from which they had evolved. The theatres were built around courtyards, with three-story galleries facing the stage. People from every social class, from workers to aristocrats, attended the theatre. The aristocrats sat in the galleries, while the commoners stood on the ground around the stage, with a few young men often sitting on the stage.
Elizabethans also loved to listen to music. For the most part, people made their own music. Labourers and craftsmen often sang while they worked; common people sang after a meal, and the well-bred people of society often played or sang a piece by rote during recitals.
Dancing, another popular activity, provided a great opportunity for interaction between unmarried people. The preferred type of dancing varied according to social class, with those of higher social position favoring the courtly dances, imported from Italy and other European countries, and the ordinary people preferring 'country' dances. The European courtly dances were mostly performed by couples and involved intricate and subtle footwork, while the English country dances were danced by couples in round, square, or rectangular sets, with much simpler form and footwork. Queen Elizabeth herself encouraged country dances among the aristocracy.
xxiii. ATTITUDES TOWARD WOMEN
It would seem to lack balance to proceed without giving some sense of how the women mentioned in the last chapter were valued or not in society. Too often history recounts the deeds of men without explaining how the deeds of women were curtailed by prevailing attitudes. Because women were thought to be man's inferior in intellect and virtue, women were held to be subordinate and inferior to their husbands, who were considered to be superior partners in marriage. Common law vested control of property in the man, though dower, inheritance, and settlements gave many wives in the propertied classes some safeguards. A good deal of mutual affection existed in most marriages, with wives occupying a separate but subordinate sphere in the family economy. Though marriage was an unequal partnership, it was less unequal than we might imagine.
Attitudes toward women varied, of course, but the more extreme, Protestant, views enjoyed popular support: 'Women degenerate from the use they were framed unto, by leading a proud, lazie, and idle life, to the great hinderance of their poor husbands . . . . For commonly women are the most part of the forenoon painting themselves, and frizzing their hairs, and prying in their glass like Apes, to pranck up themselves in their gawdies, like Poppets, or like the Spider which weaves a fine web to hang the fly.' [Joseph Swetnam, The Arraignment of Lewd, Idle, Forward, and Unconstant Women, 1615.]
'Nature, I say, doth paint them forth to be weak, frail, impatient, feeble, and foolish, and experience hath declared them to be unconstant, variable, cruel, and lacking the spirit of counsel and regiment. And these notable faults have men in all ages espied in that kind, for the which not only they have removed women from rule and auhority, but also some have thought that men subject to the counsel or empire of their wives were unworthy of all public office.' [John Knox, The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women, 1558.]
The more learned and enlightened classes countered such views: see Sir Thomas Elyot, The Defence of Good Women, 1545: A dialogue that cites examples from history and legend to prove woman's constancy and wisdom. See also Thomas Bentley, The Monument of Matronness, 1572: Primarily a devotional treatise, it sets forth proof of woman's nobility.
xxiv. RISE AND FALL
As said, Sir Thomas Stanhope was the father of Sir John Stanhope, 1559-1611, dates as inquis post mortem, who on meeting King James in his way to Belvoir castle, on his first coming into England, had the honour of knighthood granted him, on the payment of £10,000! He was twice married. By his first wife, Cordelia Alington, 1560-1584, he had one son, Philip Stanhope, his successor. See Notices. Cordelia Alington was the grandaughter of Sir Giles Alington, 1505-1586, and Ursula Drury, 1508-1574, who was the daughter of Sir Ralph Drury, 1477-1535, and Ann Jerningham, 1480-1532, cousin of Sir Edward Stanhope, being the daughter of Edward Jerningham, 1437-1505, of Somerleyton, who was the brother, as said, of Mary Jerningham, wife of Sir Thomas Stanhope. Cordelia Alington was the daughter and co-heir of Richard Alington, 1535-1590, and Jane Cordell, 1538-4/1/1602, daughter of John Cordell, and sister of Sir William Cordell, Master of the Rolls. The Aligton family obtained the Manor of Wymondeley near Hitchin, from the Argentines, by the marriage of Sir William Alington, 1392-1450, of Botisham, Cambridgeshire, with Elizabeth de Argentine, 1401-1463, eldest sister and co-heir of Sir John de Argentine. Their descendant, Richard Alington, as said, married Jane Cordell. By this lady he had three daughters, of whom, the second, Cordelia, married Sir John Stanhope. The Argentines were a very ancient and eminent family. They held the lordship of Wymondeley by Grand Serjeanty, that is to say, it came with the duty of serving the monarch with 'their first cup upon the day of solemn Coronation.' [Clutterbuck's History of Hertfordshire, vol. ii., p.542, 1821.]
His second wife was Catherine Trentham, 1566-1623, daughter of Thomas Trentham of Roseter, Staffordshire. [For Trentham pedigree see Harl. MSS., 1,077, f. 15b, and 1,173, f.] 14b. By her he had a large family of sons and daughters, some of whom were:
Lady Catherine Stanhope, 1582-1694, who became the second wife of the close friend of King Charles I., Sir Thomas Hutchinson of Owthorpe, and step-mother of the famous Colonel John Hutchinson, Governor of Nottingham for Cromwell's Parliament. Lady Catherine survived to the great age of 102, and was buried, as was her husband, at St. Paul's, Covent-Garden. The Rev. Julius Hutchinson, one of her descendants, and editor of her memoirs, 1808, says, in his preface, that during her later years 'this lady dwelt in splendour in Nottingham.'
Cordelia Stanhope, 1585-1627, who married, firstly, Sir Roger Aston, and, secondly, John, Baron Mohun of Okehampton, 1592-28/3/1641. Suffice it to say, Cordelia Stanhope and John Mohun were the ancestors of a most fascinating family.
Jane Stanhope, 1587-1663, who married, firstly, Sir Peter Courtenay, and, secondly, Sir Francis Annesley, Viscount of Valentia, and Baron Mountnorris, of Mountnorris, in the county of Armagh. He was the son of Robert Annesley and Beatrice Cornwall of Moor Park. Robert Annesley was the son George Annesley, Esq., of Newport Pagnell, and Elizabeth Dove. George Annesley was the son of Robert Annesley of Newport Pagnell, and Joan Cloville of Coldhall, Essex, descendant of the Collevilles. n.b. The family of Annesley were very closely connected to the families of Babington and Clifton.
Katherine Stanhope, 1593-1637.
Dorothy Stanhope, 1595-1647.
Of seven sons of this marriage, five died young, the exceptions being Sir John Stanhope of Elvaston, and William Stanhope, who left three sons, who all died without issue. One of the sons who died young was Thomas Stanhope, b.1584. An Oxford University entry, dated 18/7/1598, states 'Thomas Stanhope equitis fil. aetatis 14.'
