Society for the History of Astronomy

shedding light on the history of astronomy



Useful addresses

SHA County Co-ordinator: Mike Leggett      Email:


No of SHA Members resident in this County  … 0 



        Local History Centres and societies


Friends of Lincoln Archaeological Research and Education

The Hon. Membership Secretary, FLARE, c/o Dept of Planning,

City of Lincoln Council, City Hall, Lincoln LN1 1DF

Tel 01522 873483 or 01522 873271        Fax 01522 567934


Meetings: Talks held monthly on 2nd or 3rd Wednesday of the month at 7.30pm at St. Hugh's Church Hall, Monks Road, Lincoln.


Heritage Trust of Lincolnshire, The Old School, Cameron Street, Heckington, Sleaford, Lincolnshire, NG34 9RW

Tel 01529 461499        Fax 01529 461001



Lincolnshire Family History Society, Unit 6, 33 Monks Way, Lincoln, Lincolnshire LN2 5LN


The Lincolnshire Family History Society has branches that meet as follows:

Boston, at Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Woodthorpe Avenue

Bourne, at United Reformed Church, Willoughby Road

Grantham, at Harrowby Lane Methodist Church Hall

Great Grimsby, Town Hall, with workshops at Grimsby Central Library

Horncastle, at the Community Centre, Manor House Street

Lincoln, at Bracebridge Heath Village Hall

Louth, at the Salvation Army Centre, Church Street

There is also a London branch, which meets at the Society of Genealogists, Charterhouse Buildings, London EC1


Lincolnshire County Council Library Service:


North East Lincolnshire Library Service:

Branch libraries:

Family history:

Local studies:


North Lincolnshire Libraries

Branch libraries:  

Local and family history:


Society for Lincolnshire History and Archaeology

Jews' Court, 2-3 Steep Hill, Lincoln, LN2 1LS,Lincolnshire

Tel: +44 (0) 1522 521337     Fax: +44 (0) 1522 521337




For further information about local history centres and societies see also

Historical societies:

Family history societies:


A list of the principal libraries (with family history resources) can be found on the Familia Lincolnshire website as follows


North East Lincolnshire:

North Lincolnshire:


See also UK Genealogy Lincolnshire:



          County Record Office


Lincolnshire Archives, St Rumbold Street, Lincoln, LN2 5AB

Tel 01522 525158 (Search Room Hours)          01522 526204 (Admin Office)

Fax 01522 530047




North East Lincolnshire Archives, Town Hall, Grimsby DN31 1HX

Tel 01472 323585        Fax/Answerphone 01472 323582


Visitors are requested to ring to book a seat before visiting the Archives Office.



Cleethorpes and District Astronomical Society (

Meetings are held at the Beacon Hill Observatory


Horncastle Residential College Observatory

The observatory is marked on a map [Philips/Ordnance Survey]. British Astronomical Association astronomy weekends have been held at the Horncastle Residential College.


Lincoln Astronomical Society (

Observatory opened in 1982 by Sir Patrick Moore, it is named after two former Presidents of the society, Walter Pennell and Peter Hammerton.


Lincoln Castle, Observatory Tower

Most of the tower dates from medieval times, but the upper part was restored and buttressed in 1825 as an observatory for the Governor, John Merryweather, a keen astronomer [Lincolnshire County Council]. (suppl.note: the tower was initially built as a watch tower to guard against prisoners escaping).


South Lincolnshire Astronomical and Geophysical Society ( Observatory near Cowbit


Also Starlincs mobile planetarium (



(Note: This includes individuals who have made contributions in related fields, e.g. mathematics, geography, exploration)


Henry Andrews (1743 – 1820), astronomer, was born at Frieston, near Grantham [Ketteringham, 1995; Clerke]. As a ten-year old, he began observing the stars with a telescope in Frieston Green. However, as his parents were poor, he entered domestic service while still a boy, first in Sleaford, then in Lincoln and finally with Mr Verinum, who permitted him some time each day for his studies [Clerke]. He calculated with great accuracy a solar eclipse, which was viewed by a distinguished party at Aswarby Hall on 1 April 1764. He was a teacher in Basingthorpe near Grantham, then became an usher at a school in Stilton, subsequently moved to Cambridge, then spent the remainder of his days as a bookseller and schoolmaster in Royston. He was a calculator on the Nautical Almanac for over 40 years and was employed on several other almanacs. [Ketteringham, 1995; Clerke; See also Barber; Parsons]


Sir Joseph Banks FRS (1743 – 1820), botanist, was resident at Revesby Abbey, home of the Banks Family. Between 1768 and 1771 Banks accompanied Captain James Cook’s expedition round the world [Ketteringham, 1995; See also Parsons; State Library of New South Wales]


George Bass (1771 – ?1812), explorer, born Aswarby, near Sleaford. Bass Strait is named after him [Mullay & Mullay, 2002]. He was surgeon on HMS Reliance. He sailed with Matthew Flinders on several voyages. In 1803 Bass set sail for South America. Little is known of him after that date and he is assumed to have died in 1812. [Ketteringham, 1995; See also Parsons]


Dr John Dee (1527 - 1608), mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, alchemist, Rector of Long Leadenham, Lincolnshire (1566 – 1608) [Parsons; Westfall].


Matthew Flinders (1774 – 1814), navy captain, hydrographer and explorer, was born in Donington. On several voyages, including as captain of HMS Investigator, he explored much of the coastline of Australia [Ketteringham, 1995; Elsden, 2003]. Flinders was the author of A voyage to Terra Austral (published 1814) [Ketteringham, 1995]. Flinders University in Adelaide, Australia is named after him [Flinders University; See also Parsons; SpaldingNet; State Library of New South Wales] See also Authors, Lecturers below

Sites associated with Flinders: A plaque on a building in Donington marks the site of the birthplace of Flinders. There is a more substantial memorial in the parish church of St Mary and the Holy Rood, which includes a stained glass window and poster display [Tanford & Reynolds]. Flinders is also commemorated through street names in Boston, Donington and Metheringham.


Dr Michael Foale, NASA Astronaut, born 1957 in Louth, Lincolnshire [Kidger, 2004; Parsons]


Sir John Franklin FRS (1786 – 1847), Arctic explorer, born Spilsby, [Mullay & Mullay, 2002]. Cousin of Matthew Flinders, Franklin served as Midshipman on HMS Investigator under the command of Flinders during a voyage to Australia. He made further voyages of exploration in North America and the Arctic, but died on an expedition to find the North West Passage [Ketteringham, 1995; See also Australian National Botanic Gardens; Chantry; Cornish]

Sites associated with Franklin: There is a statue of Sir John Franklin in the Market area of Spilsby and, on the wall of the Franklin House Bakery, is a plaque to indicate that this was the birthplace of Sir John Franklin [Chantry].


