Russian Pathology

Per scientiam ad veritatem

Misquoting

Figures 1-10 are photographs from the doctoral thesis (dissertation) of the chancellor of the First Moscow Medical University (previously named I.M. Sechenov Medical Academy) [1]. Some authors' names that can be seen in the text (Fig. 2-4) are absent in the reference list (Fig. 5-10), which is a form of misquoting. Some other names are misspelled. Fig. 11-14 illustrate a case of misquoting contributing to the overestimation of medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Fig. 1 is a photograph from the book [2]. Translation of the bottom table: Equivalent dose rate 50 mSv/year. Consequences of the exposure: Reduction of life duration of an "average human" by 15 months after irradiation during 5 years (Grahn et al. after Moskalev, Streltsova, 1978). The article [3] is quoted indirectly, after a Russian publication [4]. Fig. 2 is a copy from the publication [4] . Translation of the bottom paragraph containing a reference to [3]: "According to the calculations by D. Grahn, G.A. Sacher, R.A. Lea et al., the radiation dose of 2,5 Sv (i.e. 0,05 Sv yearly, obtained during 50 years of work, which today is the upper limit for occupational workers), received as chronic irradiation during a very long time, can cause reduction of life duration by 15 days for an average mouse aged 100 days and by approximately 15 months for an average human aged 20 years" [4]. This passage was misquoted in [2], the key figure being changed (5 years instead of 50), creating a wrong impression about complications of exposure to low dose radiation. Fig. 3 represents another example from the same book [2]. The table contains information about medical consequences of Chernobyl accident together with corresponding references. Translation of the second line of the table: Leukemia in infants 1987-1988. Increase of the number of cases in contaminated territories: Wales and Scotland 3.3 times; Greece (0,2 mSv) 2.6 times; U.S.A. (10 mkSv) by 30 % (Gibson et al., 1988 etc.) Fig. 4 represents a copy from the letter [5]. The statement about 3,3-time incidence increase of childhood leukemia in Wales and Scotland in the years 1987-88 can be related only to the first line of the table containing the following figures: 1971-80 (15 cases); 1981-86 (9 cases) and the year 1987 (6 cases). In the letter [5], the figures had not been discussed in connection with Chernobyl accident, one year being obviously too short a period for initiation of radiation-induced malignancy. Statistically significant increase of leukemia and of other malignancies (except for thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents) in consequence of Chernobyl accident was registered neither in West Europe, nor among residents of contaminated areas immediately around Chernobyl (UNSCEAR 2008 Report). Therefore, this example should be qualified as misinterpretation of statistical data exaggerating Chernobyl consequences. References: 1. Glybochko PV. Treatment optimization of benign prostatic hyperplasia combined with senile osteoporosis (in Russian). Doctoral dissertation. Saratov, 2001. 2. Yablokov AV. A mythos about safety of small radiation doses (in Russian). Moscow: Center for Russian Environmental Policy, 2002. 3. Grahn D., Sacher GA, Lea RA, Fry RJM, Rust JH. Analytical approaches to and interpretation of data on time, rate and cause of death of mice exposed to external gamma irradiation. In: Late biological effects of ionizing radiation. Vienna: IAEA, 1978; pp. 43-58. 4. Moskalev IuI., Streltsova VN. Late consequences of radiation damage. Non-tumorous forms (in Russian). Series "Radiatsionnaya biologiya" [Radiation biology], Vol. 6. Moscow: VINITI, 1987; p. 32. 5. Gibson BE, Eden OB, Barrett A, Stiller CA, Draper GJ. Leukemia in young children in Scotland. Lancet. 1988; 2(8611):630.
Fig. 1. Title page of the doctoral thesis of Pyotr Glybochko, chancellor of the First Moscow Medical University
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Fig. 2. From the doctoral thesis of Pyotr Glybochko, chancellor of the First Moscow Medical University
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Fig. 3. From the doctoral thesis of Pyotr Glybochko, chancellor of the First Moscow Medical University
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Fig. 4. From the doctoral thesis of Pyotr Glybochko, chancellor of the First Moscow Medical University
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Fig. 5. From the reference list of doctoral thesis of Pyotr Glybochko, chancellor of the First Moscow Medical University
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Fig. 6. From the reference list of doctoral thesis of Pyotr Glybochko, chancellor of the First Moscow Medical University
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Fig. 7. From the reference list of doctoral thesis of Pyotr Glybochko, chancellor of the First Moscow Medical University
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Fig. 8. From the reference list of doctoral thesis of Pyotr Glybochko, chancellor of the First Moscow Medical University
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Fig. 9. From the reference list of doctoral thesis of Pyotr Glybochko, chancellor of the First Moscow Medical University
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Fig. 10. From the reference list of doctoral thesis of Pyotr Glybochko, chancellor of the First Moscow Medical University
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Fig. 11
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Fig. 12
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Fig. 13
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Fig. 14
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