The Earls of Harrington
Sir John Stanhope of Elvaston, 1586-29/5/1638, the eldest surviving of Sir John Stanhope's sons by Catherine Trentham, married: firstly Olivia Beresford - Beresfords of Bentley - Thomas Beresford, a younger son of the family of that name in Staffordshire, married the heiress of Hassall, of Hassall in Cheshire, and settled at Bentley in the fifteenth century. The elder line of this branch became extinct in the reign of James I. by the death of Thomas Beresford, whose heiress married the representative of the Staffordshire branch: the heiress of this elder branch married Sir John Stanhope, of Elvaston, by whom she had a daughter and heir married to Charles Cotton. Hugh, a younger son of Thomas Beresford, who first settled at Bentley, seated himself at Newton-Grange, in the parish of Ashborne, at which place they had resided for five generations in 1611. The Newton-Grange estate was sold by Richard Beresford, father of John Beresford, Esq., of Compton, near Ashborne. Sir John Stanhope married secondly [29h] Mary Radclyffe, 1605-1675, daughter of Sir John Radclyffe of Orsdal. Sir John Stanhope was knighted in 1607; elected Knight of the Shire of Derbyshire temp. 18 James I., and also in the first parliament of Charles I. He was Sheriff of Derbyshire in 1629. His daughter, Anne Stanhope, married Thomas Ellys. Bart., of Wyham, Lincolnshire. His son was John Stanhope the elder of Elvaston, 1620-26/3/1662. He married Jane Curzon, 1625-14/4/1652, daughter of Sir John Curzon, 1st. Bart. of Keddlestone. Their son was John Stanhope the younger of Elvaston, 1642-1684, who married Dorothy Agard, 1657-1705, daughter of Charles Agard of Foston. Their third son was William Stanhope, 1681-8/12/1756, who, in 1729, was created Lord Harrington, Co. Northampton, and, in 1742, 1st. Earl of Harrington, and Viscount Petersham, County Surrey. He married Anne Griffith, 1695-18/12/1719, daughter of Col. Edward Griffith. William Stanhope was a British statesman and diplomat. Educated at Eton, he joined the army and served in Spain during the War of the Spanish Succession. When peace was made between England and Spain, in 1720, Stanhope became British ambassador to the latter country. He was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland from 1747 to 1751. His son, General William Stanhope, 2nd Earl of Harrington, 18/12/1719–1/4/1779, was an English politician and soldier. He took up a military career, joining the Foot Guards in 1741. He was wounded at the Battle of Fontenoy, and shortly after was appointed Colonel of the Second Troop of the Grenadier Guards, an appointment he held for the remainder of his life. In 1747, he became MP. for Bury St Edmunds, and, in 1755, was promoted to major-general. He succeeded to the Earldom in 1756, and was promoted to lieutenant-general in 1758, and general in 1770. He married Lady Caroline FitzRoy, 1722–1784, daughter of Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Grafton, on August 11, 1746. They had seven children: Lady Caroline Stanhope, 11/3/1747-9/2/1767. She married Kenneth Mackenzie, 1st Earl of Seaforth. Lady Isabella Stanhope, 1748–29/1/1819. She married Charles Molyneux, 1st Earl of Sefton. Lady Amelia Stanhope, 24/5/1749-5/9/1780. She married Richard Barry, 6th Earl of Barrymore. Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl of Harrington, 17/3/1753–1829. Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl of Harrington, was appointed, in 1778, Captain and Lieut.-Colonel of the 3rd Foot Guards. In 1792, he was transferred to the Colonelcy of the 1st Life Guards. He was promoted to Major-General in 1793, and to Lieut.-General in 1798, finally to the rank of General in 1803. In 1806, he was appointed commander-in-chief of the Forces in Ireland; and at the Coronation of King George IV was bearer of the Great Standard. General The Earl of Harrington was subsequently appointed Governor and Constable of Windsor Castle. His maternal grandparents were Charles FitzRoy, 25/10/1683-6/5/1757, 2nd Duke of Grafton, and Lady Henrietta Somerset. He was the son of Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton and Isabella Bennet, 2nd Countess of Arlington. His father was an illegitimate son of Charles II. of England and Barbara Villiers, 1st Duchess of Cleveland. Henrietta was the daughter of Charles Somerset, 1660-1698, Marquess of Worcester, and Rebecca Child, who was the daughter of Sir Josiah Child, Baronet Child of Wanstead, co. Essex, and sister of Richard Child, Earl Tilney of Castlemaine. Capt. Hon. Henry Fitzroy Stanhope, 1754-20/81828. He married Elizabeth Falconer. Lady Henrietta Stanhope, 1756-2/1/1781. She married Thomas Foley, 2nd Baron Foley. Lady Anna Maria Stanhope, 1760-18/101/1834. She married  Thomas Pelham-Clinton, 3rd Duke of Newcastle, and  Gen. Sir Charles Crauford. Charles Stanhope, above, married Jane Fleming, 1760- 1820, daughter of Sir John Fleming, 1st Baronet Fleming. They had ten children: Charlotte Augusta Stanhope, 1777-1859. She married Augustus Frederick FitzGerald, 3rd Duke of Leinster. They were parents to Charles William FitzGerald, 4th Duke of Leinster, and another three children. Caroline Anne Stanhope, 1778-25/11/1853. She married Edward Ayshford Sanford. Charles Stanhope, 4th Earl of Harrington, 8/4/1780–3/3/1851. He married Maria Foote, 1792-27/12/1867, a celebrated actress, daughter of Samuel Foote. He was better known throughout the Regency period as Lord Petersham, as he did not succeed to the earldom until 1829. Tall and handsome in appearance, he was a popular character in society. Renowned as an eccentric - he dressed like the French King Henry IV., and had other personal peculiarities - dandy, connoisseur of snuff and tea, he was also a liberal patron of the opera and theatre. He designed the Petersham overcoat. When he died without leaving a male heir, the title went to his brother, see below. Lincoln Edwin Robert Stanhope, 26/11/1781-29/2/1840. Anna Maria Stanhope, Duchess of Bedford, 3/9/1783–3/7/1857, the originator of the afternoon tea ritual in England. She married Francis Russell, 7th Duke of Bedford. Leicester FitzGerald Charles Stanhope, 5th Earl of Harrington, 2/9/1784–7/9/1862. He married Elizabeth Green, 1805-24/12/1898, daughter of William Green and Ann Rose Hall. His parents-in-law were residents of Jamaica. He was a soldier and politician who held radical views. He worked with Lord Byron in the cause of Greek independence, though often at odds with his friend. He wrote A Sketch of the History and Influence of the Press in British India and Greece, in 1823, drawing attention to propaganda disguised as impartial news reporting. His son was Sydney Seymour Hyde, 1845-1866, 6th. Earl of Harrington, who died unmarried, the title passing to his cousin, see below. FitzRoy Henry Richard Stanhope, 24/4/1787-11/4/1864, Dean of St Buryan, Cornwall, and Anglican Rector of Catton and of Wressle in Yorkshire. He married Caroline Wyndham, 1793-11/2/1876, illegitimate daughter of the Hon. Charles Wyndham. They were parents of Charles Wyndham Stanhope, 7th Earl of Harrington, and of several other children. Sir Francis Charles Stanhope, 29/9/1788-9/10/1862. He had three children by Hannah Wilson, 1797-25/10/1863, daughter of James Wilson of Parsonstown Manor, County Meath. Henry William Stanhope, 2/8/1790-21/6/1872, Anglican Rector of Gawsworth. Augustus Stanhope, 25/3/1794–8/12/1831, MP.