Robert Grosseteste (c. 1168 – 1253), Bishop of Lincoln from 1235 [Ketteringham, 1995]. He was also active in geometry, astronomy and optics [Parsons] and wrote many scientific and philosophical works [The Electronic Grosseteste]. Probably born in Suffolk, he was Rector of a Franciscan School in Oxford [Tanford & Reynolds] and was Chancellor of Oxford University 1215 – c. 1221 [O’Connor & Robertson; See also Urquhart].

Sites associated with Robert Grosseteste: Lincoln Medieval Bishops’ Palace was the official private residence of the Bishop of Lincoln before 1200 until the 1640s and it is located on the south side of Lincoln Cathedral [English Heritage]. His tomb is in Lincoln Cathedral, in the Chapel of St Peter & St Paul (also known as the Students’ Chapel) [Tanford & Reynolds].

See also academics and associated professionals


John Harrison (1693 – 1776), clockmaker, who perfected the marine chronometer, was born in Yorkshire, but his family moved to Barrow-on-Humber when he was 7 [Ketteringham, 1995; See also Hobden and Hobden, 1988]

Sites associated with Harrison: The Barton Initiative was part of the Barton Waterside Regeneration and, based on information found in 2004, it was intended to include a visitor centre and exhibition, which would celebrate the life and work of John Harrison and celebrate his links with Barton-upon-Humber regionally and nationally. However, it has not been possible to find more up to date information for this 2007 edition of the survey and the current status of the Barton Initiative would appear to be uncertain. However, the primary school in Barrow-upon-Humber is named after John Harrison.


John Merryweather, governor of the Prison at Lincoln Castle, was a keen astronomer.

Sites associated with Merryweather: The Observatory Tower at Lincoln Castle was restored in 1825 for Merryweather [Lincolnshire County Council].

See observatories above.


Sir Isaac Newton (1642 – 1727), natural philosopher, mathematician and astronomer, was born at Woolsthorpe Manor, near Colsterworth [Ketteringham, 1995]. He attended School in Grantham and continued his studies at Cambridge University. Shortly after Newton graduated in 1665, Cambridge University was closed as a precaution against the Great Plague and Newton returned to Woolsthorpe, where during the next 18 months, he developed the method of “fluxions”, the basis of the calculus. He also continued his studies on light and optics, including the famous experiment in which he passed a beam of sunlight through a prism to split white light into its constituent colours. Perhaps most famous of all, he observed the apple fall, which led him to develop the concept of gravitation [English, 1977; See also Cambridge University Library; Fara; Maury; Newton Project; O’Connor and Robertson; Parsons]

Sites associated with Newton: There are several sites in Lincolnshire with connections with Newton, especially in the vicinity of Colsterworth and Grantham.

Woolsthorpe Manor: In addition to the Manor House, there is also a Science Discovery Centre and exhibition [National Trust; Tanford and Reynolds].

Address: Woolsthorpe Manor, 23 Newton Way, Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, nr Grantham, Lincs NG33 5NR

Tel 01476 860338        E


Colsterworth Parish Church: Inside the church, mounted on the wall in a small gangway at the rear of the organ, is a sundial made by Isaac Newton as a boy. The sundial was formerly on the south front of Woolsthorpe Manor, but was moved to the church in 1877 [Antram].

Sir Isaac Newton Monument, St Peter’s Hill, Grantham: The bronze statue by Mr Theed was erected in 1858 near the site of the Eleanor Cross, which had been destroyed in about 1645 [Kelly, 1905]. At the inauguration of the statue of Newton, Lord Brougham gave an oration and several other speeches were made; these are included in the second edition of King’s biography of Newton [English, 1977].

Grantham Museum: The museum includes displays about Sir Isaac Newton.

Address: Grantham Museum St Peter's Hill, Grantham, Lincolnshire NG31 6PY


Sir Isaac Newton’s name appears in many places, including the shopping centre on St Peter’s Hill, Grantham, a primary school also in Grantham and street names in Grantham, Boston and Holbeach.

In 1966, Lincoln City Libraries Committee organized an exhibition, Newton and the apple, to commemorate the tercentenary of the discovery of the law of gravitation [English, 1977].


Samuel Roberts FRS (1827 – 1913), mathematician, born Horncastle [O’Connor and Robertson]


John Smith (1579 – 1631), explorer, colonist and Governor of Virginia [Ketteringham, 1995]. Born Willoughby, Lincolnshire [Parsons; Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities]


Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809 – 1892), poet and amateur astronomer, was born in Somersby [Ketteringham, 1995; Mullay & Mullay, 2002]. Better known as a poet, he was also greatly interested in science and was a keen amateur astronomer [Woods, 2006]

The Tennyson Statue in Lincoln is adjacent to the Chapter House and Medieval Library, northeast of Lincoln Cathedral [Parsons].


Edmund Weaver was described by Dr Stukeley as “…a very uncommon genius, who had made himself master of astronomy and was scarcely to be accounted the second in the kingdom…” [Lynn]. Very little seems to be known about Weaver, other than a short series of almanacs, including “The British Telescope” (published in 1745) and some astronomical tables, which appear not to have been published. Stukeley recorded in his diary that he “…spent many agreeable hours at Stamford and Pickworth with Mr Tycho Wing and Mr Edmund Weaver, the great Lincolnshire astronomer” [Clerke].

See Authors below for further information about Dr William Stukeley and also the survey for Rutland for further information about Tycho Wing and the “Wing Dynasty”.


Societies and Organisations

Alford Mechanics’ Institute, Market Place: Founded in April 1854, there was lecture room together with a reference library containing "many very valuable standard works" [Post Office, 1861; Kelly, 1889, 1919] and a circulating library, which contained many "scientific and useful books"; the growth of the circulating library was reported as follows: 1 000 volumes in 1861 [Post Office]; 1 500 volumes in 1889 [Kelly]; 1 775 volumes in 1905 [Kelly] and 1919 [Kelly]. Membership was over 110 in 1861 [Post Office] and 1889 [Kelly] and about 500 [sic] in 1905 [Kelly] but only about 70 in 1919 [Kelly].


Boston Astronomers ( Founded in 1975 as the Boston Astronomical Association, in 1981 the name was changed to Boston Astronomers. It formerly met at the Blackfriars Arts Centre, but in June 2001 the society "had no choice but to suspend the meeting programme".