As said, Sir John Stanhope was the father of Philip Stanhope, 1584-1656, created, in 1628, first Earl of Chesterfield, who died as a prisoner of Cromwell's Parliament. In the Civil War, he and his family supported the King. As a result, his estates were sequestered, and, in 1645, he petitioned the House of Lords for maintenance. He was granted £5 per week, and fined £8,698 for having chosen the wrong side. He died in London on the 12th. September, and was buried in the church of Saint-Giles-In-The-Fields. He married, firstly, his second cousin, Catherine Hastings, 1586-28/8/1636, daughter of Francis Hastings, Lord Hastings, 1560-17/12/1595, of Huntingdon, Berwick, and Sarah Harington, 1566-1629, of Exton, Rutlandshire. Francis Hastings was the eldest son of George Hastings, 1540-3/12/1604, 4th. Earl of Huntingdon, and Dorothy Porte, 1544-2/9/1607, sister of Margaret Porte, who, as said, was the wife of the aforementioned Sir Thomas Stanhope. Sarah Harington was the daughter of James Harington, 1526-1592, and Lucy Sidney, 1535-1590, of Penshurst, Kent. The above is the old spelling of Harrington.
23 Sir John Stanhope 1403-1473 m. Elizabeth Talbot 1420-1469.
24 Thomas Stanhope 1440-1494 m. Mary Jerningham 1444-1500.
25 Sir Edward Stanhope 1462-1511 m. Adelina Clifton 1474-1496.
26 Michael Stanhope 1496-1552 m. Anne Rawson 1516-1587.
27 Sir Thomas Stanhope 1532-1596 m. Margaret Porte 1542-1597.
28 Sir John Stanhope 1559-1611 m.  Cordelia Alington 1565-1620.
29 Philip Stanhope 1584-1656 m. Catherine Hastings 1586-1677.
TABLE XII. THE EARLS HARRINGTON
28 Sir John Stanhope 1559-1611 m  Catherine Trentham 1566-1623.
29h Sir John Stanhope of Elvaston 1586-1638 m.  Mary Radclyffe 1605-1675.
30h John Stanhope of Elvaston 1620-1662 m. Jane Curzon 1625-1652.
31h John Stanhope of Elvaston 1642-1684 m. Dorothy Agard 1675-1705.
32h William Stanhope 1st Earl of Harrington 1681-1756 m. Anne Griffith 1695-1719.
33h William Stanhope 2nd Earl of Harrington 1719-1779 m. Caroline FitzRoy 1722-1784.
34h Charles Stanhope 3rd Earl of Harrington 1753-1829 m. Jane Fleming 1760-1820.
35h Charles Stanhope 4th Earl of Harrington 1780-1851 m. Maria Foote 1792-1867
xxv. THE FIRST EARL'S FAMILY
Philip Stanhope and Catherine Hastings had issue:
John Stanhope, 1605-1623.
Henry Stanhope, 1606-1634, Lord Stanhope. He was knighted in 1626, and was MP. for Notts. and East Retford. Henry Stanhope married, 4/12/1628, Katherine Wotton, 1611-7/3/1660, governess to Princess Mary, eldest daughter of Charles I.; created Countess of Chesterfield for life by Charles II., daughter of Thomas Wotton, 1587-2/4/1630, 2nd Baron Wotton of Marley, and Mary Throckmorton, 1591-25/4/1658. They had issue: Wotten Stanhope, 1628-1635. Mary Stanhope, 1629-1663. Elizabeth Stanhope, 1630-1678. Catherine Stanhope, 1634-19/11/1662. Catherine Stanhope married William Alington, 3rd Baron Alington of Killard, son of William Alington, 1st Baron Alington of Killard, and Elizabeth Tollemache. She died in childbirth. She was buried on 4th. December, 1662, in Horseheath, Cambridgeshire, England. Philip Stanhope, 1634-28/1/1713, 2nd Earl of Chesterfield. [Katherine Stanhope, Countess of Chesterfield, re-m. Daniel O'Neale esq. [Debrett's Peerage, 1827.]
Charles Stanhope, 1607-1645. He married, but died without issue.
Edward Stanhope, 1607-1614.
William Stanhope, 1608-1614.
Thomas Stanhope, 1609-1628.
Michael Stanhope, 1609-1616.
George Stanhope, 1610-1616.
Ferdinando Stanhope, 1610-1643. He was MP. for Tamworth in 1640. He was also colonel of horse in the army of King Charles 1. He was killed, in 1643, at the Battle of Bridgford, Nottinghamshire, where he fought on the Royalist side, 'while doing a charitable office .... in quenching an house there on fire.' He married his step-sister, Lettice Ferrers, daughter of Sir Humphrey Ferrers of Tamworth and Anne Pakington. Their daughter was called Anne Stanhope. The Collevilles and Ferrers were anciently connected, and fought, as said, side-by-side in 1066. They married within the same group of closely connected families, one example being marriages between between the families of Ferrers and Hastings.
Hon. Philip Stanhope, 1612-27/10/1645, who was killed while commanding the garrison at Shelford. The defences were stormed by Parliamentary forces. Colonel Hutchinson, Governor of Nottingham, wrote a letter to him to persuade him to surrender on honourable terms. 'Stanhope returned a very scornful, huffing reply, in which one of his expressions was that he should lay Nottingham Castle as flat as a pancake.' [Mrs. Hutchinson's Memoirs, 1794.]
Colonel Michael Stanhope, 1614-1648. Colonel Michael Stanhope was one of three Stanhope brothers killed in the war. His body his buried in the north aisle of Willoughby Church, as recorded on a small brass plate reading: 'Here lyes the BODY of Collonell MICHAEL STANHOPE who was slayne in Willoughby Feild in the Month of Iuly 1648 in the 24th Yeare of his age being A Souldier for KING CHARLES the first.' Tradition as it that his armour was brought to Shelford Church after the Battle of Willoughby Field.
Arthur Stanhope, 1617-1677. He was the youngest son of the first marriage, and MP. for Notts in the first Parliament of King Charles 11. He was the ancestor of Philip, 5th. Earl of Chesterfield. He married Anne Salisbury, 1638-1687, daughter of Sir Henry Salisbury, 1st. Baronet Llewenny, and Elizabeth Vaughan of Golden Grove, Caermarthinshire. Their children were: Philip Stanhope, 1653-1670. Henry Stanhope, 1654-1665. Charles Stanhope*, 1655-6/3/1712. Catherine Stanhope, 1657-1705.
Philip Stanhope and Catherine Hastings also had issue two daughters: Lady Sarah Stanhope, obit. 1699, who married Sir Richard Hoghton of Houghton, 3rd. Bart., and Lady Elizabeth Stanhope, who married Edward d'Arcy of Newhall.
Lady Sarah Stanhope and Sir Richard Hoghton had issue:
Sir Charles Hoghton, 1651-1720, who married Hon. Mary Skeffington, 1656-1732, their issue being: Sir Henry Hoghton, 1679-1768. Cordelia Hoghton, obit. 1768, who married Robert Davis of York. Margaret Hoghton, obit. 1775, who married Samuel Watson. Lucy Hoghton, obit. 1780, who married, 1705, Thomas Lutwidge, obit. 1747, of Whitehaven. Elizabeth Hoghton, 1691-1773, who married, 1715, Thomas Fenton, 1688-1734, of Hunslet, co. Yorks. Philip Hoghton, who married, firstly, Elizabeth Slater, obit. 1731, and, secondly, Margaret Rigby, obit. 1795.
Lucy Hoghton, obit. 1689, who married Tellstone Bruen, 1639-1684, of Bruen, Stapleford, Cheshire. Their daughter was Sarah Bruen, 1668-1705, who married, 1695, Ralph Assheton of Downham and Coverdale, Lancs. Their son was Ralph Assheton, 1696-1728, who married, 1716, Mary Lister, obit. 1728. They had issue: Ralph Assheton, 1719-1759, who married, 1750, Rebecca Hulls, obit. 1812. Rev. Richard Assheton, D.D., Rector of Middleton, Warden of Manchester, who married Mary Hulls. Ralph Assheton and Rebecca Hulls had issue: William Assheton, 1758-1833, who married, 1784, Lettice Brooke, obit. 1834. Elizabeth Assheton, 1762-1785, who married, 1784, Sir James Whalley-Smythe-Gardiner, Bart.., 1768-1805. Rebecca Assheton, who married Francis Penyston, of Cornwall, Oxf. Ann Assheton, who married Rt. Rev. William Cleaver, D.D., Bishop of Chester.
Lady Elizabeth Stanhope and Edward d'Arcy had issue:
Katherine d'Arcy, 1642-1713, who married, 1660, Sir Erasmus Phillipps, 3rd. Bart., 1623-1697, of Picton.
They had issue:
Sir John Phillipps, 4th. Bart., 1662-1737, who married Mary Smith, 1675-1720. They had issue: Sir Erasmus Phillipps, 5th. Bart., 1700-1743. Sir John Phillipps, 6th. Bart., 1701-1764, who married, 1725, Elizabeth Sheppard. Their son was Sir Richard Phillipps, 7th. Bart., Lord Milford, 1743-1803.
Bulkely Phillipps of Abercover, who married Philippa Adams, Their daughter, Mary Philippa Artemisia Phillipps, married James Child of Bigelly House, Pembroke.
Elizabeth Phillipps, who married John Sholter of Bybrook, Kent. Their daughters being: Catherine Shorter, 1682-1737, who married, 1700, Robert Walpole, 1676-1745, 1st. Earl Orford, and Charlotte Shorter, obit. 1734, who married, 1718, Francis, 1st. Lord Conway, 1679-1732.
* Charles Stanhope married Frances Toppe, 1658-1722, daughter of Sir Francis Toppe.
Their issue were:
Francis Stanhope, 1680-1710. He died unmarried.
Reverend Michael Stanhope, 1681-8/7/1738, Canon of Windsor. He married Penelope Lovell, 1695-1740, daughter of Sir Salathiel Lovell.
Henry Stanhope, 1689-1742. He was married to a Miss Jackson of Nottingham. Their daughter was Charlotte Stanhope. Toppe Stanhope, who died young.
Charles Stanhope, 1693-1759, ancestor of the 9th. Earl of Chesterfield: 'CARLES STANHOPE, esq, m. Cecilia, daughter of Dutton Stede, esq. of Stede Hill, in the county of Kent: and dying in 1759, left an only son, EDWIN FRANCIS STANHOPE, esq. This gentleman m. Catherine, widow of William-Berkeley Lyon, esq. and eldest daughter and co-heiress of John Brydges, Marquees of Caernarvon (son of James, first duke of Chandos) by whom he left, at his decease, in 1807, a daughter, Catherine Stanhope, who m. Sir Hungerford Hoskyns*, and a son, HENRY-EDWIN STANHOPE, esq. who, having distinguished himself аs a naval officer, and attained the rank of admiral of the blue, was created a baronet 13th November, 1807. Sir Henry m. Margaret, daughter of Francis Malbone, esq. of Newport Rhode Island, North America, by whom he left issue, EDWYN-FRANCIS, the present baronet. Catherine. Anne-Eliza, d. in 1819. Sir Henry d. in 1814.' [John Burke, A General and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage, p. 477, 1832.]
Gertrude Stanhope, 1694-1730.
Mary Theophilia Stanhope, 1694-1722.
Catherine Stanhope. She married a Mr.Wogan of Wales.
Elizabeth Stanhope. She married a Mr. Aspinwall of Lancashire.
*Catherine Stanhope and Sir Hungerforf Hoskyns were the parents of Maria Jane Hoskyns, who married George Compton Reade. Their son was John Stanhope Reade, who married Lovica Walton, who was born in New York. They were married in 1836, and settled in Michigan, U.S.A. The 1880 U.S census indicated their two oldest children were born in Canada. Their daughter, Catherine Reade, married a Mr. Asquith. Their daughter was Emma Louisa Asquith, who married William Barrett; their son being John Stanhope Reade Barrett, grandfather of Sylvia Horning, to whom I am indebted for this lineage.
Reverend Michael Stanhope and Penelope Lovell had issue:
Arthur Charles Stanhope*, 1715-9/3/1770.
Sir Thomas Stanhope, 1717-7/3/1770, Col. of Marines.
Ferdinand Stanhope, 1719-11/2/1790, buried in Beverley Minster, ancestor of the 8th. Earl of Chesterfield.
Lovell Stanhope, 1721-3/10/1783, so named from the old Maulovels, who was under secretary of state. He died unmarried.
Arthur Charles Stanhope married, Nov. 1740,  Mary Thornaugh, obit. Mar. 1748, daughter of Sir Andrew Thornaugh, of Obberton, Notts. They had no issue.  Margaret Headlam, 1730-1764, daughter of Charles Headlam of Kerby, Yorkshire, Esq.