Boston Athenaeum: Established 1851 following the merger of the Public Library (founded 1830) and the Mechanics’ Institution (founded 1837), membership in 1851 was 270 and by 1856 it was nearly 500. The principal object was the “diffusion of knowledge among the mass of the people by means of a reading room, a library, lectures on popular subjects and classes for the pursuit of distinct branches of knowledge.” The Athenaeum building was in front of the Corn Exchange on the eastern side of the Market Place and comprised a reading room, library and lecture room with apparatus and instruments [Thompson, 1856]. The premises were described as a “…commodius suit [sic] of rooms over shops in front of the corn exchange…” [White, 1856]. However, there was no mention of the Boston Athenaeum in directories published in 1861 [Post Office], 1872 [White], nor in a list of literary and scientific institutions in 1889 in Lincolnshire [Kelly]. It would seem that this Boston Athenaeum was short-lived unlike the famous Boston Athenaeum in the United States.


Boston Literary Society: Similar to the Spalding Gentlemen’s Society (see below), founded by Maurice Johnson (see below) in 1750 [Gosse], the Boston Society is referred to in a letter from Mr Johnson to Mr Neve of 30th March 1750. Nothing more is known of it and like similar societies in Stamford and Peterborough it may have been relatively short-lived. [Thompson, 1856]


Bourn Mechanics’ Institution: Reported to possess a good library [White, 1856, 1872, there is no mention of the Bourn[e] Mechanics' Institution in a list of literary and scientific institutions in 1889 [Kelly, 1889].


Brazen Nose Society: A literary society, which William Stukeley founded in Stamford in 1745, it was similar to the Stamford Society (see below) and took its name from the former “university” of that name in Stamford [Thompson, 1856]. In fact, there was no university in Stamford in the strict sense of the word. During the C13th a group of students from Oxford attempted to establish a centre of learning in Stamford, occupying Brasenose Hall. By 1335 differences with the Oxford University authorities had been settled and the students returned to Oxford [Mee, 1970].


Burgh-in-the-Marsh Mechanics' Institute and Reading Rooms: Listed in directories in 1861 [Post Office] and 1872 [White], by 1889, there is no mention of this institute in a list of literary and scientific institutions [Kelly, 1889].


Caistor Mechanics’ Institution: Established in 1850, by 1872 it had 50 members with a library of 740 volumes [White, 1872]. However, by 1889, there is no mention of the Caistor Mechanics' Institution in a list of literary and scientific institutions [Kelly, 1889].


Cleethorpes and District Astronomical Society ( )

Founded sometime before 1975 [Moore, 1974], meetings are held at the Beacon Hill Observatory. See also Observatories above.


Epworth Mechanics’ Institute: Founded in 1837, it survived until recently [Alston], making it one of the oldest and certainly longest-lived mechanics’ institutes in Lincolnshire It was located in the Court House [White, 1856], although another source reports that the Mechanics' Institute was erected in 1854 [Post Office, 1861]. By 1872, it had moved to a Temperance Hall in the High Street, which had been built in 1868. Epworth Mechanics' Institute is listed in all the directories surveyed [Slater, 1850; White, 1856, Post Office, 1861; White, 1872; Kelly, 1889; Kelly, 1896; Kelly, 1905; Kelly, 1909; Kelly, 1913; Kelly, 1919], but very little detail is given.


Gainsborough Literary, Scientific and Mechanics’ Institute: Year of foundation is variously given as 1832 [Alston] or 1849 [White, 1856]. Based on the earlier date, it would have been the oldest mechanics’ institute in Lincolnshire. In 1850, it was reported that there was a well-attended Mechanics' Institution (or library) and news-room [Slater]. By 1856, the Literary, Scientific and Mechanics' Institution occupied part of the Gainsborough Old Hall (see museums below) and had a good library and newsroom with occasional lectures [White, 1856]. According to one source it survived until 1872 [Alston], but it is listed in a directory well after that date [Kelly, 1889]. However, it does not appear in the subsequent directory consulted [Kelly, 1896].

(NOTE Described as “self-improving working men’s adult education colleges” [Simkin], mechanics’ institutes were pioneered by John Anderson and George Birkbeck initially in Glasgow, then in London by George Birkbeck. Mechanics’ institutes were also frequently known as institutions and the name of the same organization is not always consistent across all sources consulted.)

Sites associated with the Gainsborough Literary, Scientific and Mechanics’ Institute: Among the “best-preserved medieval manor houses in England” [English Heritage], part of the Gainsborough Old Hall building was formerly used by the Gainsborough Literary, Scientific and Mechanics’ Institute.


Grantham Philosophical Institution, Finkin Street: Listed in a directory of 1861, it was reported that it had been established in 1836 and included a library of over 1 200 volumes of standard works and a museum, principally in ornithology, geology and mineralogy [Post Office]. Other than this account, there appear to be no other references to this organization. This institution may have been a predecessor of the Grantham Museum, though the latter seems to refer to a later organization, the Grantham Philosophical Society [Grantham Museum].


Grantham Scientific Society, Guildhall: Founded in the 1880s [Grantham Museum], it is listed in directories for 1896, 1905 and 1909 [Kelly, 1896; 1905; 1909]. By 1913, it had become the Grantham Scientific and Photographic Society [Kelly, 1913], but there is no mention of it in 1919 [Kelly, 1919]. This society is reported to have played a part in the origin of the Grantham Museum [Grantham Museum].


Grimsby Astronomical Society: This society was not listed in the Yearbook of Astronomy in 1985 [Moore, 1984], but had been added to the list by 1990 [Moore, 1989]. It has subsequently appeared in issues of the Yearbook for 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2007. However, the current status of this society is uncertain. It does not appear on the website of the Lincolnshire Astronomy and Space Association nor the Lincolnshire Group of Astronomical Societies.


Grimsby/Great Grimsby Mechanics’ Institution, Victoria Street South: Founded in 1834 [White, 1856] or 1835 [Alston, Slater], in 1850 the Mechanics' Institution was in Flotter Gate. In 1856 it occupied premises in Victoria Street built for its use [White, 1856]. The building included a large lecture hall, news-room and library as well as reading and lecture rooms [White, 1872; Kelly, 1889]. It survived until 1899 [Alston]. Following the adoption of the Public Libraries Act in 1899, the building was extensively altered in 1900 and by 1905 it was occupied by the Public Library [Kelly, 1905]. The records of the Grimsby Mechanics' Institution are in the Grimsby Public Library [Alston].


Horncastle Mechanics’ Institute: Founded in 1834 [Alston], in 1850 the address was Union Street [Slater] and by 1856, it occupied part of the Corn Exchange and had a library and news-room and held occasional lectures [White, 1856]. In 1872 the membership was 254 [White, 1872] but by 1889 this had dropped to 172 [Kelly, 1889]. It survived until 1890 [Alston] and it does not appear in a list of literary and scientific institutions in 1896 [Kelly, 1896].