They had issue:
Margaret Stanhope, 10/6/1754-7/9/1811, who married, 26/12/1776, the Rev.William Smelt. He was the son of William Smelt and Ursula Hankin. He was the son of William Smelt of Leases and Miss Cayley. She was the sister of the Recorder of Hull, and sister to the Russian Consul at Petersburg in the time of the Empress Catherine, with whom he was a great favourite. Their daughter married Count Pooggenpohl, and their daughter married the Rev. John Courtney. William Smelt of Leases and Miss Cayley were also the parents of Ann Smelt, who married William Metcalf, Esq., Cornelius Smelt, who was Lieutenant-Governor of the Isle of Man; he married Miss Offley; Mary Smelt, who married J. Courtney of Beverley, and Dorothy Smelt, who married Sir Thomas Frankland, Bart., of Thirkleby Park in Yorkshire. [Notes and Queries, vol. vii., p. 154, 1859.]
Philip Stanhope, 5th Earl of Chesterfield, 28/5/1755-29/8/1815.
* Arthur Charles Stanhope married, 2/3/1767, Frances Broade, who survived him, and re-married the Rev. Thomas Bigsby.
The 1st. Earl Chesterfield married, secondly, Anne Pakington, 1600-1667, as above, who had firstly married Sir Humphrey Ferrers. Their only son, see Notices, Alexander Stanhope, 1638-1707, married Catherine Burghill, 1645-1612. Their son, General James Stanhope, 1673-1721, became 1st. Earl Stanhope in 1718. The title became extinct upon the death of the 7th. Earl in 1967. The Earls Stanhope bore the subsiduary titles of Viscount Stanhope and Baron Stanhope.With the extinction of the Earldom, these titles passed to the Earl of Harrington.
The Earls Stanhope
James Stanhope was commander-in chief of British forces in Spain in 1708, and was an advocate of offensive tacticts. Perhaps as a result of this prediliction, he was captured, and was a prisoner in Spain for a year. On his return, in 1712, he abandoned the army for politics, and played a major role in establishing the House of Hanover on the throne. He masterminded the defeat of the Jacobite rebellion of 1715. He was principal minister of King Georg I. He married [31es] Lucy Pitt, 1692-1723, daughter of Thomas Pitt, Governor of Madras. Their eldest son, Philip Stanhope, 2nd. Earl Stanhope, 1714-1786, was a mathematician and a fellow of the Royal Society. He married Grizel Hamilton, 1728-1811. Their son, Charles Stanhope, 3/8/1753-15/12/1816, 3rd Earl Stanhope, married  Louisa Grenville, 1761-1829, daughter and sole heiress of the Hon. Henry Grenville, Governor of Barbados. He was educated at Eton and the University of Geneva. While in Geneva, he devoted himself to the study of mathematics, and acquired from Switzerland an intense love of liberty. He is sometimes confused with a contemporary of his, the 3rd Earl of Harrington. He was a supporter William Pitt the Younger, whose sister, Lady Hester Pitt, he married on December 19, 1774. He was the chairman of the Revolution Society. The members of the society expressed their sympathy with the aims of the French Revolution. In 1795, he introduced, into the Lords, a motion opposing any interference with the internal affairs of France He was in a "minority of one"—a sobriquet which stuck to him throughout life. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1772, and spent much of his income conducting experiments in science. He invented a method of securing buildings from fire, the printing press, the lens which bears his name, and two calculating machines. By his first wife he had three daughters, one of whom was Lady Hester Stanhope - an intrepid traveller in an age when women were discouraged from being adventurous. She is well worth reading about. To give any reader so interested a flavour of what they may encounter, it is said of her that when she arrived in Athens, the poet, Lord Byron, dived into the sea to greet her! Lord Stanhope died at the family seat of Chevening. His second wife was the mother of three sons. Their son, Philip Henry Stanhope, 1781-1855, 4th Earl Stanhope, married Catherine Lucy Smith, 1785-1843, daughter of Lord Carrington. He was an impoverished aristocrat, who sought fortune on the Continent, associating himself with the Royal House of Baden. He has been infamously implicated as being an agent of theirs in the case of Kaspar Hauser, a foundling with claims of royal descent. Rather than repeat contemporary rumours, readers so interested can readily find much information on this subject. They were the parents of Philip Henry Stanhope, 1805-1875, 5th.Earl Stanhope, who married Emily Harriet Kerrison, 1815-1873. Philip Henry Stanhope was the eminent historian, researcher, and writer of the 'Notices', to whom this account is dedicated.
TABLE XIII. THE EARLS STANHOPE
29 Philip Stanhope 1584-1656 1st. Earl of Chesterfield m.  Anne Pakington 1600-1667.
30es Alexander Stanhope 1638-1707 m. Catherine Burghill 1645-1712.
31es James Stanhope 1673-1721 1st Earl Stanhope m. Lucy Pitt 1692-1723.
32es Philip Stanhope 1714-1786 2nd Earl Stanhope m. Grizel Hamilton 1728-1811.
33es Charles Stanhope 1753-1816 3rd Earl Stanhope m.  Louisa Grenville 1761-1829.
34es Philip Henry Stanhope 1781-1855 4th Earl Stanhope m. Catherine Lucy Smith 1785-1843.
35es Philip Henry Stanhope 1805-1875 5th Earl Stanhope m. Emily Harriet Kerrison 1815-1873.
* n.b. Philip Stanhope and Catherine Hastings also had other issue: Sarah Stanhope, and Elizabeth Stanhope, dates unknown. These names were recorded on a black tablet on the south wall of Shelford Church.
xxvi. THE WRONG SIDE
For what cause had Philip Stanhope and three of his sons faired so ill? As ever, the chief cause concerned money. Of course, it is true that other reasons could be cited, but men tend to put up with a great deal if their pockets are full and someone is not trying to empty them. King James was such a pick-pocket. He was continually short of money. He wished to raise the rate of customs duty, payable to himself, but was thwarted by a Parliament whose members had a strong merchant interest. He suspended Parliament in 1611 and used people who had bought titles from him to run the country. Sir John Stanhope, who had bought his knighthood for £10,000, was one of those new class of men who held wealth and power under the direct patronage of the monarch. This caused great offence and jealousy. Such as Sir John Stanhope had also allied themselves with a monarch who showed delusions of grandeur:
'Kings are justly called gods for that they exercise a manner or resemblance of divine power upon earth. For if you will consider the attributes to God, you shall see how they agree in the person of a king. God has power to create, or destroy, make, or unmake at his pleasure, to give life, or send death, to judge all, and to be judged nor accountable to none; to raise low things, and to make high things low at his pleasure, and to God are both soul and body due. And the like power have kings. They make and unmake their subjects; they have power of raising and casting down, of life and of death; judges over all their subjects, and in all cases, and yet accountable to none but God only. They have power to exalt low things and abase high things, and make of their subjects like men at the chess: a pawn to take a bishop or a knight, and to cry up or down any of their subjects, as they do their money. And to the king is due both the affection of the soul and the service of the body of his subjects.' [King James I, A speech to the Lords and Commons of the Parliament at Whitehall, Mach 21, 1610.]