Lincoln Astronomical Society ( )

Founded June 1959, the Society meets at a purpose built lecture hall on 23 Westcliff Street, Lincoln. Work began in 1960 on the construction of the lecture hall, workshop and observatory; the lecture hall was officially opened in September 1963. By 1965, the construction of the observatory was in progress and the Society had 90 members [Moore, 1964]. See also Observatories above.


Lincolnshire Astronomy and Space Association (

Founded September 2003, the association is based at Horncastle College and “aims to bring together all the Lincolnshire Astronomical Societies to further interest and cooperation between the groups.”


Lincolnshire Group of Astronomical Societies (


Lincoln Mechanics' Institution: Founded in 1833 [Alston; White], by 1835, the Lincoln Mechanics' Institution was located in the Sheep market [Pigot].  George Boole’s father, a cobbler by trade who, as a hobby studied mathematics and made optical instruments, became curator of the library at the Lincoln Mechanics’ Institute in 1834 [Dittmer]. It was at the Lincoln and Lincolnshire Mechanics Institution, that George Boole presented an address on the genius and discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton, delivered on … 5 February 1835 [English, 1977]. By 1850, the institution was located on St Swithin's Market [Slater]. It occupied the basement of the Grey Friary, a building that it shared with the Grammar School. The New Permanent Library was annexed to the Lincoln Mechanics' Institution and in 1856 the institution library consisted of some 5 000 volumes. The membership in the same year was about 380 members [White, 1856]. In 1862, the Lincoln Mechanics' Institution moved to the City Assembly Rooms on Silver Street, which the Corporation had converted for use by the institution. By 1872, the institution possessed a small museum and the library now contained some 7 000 volumes. During the winter session, a course of scientific lectures was delivered. The membership numbered about 700. A residence for the librarian was also attached to the building [White, 1872] and in 1881 Francis William Sparke, who had been librarian in 1872, was resident at the Mechanics' Institute [sic] with his wife, 3 sons, 1 daughter and a domestic servant [Census, 1881]. A new school was also built in connection with the institution [White, 1872]. By 1896, the address had again changed and was at Guild Court, Danes Terrace (off Steep Hill/Strait) and the library now contained some 20 000 volumes [Kelly, 1896]. The Lincoln Mechanics' Institution survived until 1900 [Alston]; in 1905 it was reported that the Lincoln Mechanics' Institution had ceased its separate existence and become part of the Church House and Institute, on Steep Hill [Kelly, 1905].


Louth Antiquarian and Naturalist Society: In 1896, 1905 and 1909 the address was given as New Street [Kelly, 1896; Kelly, 1905; Kelly, 1909]. In 1896 and again in 1905, the joint honorary secretaries were Benjamin Crow, who was also very active in the Louth Mechanics' Institute (see below) and R W Goulding. In 1909, the joint honorary secretaries were J Larder and R W Goulding. It would appear that the name was changed to Louth Naturalists' Antiquarian and Literary Society sometime between 1909 and 1913. In 1913, the latter society had an address in Enginegate, the honorary secretaries were the same as the Louth Antiquarian and Naturalist Society in 1909. In 1913, Benjamin Crow was president of the Louth Naturalists' Antiquarian and Literary Society  [Kelly, 1913]. The society also appears in a directory in 1919 [Kelly, 1919].


Louth Mechanics’ Institute: Founded in 1833 [Alston], in 1850 it had between 200 and 300 members and its address was given as Corn Market [Slater]. In 1853 the old Mansion House, in Upgate, was purchased for its use. By 1856, it had a good library of more than 2 500 volumes and an interesting museum. It held occasional lectures in the winter season and some 400 members attended its classes [White, 1856]. In 1872, the library contained more than 4 000 volumes and the membership was reported to be 469 [White, 1872]; the reading room had 33 periodicals and 27 newspapers [Kelly, 1889]. Over the following years, membership held steady at about 439 in 1889 [Kelly, 1889], about 450 in 1896 [Kelly, 1896], but by 1905 there was a marked decline in the membership, which was about 330 [Kelly, 1905]. A particular stalwart of the institute appears to have been Benjamin Crow, who was listed as a honorary secretary over several years [White, 1856; White, 1872; Kelly, 1889; Kelly, 1905; Kelly, 1909; Kelly, 1913; Kelly, 1919]. The Louth Mechanics' Institute survived until 1945 [Alston].


Market Rasen Mechanics’ Institute and Library: Year of foundation was variously reported as 1836 [White, 1856, 1872] and 1842 [Alston]. Its address was variously given as Queen Street [Slater; Kelly, 1889] and Union Street [White, 1872]. In 1856, it was reported to have a library of 600 volumes, a reading room and occasional lectures [White, 1856]. According to one source it possibly survived until 1882 [Alston]. It is listed in a directory for 1889, but the fact that what may have been an older address is given may have been significant [Kelly, 1889]. It does not appear in a list of literary and scientific institutions in 1896 [Kelly, 1896].


Newton Astronomers: Founded early 2001, following a meeting held at the Paragon Cinema in Grantham; the current status of this society is uncertain. From information found in August 2007 on the Lincolnshire Group of Astronomical Societies website (see above), the link for Newton Astronomers went to the most recent website for Newton's Astronomical Society; this website seemed to have been created in 2005 with the most recent updates implemented on 2007-05-15. It is possible that this group was the predecessor of Newton’s Astronomical Society (see below).


Newton’s Astronomical Society (

Founded June 2002, it formerly met at Woolsthorpe Manor, the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton (See Sir Isaac Newton and Woolsthorpe Manor above), but from information found on the website in August 2007, the society had been forced to suspend activity due to low numbers. The link above is for the older of the 2 websites for the Newton’s Astronomical Society, which would appear not to have been updated since August 2004.


North Lincolnshire Astronomical Society: Appears in a list of astronomical societies (see, but the society appears to no longer have its own active website. Current status of this society is uncertain.


Orion Astronomical Society: The society was listed in the 1975 Yearbook of Astronomy, the contact details gave an address in Louth, but regarding meeting details, it was stated “Details to be announced” [Moore, 1974]. By the time the 1980 Yearbook was published, this Society was no longer listed [Moore, 1979].


South Lincolnshire Astronomical and Geophysical Society (

Founded 1976, the Society formerly met at the South Holland Centre in Spalding and, more recently, at the Adult Education Centre in Knight Street, Pinchbeck; the society now meets at St Mary’s Church Hall, Rose Lane, Pinchbeck. See also Observatories above.