Charles I. had witnessed the relationship between his father and Parliament, and considered that Parliament was entirely at fault. He also found it difficult to believe that a king could be wrong. His conceit and arrogance were eventually to lead to his execution.
From 1625 to 1629, Charles argued with parliament over most issues, but money was the most common cause of argument. In 1629, Charles copied his father. He refused to let Parliament meet. Members of Parliament arrived at Westminster to find that the doors had been locked with large chains and padlocks. They were locked out for eleven years - a period they called the Eleven Years Tyranny.
Charles ruled by using the Court of Star Chamber. To raise money for the king, the Court heavily fined those brought before it. Rich men were persuaded to buy titles. This was how the Earldom of Chesterfield came about. If they refused to do so, they were fined the same sum of money it would have cost for a title anyway!
In 1635, Charles ordered that everyone in the country should pay Ship Money - historically a tax paid by coastal towns and villages to pay for the upkeep of the navy. His proposals further enraged those whose commercial interests he threatened. They would plan his downfall, and with it those, such as the Stanhopes, whose patronage and wealth they envied. This envy was inflamed by the the despotic way in which Charles and his officials acted. They repressed all opposition. The pamphleteer William Prynne had his ears cut off in 1634, and was put in the pillory, for a book that seemed to reflect badly on the queen. The regime became offensive to many of the lesser nobility and merchants. Their anger was ignited by the new taxes levied on them and the worsening economic climate, and the result was the ensuing Civil War. This was not a war between the rich and the poor - it was a war between the rich and the not quite so rich, who could both afford to support an army of followers drawn from the lower social orders. The radical ideas for changing society that some of these foot-soldiers held were hated by all people of property.
xxvii. THE STANHOPES RESTORED
Philip Stanhope, 2nd Earl of Chesterfield, inherited the title of Earl of Chesterfield upon his grandfather's death in 1656, and enjoyed royal patronage, for his family supporting the monarchy, after its restoration in 1660. Chesterfield and something of a rogue; notorious for drinking, gambling and an exceeding wild nature. We learn, from the memoir prefixed to his Printed Correspondence, that he fought three duels, disarming and wounding his first and second antagonists, and killing the third. The name of the unfortunate gentleman who fell on this occasion was Woolly. Lord Chesterfield, absconding, went to Breda, where he obtained the royal pardon from Charles II. He had been committed to the Tower for two weeks for an earlier duel, which were illegal. He acted a busy part in the eventful times in which he lived, and was remarkable for his steady adherence to the Stuarts.
Before proceeding, it may be worth inserting the following quote, so as to gain a sense of the flavour of the post-restoration times, which obviously contrasted sharply with the austere regime of Cromwell. These times were: 'A strange effeminate age when men strive to imitate women in their apparel, viz, long periwigs, patches in their faces, short wide breeches like petticoats, muffs, and their clothes highly scented, bedecked with ribbons of all colours.' [Anthony Wood, 1663.]
Philip Stanhope's first marriage, perhaps dressed as above, was to Lady Anne Percy, daughter of Algernon Percy, Earl of Northumberland. A son of this marriage, Algernon Stanhope, died in his infancy. Following her death, a marriage had been arranged between him and Mary, daughter of Lord Fairfax. Despite the fact the banns had been read twice, Mary jilted Chesterfield for the Duke of Buckingham, with whom she had fallen in love. Chesterfield subsequently married Elizabeth Butler, daughter of James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde, and Elizabeth Preston, Baroness Dingwall. N.B. See previous family connection between the Butlers, Talbots, and Stanhopes. According to Pepys, he neglected this second wife, and banished her to Derbyshire, so she should be removed from the Duke of York's attentions. Nevertheless, Philip Stanhope and Elizabeth Butler had a daughter. Their daughter was Lady Elizabeth Stanhope, 1665-24/4/1723.
Philip Stanhope, 2nd Earl of Chesterfield, married, thirdly, Lady Elizabeth Dormer, 1650-1677, eldest daughter of Charles, the second Earl of Carnarvon; note previous family connection.
Their children were:
Lady Elizabeth Stanhope, 1663-1723, who married John, 4th. Earl of Strathmore, 1665-1712.
Philip Stanhope, 3/2/1672-1726, 3rd Earl of Chesterfield.
Lady Mary Stanhope, 1674-1704, who married the Rt. Hon. Thomas Coke, 1674-1727, of Melbourne, Derbyshire. Their daughter was Mary Coke, who married, 1729, Thomas, Lord Southwell, 1698-1766, their son being Thomas, 1st. Viscount Southwell, 1723-1780, who married, 1741, Margaret Hamilton, 1722-1802. Their son was Thomas Arthur, Viscount Southwell, 1742-1796, who married Countess Maria Josepha Walsh de Serrant, 1757- 1796. They had issue: Hon. Margaret Southwell, 1775-1820, who married, 1794, Jenico, 12th. Viscount Gormanston. Thomas Anthony, 3rd. Viscount Southwell, 1777-1860, who married, 1794, Jane Berkeley, obit. 1853. Hon. Paulina Southwell, 1785-1858, who married, 1806, Richard O'Farrall-Caddell, 1780-1858, of Harbourstown. Hon. Arthur Francis Southwell, 1789-1849, who married, 1834, Anne Agnes Dillon, obit. 1851.
Lady Catherine Stanhope, 1675-23/12/1728, who married Godfrey Clarke of Chilcot, Derbyshire. Charles Stanhope, 1677-1703, who inherited the estate of the Wottons, took on that name; married Jane Thacker of Repton, 1680-4/10/1744, but died without issue. Jane Thacker married  Thomas Stanhope, elder brother to Charles, father of William, Earl of Harrington.
* Lady Elizabeth Stanhope is a direct ancestor of the present Royal Family of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. She married, 21/9/1691, John Lyon, 4th Earl of Strathmore 1663-1712. He was the son of Patrick Lyon, 3rd Earl of Strathmore, and Helen Middleton.
xxviii. PHILIP DORMER STANHOPE
Philip Stanhope, 3rd Earl of Chesterfield, married Lady Elizabeth Saville, 1665-1723, daughter of George Saville, 1st Viscount Halifax, and Lady Dorothy Spencer.