Spalding Gentlemen’s Society: Founded in 1710, formally established in 1712, it is one of the oldest Antiquarian Societies in the UK. Notable members during the 18th Century included the astronomer George Lynn Snr, Dr William Stukeley and Sir Isaac Newton and during the 19th Century Sir Joseph Banks, Alfred, Lord Tennyson and Pishey Thompson [Spalding Gentlemen's Society]. According to its founder, Maurice Johnson (see below), “we deal in all arts and sciences, and exclude nothing from our conversation but politics, which would throw all into confusion and disorder.” In 1746 it was recognized as the oldest society of its kind outside London and the Universities [Thompson, 1856]. However, following the death of Maurice Johnson in 1755, the society declined and, by 1850 it was stated, “… for some years past it has lost particular claim to notice” [Slater, 1850]. It was around this time that its fortunes again changed and by 1856 it was reported to have “…latterly revived…”with an increased membership who met at the meeting room and library, which was at that time in Bridge Street [White, 1856]. With the exception of the Ashmolean in Oxford, the Gentlemen’s Society museum is the oldest in the UK. The present building in Broad Street was opened in 1911 and the building features a sundial dated 1702 originally from the Crane Inn [Leveritt and Elsden, 1986]. The museum is not open to the public, but it may be possible for visitors to view the historical exhibits by appointment [SpaldingWeb]. The society is still currently very active with a regular programme of public lectures on a wide range of subjects, which includes occasional astronomical topics. [See also Green; Leveritt and Elsden, 1986; University of Waterloo Scholarly Societies Project]

Address: Spalding Gentlemen’s Society Museum Broad Street, Spalding, Lincolnshire PE11 1TB




Spalding Mechanics’ Institute: Founded 1845 by R Barlow, Enoch Canwell, Jno T Pepper and Samuel Kingston as the Spalding Juvenile Literary Institute, there was a succession of name changes, first to Spalding Literary and Scientific Institute, then to Spalding Young Men’s Mutual Improvement Society. In 1853 it became the Spalding Mechanics’ Institute. By 1856, it had over 200 members and a good library [White, 1856]. In 1872, it was reported to be meeting at a hired building in New Road, but that work was about to start on the construction of its own building [White, 1872], located in Red Lion Street [Kelly, 1889]. In 1927 it disbanded and all “real and personal property of the Institute” was passed to the Spalding Gentlemen’s Society [Leveritt and Elsden, 1989]. The records of the Spalding Mechanics’ Institute are held by the Spalding Gentlemen’s Society (see above) [Alston].


Stamford Institution/Stamford Literary and Scientific Institution: Year of foundation was variously reported as 1838 [White, 1856, 1872] and 1842 [Slater], though the date of 1842 might actually refer to the construction of the Stamford Institution building on St Peter's Hill [Kelly, 1889]. The object of the Stamford Institution was the "…dissemination of literary, philosophical, scientific, mechanical and other useful knowledge" [White, 1856]. In April 1844, E Henderson presented a series of lectures on astronomy and popular geometry at the Stamford Institution [Cavendish Auctions]. By 1856, it possessed an extensive and valuable museum [White, 1856]; this museum was of particular interest with respect to the geology of Lincolnshire [Kelly, 1889]. In 1862, Stamford Library was moved to the institution [White, 1872]; by 1889, the library contained 8 000 volumes [Kelly, 1889] and 10 000 volumes in 1905 [Kelly, 1905]. The institution building also included a residence for the curator and in 1881 George Hatchman and his wife were resident at the Stamford Institution [Census, 1881]. At the top of the institution building was a camera obscura [Kelly, 1889].


Stamford Mechanics’ Institute: Listed in a directory for 1850 [Slater], no further information has so far been found and it is possible that it merged with the Stamford Institution.


Stamford Society: A literary and antiquarian society, founded by Maurice Johnson (see below) and John Cecil, Earl of Exeter in about 1721, the society lasted a few years only and in 1745, William Stukeley (see below) attempted to establish a similar society in Stamford, the Brazen Nose Society (see above) [Gosse].


Winterton Mechanics' Institute and Reading Room: Listed in a directory for 1861 [Post Office], no further information has so far been found.


Authors, lecturers, broadcasters

(Note: This includes individuals who have made contributions in related fields, e.g. mathematics, geography, exploration and also includes founders of astronomical societies and other organizations.)


Frank Birmingham, founder member and former chairman of the South Lincolnshire Astronomical and Geophysical Society

See also Societies and organisations above.


George Boole (1815 – 1864), mathematician, born Lincoln [Mullay & Mullay, 2002]. Boole founded a school in Lincoln [Dittmer] in about 1835 and was appointed to the chair of mathematics at Queen’s College, Cork in 1849. Boole was the inventor of Boolean algebra and was author of An investigation of the laws of thought in which are founded the mathematical theories of logic and probabilities (published 1854), two mathematical textbooks and numerous papers [Ketteringham, 1995]. Boole also presented an address on the genius and discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton, delivered on … 5 February 1835 at the Lincoln and Lincolnshire Mechanics Institute [English, 1977; See also Harrison; O’Connor and Robertson]

Sites associated with Boole: Near Pottergate, is a house formerly occupied by George Boole who also ran an academy there [Baker]. Boole was a teacher in Lincoln and in Waddington.


Matthew Flinders, see astronomers above


Canon Charles Wilmer Foster (1866 – 1935) founded the Lincoln Record Society, which has issued over 80 volumes, including the Registrum Antiquissimum, the first volumes of which were edited by Canon Foster. With the aid of several Timberland parishioners, he did much work on Diocesan and Chapter Records, which became the foundations of the Lincolnshire Archives Office [Ketteringham, 1995]. C W Foster was author of Sir Isaac Newton’s Family [English, 1977].


Robert Grosseteste, see astronomers above


Sir Thomas Little Heath FRS (1861 – 1940), born Barnetby-le-Wold, was a civil servant in the Treasury and a historian of mathematics. Publications include Apollonius of Perga (1896), Archimedes (1897 and 1912, latter including a translation of The Method), three-volume translation of Euclid (1908, 2nd edition 1926), Aristarchus of Samos, which included a translation of Aristarchus’ On the sizes and distances of the Sun and the Moon (1913), Euclid’s Elements Book I (1920), History of Greek Mathematics (1931), Greek Astronomy (1932) [O’Connor and Robertson]. See also [Heath] for details of a recent reprint of Aristarchus of Samos.


E Henderson presented lectures on astronomy and popular geometry at the Stamford Institution in April 1844 [Cavendish Auctions]. See also societies and organisations above.


Maurice Johnson (1688 -1755), antiquarian and botanist, born in Spalding, was founder of the Spalding Gentlemen’s Society in 1710 and a founder member of the revived Society of Antiquaries in 1717 [Redshaw]. He also founded similar but short-lived societies in Stamford (c.1721), Peterborough (1734) and Boston (1750) [Gosse].

Sites associated with Johnson: A fine late medieval town house, Ayscoughfee Hall, Church Gate, Spalding was the birthplace and home of Maurice Johnson, founder of the Spalding Gentlemen’s Society. Ayscoughfee Hall is now home to a museum.

See also Societies and organisations above


Samuel Kingston (1829 – 1905), founder member of the Spalding Mechanics’ Institute [Leveritt and Elsden, 1989].

See also societies and organisations above


Mr Lloyd presented a course of astronomical lectures on the Dioastroxon or, Grand Transparent Orrery at the Theatre Stamford, which concluded on 1st October 1827 [Cavendish Auctions].


William Stukeley FRS (1687 –1765), antiquarian, physician and clergyman, was born at Holbeach. He was a physician in Boston (1710 – 1717) and Grantham (1726 – 1729). Following ordination in 1729, he was clergyman in Stamford (1730 – 1748) and Somerby (1739 – 1747) [Ketteringham, 1995; Elsden, 2003]. He was a founder member of the Society of Antiquaries, was elected a member of the Spalding Gentlemen’s Society in 1722 and founded the Brazen Nose Society of Stamford in 1745 [Ketteringham, 1995]. He observed the total solar eclipse of 11 May 1724 and included an account in his Itinerarium Curiosum [Williams, 1999]. He was author of several books on antiquities including Stonehenge: A Temple Restored to the British Druids (published 1740) [Hamond]. His studies on Stonehenge included plotting points of reference related to summer and winter solstices [Parsons; See also Hamond]. Subsequently clergyman at St George-the-Martyr in Queen Square, London (1748 – 1765), he postponed a church service by an hour so that his congregation could witness a solar eclipse in April 1764 [Ketteringham, 1995; Elsden, 2003]. The annular eclipse of 1 April 1764 and the proposed postponement of church services was the subject of a letter by Stukeley, which appeared in the Whitehall Evening Post [Williams, 1999]. He was the first biographer of Newton and is associated with the famous story of Newton and the apple in the orchard of Woolsthorpe Manor.

Sites associated with Stukeley: A clergyman at All Saints Church, Stamford, Stukeley also had the living of Somerby near Grantham. A primary school in Holbeach is named after William Stukeley. There are also streets with the name Stukeley in Holbeach (Stukeley Gardens and Stukeley Road), and Lincoln.

See also Societies and organisations above


Academics and associated professionals

(Note: This includes individuals who have made contributions in related fields, e.g. mathematics, geography, exploration)


Dr Richard Busby (1606 – 1695), master of Westminster School, born Lutton (Sutton St Nicholas) [Ketteringham, 1995; Elsden, 2003]

See also Buckinghamshire survey for information about Dr Busby's links with Willen, Bucks


Robert Grosseteste, see astronomers above


Sir Francis Hill (1899 – 1980), historian, born Lincoln, Chancellor of Nottingham University 1972 – 1978 and Lincoln City Councillor, Alderman and Mayor, he was active in the provision of an archive service for Lincolnshire. He wrote a four-volume history of Lincoln and a single volume A Short History of Lincoln. Other publications included The Letters and Papers of the Banks Family of Revesby [Ketteringham, 1995].


Sir Halford John MacKinder (1861 – 1947), geographer and statesman, born Gainsborough [Mullay & Mullay, 2002]


Charlotte Angas Scott (1858 – 1931), mathematician, born Lincoln, Scott became the first Head of Mathematics at Bryn Mawr College in Pennsylvania [Parsons; O’Connor and Robertson].


William Waynflete (c. 1395 – 1486), Bishop, born as William Patten in Wainfleet, was ordained in Spalding Parish Church on 21 April 1420, was appointed provost of Eton College soon after its foundation and founded Magdalen College, Oxford in 1448. On 11 October 1456 he was appointed Lord Chancellor of England [Ketteringham, 1995]



Arcturus Press

The Manse, Fleet Hargate PE12 8LL

Tel 01406 423971        Fax 01406 422191

Publisher of books on astronomical history and facsimile reprints of historic astronomy books


Cosmic Elk,


Lincolnshire Family History Society, see Local history centres and societies above


Lincolnshire Library Service, see Local history centres and societies above


Pitch and Moment Publishing

Formerly based in Crowland, it was publisher of the space technology and exploration magazine, NewSpace, which appeared from December 1984 until October/November 1985.


Society for Lincolnshire History and Archaeology, see Local history centres and societies above above


Telescope / equipment manufacturers

(Manufacturers to order and retailers of telescopes)

Beacon Hill Telescopes, Hope Cottage, Birketts Platts, Birketts Lane, Covenham St Bartholomew, Louth, Lincs LN11 0FF

Tel: ++44 (0) 1507 363381  Fax: ++44 (0)1472 506108

Refernces and bibliography

R Alston, Mechanics' Institutes 1823 - 1850,

Nicholas Antram, Isaac Newton and Woolsthorpe Manor, The National Trust, 1987, 2003, p7

Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities, Captain John Smith,

Australian National Botanic Gardens, Sir John and Lady Franklin actively encouraged science and education in colonial Australia,

F T Baker, Historic Lincoln, Jarrold, 1983

John Barber, Henry Andrews,

M W Barley, Lincolnshire and the Fens, Batsford, 1952; Republished by EP Publishing, 1972

Stewart Bennett & Nicholas Bennett, An Historical Atlas of Lincolnshire, 1st edition, University of Hull Press, 1993; Republished by Phillimore, 2001

Sam Branson, A Gazetteer of Historic Lincolnshire for Family and Local Historians, Lincolnshire Family History Society, 2nd Edition, 2001

Agnes Mary Clerke, Andrews, Henry; in Sir Leslie Stephen & Sir Sidney Lee (eds), Dictionary of National Biography, Volume I, Oxford University Press, 1917, 1973, pp406 – 407

Agnes Mary Clerke, Wing, Vincent and Wing, Tycho; in Sir Leslie Stephen & Sir Sidney Lee (eds), Dictionary of National Biography, Volume XX, Oxford University Press, 1917, 1973, pp650 -651

Cambridge University Library, Papers of Sir Isaac Newton,

Cavendish Auctions,

Census, 1881, RG11/3241/59/16 (Lincoln Mechanics’ Institution); RG11/3191/24/41 (Stamford Institution); Transcripts from