They had issue:
Philip Dormer Stanhope, 1694-24/3/1773, 4th Earl of Chesterfield; who was known as Lord Stanhope until his father's death in 1726, was a British statesman and man of letters. He was educated at Cambridge and then went on the Grand Tour of the Continent. n.b. He acquired a competent knowledge in Geometry and Architecture, a field of interest of many later Stanhopes. His relative, James Stanhope, the favourite minister of George I., procured him the position of gentleman of the bedchamber to the Prince of Wales. In 1715, he entered the House of Commons as Lord Stanhope of Shelford. A noted wit and orator, his long public career included an ambassadorship to The Hague, 1728-32, and a tenure as lord lieutenant of Ireland 1745-46. According to Horace Walpole, Philip Dormer Stanhope, as Embassador to Holland, 'courted the good opinion of that economical people by losing immense sums at play.' His literary fame rests upon his letters to his illegitimate son, Philip Stanhope, first published in1774, designed for the education of a young man. Here is an excerpt from this work, which shows his keen insight into human nature:
'As kings are begotten and born like other men, it is to be presumed that they are of the human species; and perhaps, had they the same education, they might prove like other men. But, flattered from their cradles, their hearts are corrupted, and their heads are turned, so that they seem to be a species by themselves .... Flattery cannot be too strong for them; drunk with it from their infancy, like old drinkers, they require dreams.'
Chesterfield was writing from first-hand acquaintance with George I. and II. This small quote does not give full justice to the remarkably penerative insights offered by Philip Dormer Stanhope. His work is more than worth reading, though, at the time of publication, it caused quite a moral outrage. For the record, Chesterfield's illegitimate son, Philip Stanhope, secretly married an illigitimate daughter of an Irish gentleman, Eugenia Peters [Pieters], who was described as plain but accomplished. They had two sons, provided for in Chesterfield's will. It was Eugenia Stanhope, not so provided for, who published Chesterfield's letters.
Chesterfield's letters are more worthy than his treatment of family heirlooms, which he treated with contempt. Towards the year 1750, as Horace Walpole tells us, he had 'placed among the portraits of his ancestors two old heads, inscribed Adam de Stanhope and Eve de Stanhope.'
Philip Dormer Stanhope died without leaving a male heir. When his son, also named Philip Stanhope, died prematurely in 1768, his title went to his kinsman and godson, Philip Stanhope, 1755-1815, 5th Earl of Chesterfield, who was the direct descendant of the first Earl of Chesterfield's youngest son, Arthur, see above. He had already publicly declared he would treat his godson as a grandchild, and always took an active interest in his upbringing, although he was not an orphan.
Gertrude Stanhope, 1697-12/4/1775. She married Sir Charles Hotham, 1690-1739, of Scarborough, 5th. Bart. Their son was Sir Charles Hotham, 1725-1767, 6th. Bart. Note previous family connection.
Elizabeth Stanhope, 1700-14/11/1727. She married Samuel Hill Esq., of Shenstone, Stafford.
Sir William Stanhope, 20/7/1702-15/5/1772., Knight of the Bath. He married, 27/4/1721,  Susanna Rudge,1699-7/10/1740. Their daughter was Elizabeth Stanhope, 1724-1/8/1761, who died in Tylney Hall, Hampshire; who married, 18/11/1747, Welbore Ellis Esq., 15/2/1713-2/2/1802, afterwards created Lord Mendip.
John Stanhope, 5/1/1704-1748. He was a Lord of the Admiralty.
Charles Stanhope, 6/9/1708-20/2/1736.
TABLE XIV. EARLS CHESTERFIELD A
30a Sir Henry Stanhope 1606-1634 m. Catherine Wotton 1611-7/3/1660.
31a Philip Stanhope 1634-1713, 2nd Earl of Chesterfield m. Lady Elizabeth Dormer 1650-1677.
32a Philip Stanhope, 3rd Earl of Chesterfield 1672-1725 m. Lady Elizabeth Saville 1665-1723.
33a Philip Dormer Stanhope 1694-1773, 4th Earl of Chesterfield.
TABLE XV. EARLS CHESTERFIELD B
30b Arthur Stanhope 1627-1677 m. Anne Salisbury 1638-1687.
31b Charles Stanhope 1655-1720 m. Frances Toppe 1658-1722.
32b Reverend Michael Stanhope 1688-1752 m. Penelope Lovel 1695-1740.
33b Arthur Charles Stanhope 1715-1770 m. Margaret Headlam 1730-1764.
34b Philip Stanhope 1755-1815 5th Earl of Chesterfield m. Lady Henrietta Thynne 1783-1813.
35b George Augustus Frederick Stanhope 1805-1866 6th Earl of Chesterfield m. Elizabeth Weld-Forester 1803-1885.
36b George Philip Cecil Arthur Stanhope 1831-1871 7th Earl of Chesterfield.
A petition to Queen Anne for permission to travel to France, at a time when England and France were at war.
* 'That your petitoner being under the greatest indisposition of health, with continual pains in the head, and want of hearing, which 'tis believed by the Physitians will turn to an Apoplexy if not prevented, Humbly sues to your Majesty, for a pass and leave to goe to the Waters of Bourbon in France for the sake of his health, which his Physitians are of Opinion cannot otherways be recovered. Your petitioner haveing tried all things here in England without any effect. And your Petitioner as in duty bound shall ever pray for your Majesty's Long life and prosperous Raigne.' Sir John Floyer duly certified and signed the petition: 'I humbly certifie the Contents of the Petition above written to be true And am of Opinion That it is very necessary for my Lord Stanhope to goe to Bourbon for Recovery of his health as the most proper place for the purpose.' Though Lord Philip Stanhope's symptoms were apparently intractable and unresponsive to any treatment he received in England, they were not immediately life threatening, for he did not die until 14 years later, at the age of 54, when he was the third Earl of Chesterfield. The opportunity to take the waters at Bourbonne-les-Bains hopefully at least alleviated his symptoms.
xxix. LAST OF THEIR LINE
After succeeding to the title, Philip Stanhope, 5th Earl of Chesterfield, was made ambassador to Madrid in 1784, but never took up the post, resigning in 1787; he was also appointed to the Privy Council in 1784, and held the positions of Master of the Mint and Master of the Horse. He lived at Bretby Hall. Bretby Hall is a country house at Bretby, Derbyshire, England. The name Bretby means 'dwelling place of Britons.' Bretby Hall was the ancestral home of the Earls of Chesterfield. The fifth Earl demolished the mansion and built the present Hall to a design by Sir Jeffry Wyatville. He also followed the lamentable trend set by his celebrated predecessor, and removed all the older family pictures. To this can be added the disregard for old family records. In this he did little more, perhaps, than follow the too common taste of his time. Philip Stanhope, 5th Earl of Chesterfield, married firstly, 16/9/1777, Anne Thistlewayte, daughter of Reverend Robert Thistlewayte D.D., of Norman Court, Hants. They had issue, Harriet Stanhope, 9/4/1788-22/11/1803. He married, secondly, 2/5/1799 Lady Henrietta Thynne, 1783-3/5/1813, daughter of Sir Thomas Thynne, 1st Marquiss of Bath, and Lady Elizabeth Cavendish-Bentinck.