Eileen Chantry, Sir John Franklin of Spilsby,

E C Coleman RN, The 1845 Franklin Expedition, Roger Parsons Lincolnshire World, Parsons world of Sir John Franklin,

Jim Cornish, Gander Academy: Sir John Franklin,

English Heritage, Members’ and Visitors’ Handbook, 2007/8,; p156 (Gainsborough Old Hall); p159 (Lincoln Medieval Bishops’ Palace)

Flinders University, History,

Jeremy Dittmer, George Boole 1815 – 1864, The Institute of Mathematics and its Applications,

Michael J Elsden, Aspects of Towns and Villages, Michael J Elsden, 2003, pp62 – 64 (Matthew Flinders and Donington); p90, pp116 – 118 (William Stukeley and Holbeach); pp174 – 175 (Dr Richard Busby and Lutton)

The Electronic Grosseteste,

J S English, “…And All was Light” The Life and Work of Isaac Newton 1642 – 1727, Lincolnshire History Series, Lincolnshire Library Service, 1977; pp8 – 10 (Newton’s early researches at Woolsthorpe and Stukeley’s account of Newton and the apple); p19 (Inauguration of Newton Statue in Grantham; see also p30); p28 (George Boole, An address on the genius and discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton, delivered on…5 February 1835, at the Lincoln and Lincolnshire Mechanics institute, Lincoln Gazette, 1835, 23p); p29 (C W Foster, Sir Isaac Newton’s Family, offprint from Associated Architectural Societies Reports and Papers, 39, 1928, 62p); p30 (E F King, A biographical sketch of Sir Isaac Newton, to which are added…the oration of Lord Brougham…at the inauguration of the statue in Grantham and of several of the speeches delivered on that occasion, 2nd ed, Grantham, S Ridge, 1858, vi, 118p; Lincoln City Libraries…Committee, Newton and the apple: an exhibition to commemorate the tercentenary of the discovery of the law of gravitation…24 September to 8 October 1966, Lincoln City Libraries…Committee, 1966, 16p); p31 (William Stukeley, Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton’s life, 1752; being some account of his family and chiefly the junior part of his life; edited by A H White, Taylor & Francis, 1936, xv, 86p)

Patricia Fara, Newton: The Making of a Genius, Macmillan, 2002

E H Gooch, A History of Spalding, 1940

Gosse, Edmund, Johnson, Maurice, in Sir Leslie Stephen & Sir Sidney Lee (eds), Dictionary of National Biography, Volume X, Oxford University Press, 1917, 1973, 911 -912

Grantham Museum,

Eileen Harrison, George Boole — The Lincoln Genius,

Jason Hamond, William Stukeley, Minnesota State University eMuseum,

David Boyd Haycock, William Stukeley: Science, Religion and Archaeology, Boydell, 2002

Sir Thomas Heath, Aristarchus of Samos: The Ancient Copernicus, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1913, 1959; Republished by Dover, New York, 1981

Sir Francis Hill, The City of Lincoln, Pitkin, 1975

Heather and Mervyn Hobden, John Harrison (1693 – 1776),

Heather and Mervyn Hobden, John Harrison and the problem of longitude, Cosmic Elk, 1988

Kelly’s Directory of Lincolnshire, 1889, p12 & p420 (Stamford Institution); p20, p628 (Alford Mechanics' Institute); p142, p628 (Epworth Mechanics' Institute); p165, p628 (Gainsborough Literary, Scientific and Mechanics’ Institution); p195, p210 & p628 (Grimsby Mechanics’ Institution); p246, p251 & p628 (Horncastle Mechanics' Institute); p320 & p628 (Louth Mechanics' Institute); p628 (literary and scientific institutions in Lincolnshire)

Kelly’s Directory of Lincolnshire, 1896, p202, p209 (Grantham Scientific Society); p331, p369, p374,  (Lincoln Mechanics’ Institution); p382, p389 & p374 (Louth Mechanics' Institute); p743 (literary and scientific institutions in Lincolnshire); p784 (Louth Antiquarian and Naturalist Society)

Kelly’s Directory of Lincolnshire, 1905, p26, p813 (Alford Mechanics’ Institute); p174, p175 & p813 (Epworth Mechanics' Institute); p217 (Newton Monument, Grantham); p220, p228 & p859 (Grantham Scientific Society); p240 (Grimsby Mechanics' Institution); p360 (Lincoln Mechanics’ Institution); p417, p427, p429 & p813 (Louth Mechanics' Institute); p540 (Stamford Institution); p813 (literary and scientific institutions in Lincolnshire); p859 (Louth Antiquarian and Naturalist Society)

Kelly’s Directory of Lincolnshire, 1909, p225, p232 & p865 (Grantham Scientific Society); p819 (literary and scientific institutions in Lincolnshire); p865 (Louth Antiquarian and Naturalist Society)

Kelly’s Directory of Lincolnshire, 1913, p230, p238 & p894 (Grantham Scientific & Photographic Society); pp847-848 (literary and scientific institutions in Lincolnshire); p895 (Louth Naturalists' Antiquarian and Literary Society)

Kelly’s Directory of Lincolnshire, 1919, pp28 – 30 (Alford Mechanics’ Institute); p174, p175 & p802 (Epworth Mechanics' Institute); p419 & p803 (Louth Mechanics' Institute); pp802 – 803 (literary and scientific institutions in Lincolnshire)

John Ketteringham, Lincolnshire People, The King’s England Press, 1995

Neville Kidger, Michael Foale becomes record-breaking space traveller, Spaceflight, 46:3, March 2004, pp106-109

Norman Leveritt and Michael J Elsden, Aspects of Spalding 1790 – 1930, Chameleon International, 1986, pp174 – 178

Norman Leveritt and Michael J Elsden, Aspects of Spalding People and Places, Chameleon International, 1989, pp64 – 69, 106

Lincolnshire County Council, Lincoln Castle, Information leaflet from Recreational Services, Lincolnshire County Council

W T Lynn, Edmund Weaver, The Observatory, Vol. 23, p. 318-319 (1900); Provided by NASA Astrophysics Data System and available online at; See also Philosophical Transactions, vol xlviii p221 (1754)

John D A MacDonald, The Franklin Trail,

Walter Marsden, Lincolnshire, Batsford, 1977

Jean-Pierre Maury, Newton: Understanding the Cosmos, Thames and Hudson, 1992

Arthur Mee, The King’s England: Lincolnshire, Hodder and Stoughton, 1970, p359

David Millar, Ian Millar, John Millar and Margaret Millar, The Cambridge Dictionary of Scientists, Cambridge University Press, 1996