Children of the said Philip Stanhope and Lady Henrietta Thynne were:
Elizabeth Stanhope, 15/2/1802-1821.
Lady Georgiana Stanhope, 15/2/1802-14/8/1824, who married, 14/11/1820, Frederick West Esq., only son of Frederick, son of John, second Earl De la Warr.
George Augustus Frederick Stanhope, 23/5/1805-1/6/1866, 6th Earl of Chesterfield. The sixth Earl, known as the Racing Earl, loved cricket and shooting, so he built a cricket pitch and raised game birds on his estate at Bretby. His politics were Tory, though he was a consistent supporter of Catholic emancipation. Between 1828 and 1830, he held the post of Lord of the Bedchamber. He was known as being a man of fashion and extravagance. Having succeeded to his fortune during his minority, he managed to lose nearly half of it. He married Elizabeth Weld Forester, 7/9/1802-27/7/1885, daughter of Cecil Weld Forester, 1st. Baron Forester of Willey Park, and Lady Katherine Mary Manners, daughter of Charles Manners, 4th. Duke of Rutland. Their son was George Philip Cecil Arthur Stanhope, 28/9/1831-1/12/1871, 7th Earl of Chesterfield, about whom it can be mentioned that he had the distinction of making a top score in first class cricket of 65. He was the last Earl of his line. The Earldom went to the descendants of the previously mentioned Ferdinand Stanhope, son of the Reverend Michael Stanhope, see above, ch. xxiii.
Ferdinand Stanhope, 1718-1790, married, 2/11/1742, Mary Phillips, 1720-1785.
They had issue:
John Stanhope, 1744-1/12/1800, Rear Admiral of the Blue; buried in the Parish Church of St. Thomas in Salisbury.
Charles Stanhope, an officer in the army, b. Jan. 1745, obit. 6/8/1767.
Mary Stanhope, b. Mar. 1746.
Thomas Stanhope, b. 1748, died in infancy.
Michael Stanhope, b. Jul. 1750, obit. 18/10/1790.
Arthur Stanhope, b. Oct. 1752.
John Stanhope married, 1784, Caroline Dent, 1755-1830, daughter of Digby Dent of naval fame.
Their children were:
Philip Stanhope, 1786-1830.
Lt. Colonel. Henry Stanhope, 1790-1865, Admiral.
Charles George Stanhope, 1789-22/1/1833, Captain, who married Jane Galbraith, 1800-13/01/1873, daughter of Sir James Galbraith, Bart.
Caroline Stanhope, 1790-26/1/1866, who married, 7/7/1807, Jonathon Stackhouse Rashleigh.
Eliza Stanhope, 1792-1855, who married [Maj. Gen.] Hassel Richard Moor.
The son of Charles George Stanhope was George Philip Stanhope, 29/11/1822-19/10/1883, 8th Earl of Chesterfield, who was the last Earl of his line. He obtained the rank of Ensign in 1841, in the service of the 29th. Foot, and in the following year was promoted to lieutenant. On his decease, the Earldom was conferred on a descendant of a brother of the Reverend Michael Stanhope, the previously mentioned, ch. xxiii., Charles Stanhope, 1693-1759. This line and the title of Earl of Chesterfield died in 1967.
TABLE XVI. EARLS CHESTERFIELD C
30b Arthur Stanhope 1627-1677 m. Anne Salisbury 1638-1687.
31b Charles Stanhope 1655-1720 m. Frances Toppe 1658-1722.
32b Reverend Michael Stanhope 1688-1752 m. Penelope Lovel 1695-1740.
33c Ferdinand Stanhope 1718-1790 m. Mary Phillips 1720-1785.
34c John Stanhope 1744-1800 m. Caroline Dent 1755-1830.
35c Charles George Stanhope 1789-1833 m. Jane Galbraith 1800-1873.
36c George Philip Stanhope 1822-1883.
Here this partial account of the Stanhopes ends. It may seem that it has been a chronicle of the rich and powerful, yet, when Richard de Ifferley held 48 acres in Stanhope, this was not the case. It was the old story - younger sons of the rich were successively left less and less land. There had to be some spark of indignation in his descendants, fueled by a knowledge of their family history, that made them fashion out a new dynasty for themselves. They advanced through meticulous planning of marriages, bravery in battle; the cleverness to acquire useful knowledge, and the intelligence to to survive in dangerous times.
I would hope that enough information has been given so as to allow readers to see something of themselves in a particular ancestor, for, surely, at least in part, we are is a product of our shared Northern blood; the blood of Ragnvald Eysteinsson, whose insignia was a wolf's head.
This account has served some personal purpose, as most accounts of genealogy do. My son, Adam Stanhope, grandson, Dylan Stanhope, and grandaughter, Charlotte Ada Stanhope, will now have a clearer notion of their ancestry. By combining tables i., xi., xiii., xi., and xvi., they will be able to trace their paternal ancestry back to the jarls of Norway. By using other tables, they will trace their wider ancestry to such as King Alfred, or Emperor Charlmagne. They will see that my account ends with the death of George Philip Stanhope, 8th Earl of Chesterfield, who, according to my paternal grandmother, and papers once in the possession of an uncle, was the father of a natural son, her husband, George Stanhope. His story was not remarkable by the standards of his time: As little wanted as the illigitimate son of Philip Dormer Stanhope, he was registered as the son of an earlier natural Stanhope, and was raised as a member of his family. His inheritance amounted to those items mentioned in my introduction. His more lasting inheritance was a sense of bitterness against a system he saw as profoundly unfair, a trait he unfortunately shared with my own father, Henry Stanhope.
But more than this being a personal history, I have attempted to give a sense of pride in their Northern roots to all those now or formerly called Stanhope, that they might feel a sense of continuity in a changing world; that they may look back on the deeds of their ancestors, those great people from whom we sprang, and by this gain the strength to combat the battles of their own age. If I have left even a small mark upon the mind of any reader, and a sense of lasting admiration for those mentioned, then labour has not been lost.Michael Stanhope, copywrite 2007. The above work has been compiled with a view of assisting any called Stanhope to trace their ancestry. As its author, I was, in part, motivated by existing accounts of Stanhope origins being incomplete and, often, inaccurate. That is not to say that this account is accurate in any scientific sense; any amount of painstaking research of original works and documents can not make that so, for reasons previously given. However, I am satisfied that this account gives a substantially accurate notion of Stanhope origins and history. Please feel free to quote from this work, and feel as equally free to contact me with any queries you may have. Also, please note that the above account is available in book form. Enquiries: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org