Patrick Moore (ed), 1965 Yearbook of Astronomy, Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1964, pp193 - 194

Patrick Moore (ed), 1975 Yearbook of Astronomy, Sidgwick & Jackson, 1974, p224 (Cleethorpes Astronomical Society); p226 (Orion Astronomical Society)

Patrick Moore (ed), 1980 Yearbook of Astronomy, Sidgwick & Jackson, 1979

Patrick Moore (ed), 1985 Yearbook of Astronomy, Sidgwick & Jackson, 1984

Patrick Moore (ed), 1990 Yearbook of Astronomy, Sidgwick & Jackson, 1989, p195 (Grimsby Astronomical Society)

A. J & Marilyn Mullay, The Book of British Birthplaces, Past Times, 2002

National Trust, Handbook for Members and Visitors, March 2007,; p235  (Woolsthorpe Manor)

Newton Project,

J J O’Connor and E F Robertson, George Boole,

J J O’Connor and E F Robertson, Robert Grosseteste,

J J O’Connor and E F Robertson, Thomas Little Heath,

J J O’Connor and E F Robertson, Sir Isaac Newton,

J J O’Connor and E F Robertson, Samuel Roberts,

J J O’Connor and E F Robertson, Charlotte Angas Scott,

A K Parker & D Pye, The Fenland, David & Charles British Topographical Series, 1976

Roger Parsons, Roger Parsons Lincolnshire World, Parsons world of famous Lincolnshire people,

Philip's Atlas of Lincolnshire, Philip's/Ordnance Survey, 2003, p199

S Piggott, William Stukeley, 1950, 2nd revised edition 1985

Pigot, National Commercial Directory…Counties of Derby, Hereford, Leicester, Lincoln, Monmouth, Nottingham, Rutland, Salop, Stafford, Warwick and Worcester; and also of those in north and south Wales, Pigot and Co., 1835, p214 & p219 (Lincoln Mechanics' Institute)

Post Office Directory of Lincolnshire, Kelly, 1861 p6 (Alford Mechanics' Institute); p46, p55 (Gainsborough Literary, Scientific and Mechanics’ Institution); p57 (Burgh-in-the-Marsh Mechanics' Institute); p87, p88 (Epworth Mechanics' Institute); p101 (Gainsborough Literary, Scientific and Mechanics’ Institution); p109, p114 (Grantham Philosophical Institution); p295 (Winterton Mechanics' Institute and Reading Room)

Dr Russell A Potter, The Fate of Franklin,

John Redshaw, Maurice Johnson,

David Reilly, Australian Explorers: George Bass,

David Reilly, Australian Explorers: Mathew Flinders,

Alan Rogers, A History of Lincolnshire, Phillimore, 1985

Jeremy Satherley, “A Neat Little Town”; The History of Holbeach, Jeremy Satherley, 2004

John Simkin, Mechanics Institutes,

Slater’s Directory of Lincolnshire, 1850, p40 (Epworth Mechanics' Institution); p55 & p59 (Grimsby Mechanics' Institution); p67 (Horncastle Mechanics' Institute); p84 (Lincoln Mechanics’ Institution); p86 & p89 (Louth Mechanics' Institute); p97 (Market Rasen Mechanics' Institute); p104 (Spalding Gentlemen’s Society); p112 & p118 (Stamford Literary and Scientific Institution and Stamford Mechanics' Institute)

SpaldingNet, Matthew Flinders,

SpaldingWeb, History,

State Library of New South Wales, The papers of Sir Joseph Banks,

State Library of New South Wales, Matthew Flinders: The Ultimate Voyage,

Charles Tanford and Jacqueline Reynolds, A Travel Guide to Scientific Sites of the British Isles, John Wiley, 1995, p204 (Donington and Matthew Flinders); p207 (Grantham and Sir Isaac Newton); p210 (Lincoln and Robert Grosseteste); pp215 – 217 (Woolsthorpe and Sir Isaac Newton)

Pishey Thompson, The History and Antiquities of Boston and the villages of Skirbeck, Fishtoft, Freiston, Butterwick, Benington, Leverton, Leake and Wrangle, John Noble jun, 1856; pp220 – 221 (Boston Athenaeum), pp298 – 299 (Boston Literary Society and Spalding Gentlemen’s Society), pp437 - 446 (Dr William Stukeley), p439 (Brazen Nose Society). An on-line version is available from

University of Waterloo Scholarly Societies Project, Spalding Gentlemen’s Society, (

F F Urquhart, Robert Grosseteste, Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII,

Richard S Westfall, Dee, John, Galileo Project Catalog of the scientific community

William White, History, Gazetteer and Directory of Lincolnshire, 1856, p85, p93 (Lincoln Mechanics’ Institution); p169 (Gainsborough Literary, Scientific and Mechanics’ Institution); p247 (Louth Mechanics’ Institution); p251 (Louth Mechanics' Institute); p288 (Boston Athenaeum); p482 (Market Rasen Mechanics’ Institution); p582 (Grimsby Mechanics’ Institution); p627 (Epworth Mechanics’ Institution); p669 (Caistor Mechanics’ Institution); p710 (Bourn Mechanics’ Institution); p760 (Horncastle Mechanics’ Institution); p846 (Spalding Gentlemen’s Society; Spalding Mechanics’ Institution); p889 (Stamford Institution)

William White, History, Gazetteer and Directory of Lincolnshire, 1872, p80, p88, p114, p123, p130, p134, p147 (Lincoln Mechanics’ Institution); p205 & p218 (Grimsby Mechanics' Institution); p277 (Burgh-in-the-Marsh Mechanics' Institute); pp299-300, p306 (Gainsborough Literary, Scientific and Mechanics’ Institution); p356, p360 & p361 (Horncastle Mechanics' Institution); p400 (Louth Mechanics' Institute); p448 (Epworth Mechanics' Institution); p481 & p483 (Market Rasen Mechanics’ Institution); p576 (Bourn Mechanics' Institution); p758 (Spalding Mechanics' Institute); p706 (Stamford Institution)

Sheridan Williams, UK Solar Eclipses from year 1 to 3 000, Clock Tower Press, 1999, p5.12, p6.9

Tom Williamson, England’s Landscape: East Anglia, Collins/English Heritage, 2006

Bryan Woods, Poet of the stars, Astronomy Now, 20:7, July 2006

Benjamin Woolley, The Queen’s Conjuror: The Science and Magic of Dr Dee, HarperCollins, 2001

Neil R Wright, Spalding: An Industrial History, Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology Group, 1972



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