Defense Topics by Martin Johnson

Opening Leads

Simulation - How it works, what we can learn.

Point Magnetism - The effect of high cards in a suit on partner's expected length

Rule of Seven - How your length in a suit affects partner's expected length.

Passive or Active Defense - How to decide whether to attack or not.

Gain versus risk - A case by case analysis of leads from various holdings versus no trump.

Leads from Jack high suits - Why they are despised, when they are right

Defensive Signals

Vinje length signal explained. - The Prism Signal, based on the parity of your hand (number of odd length suits) which can tell partner declarer's exact shape

The trump echo - What it shows, when to use it.

Smith echo - A signal that may be given by either defender to say he likes or dislikes the opening lead

Coded leads - Journalist, Marvin French and Slavinsky leads. Advantages and disadvantages, variations.

Lead direct doubles

Overview - Why these bids are the worst and most abused bids in bridge.

Lightner and 3NT doubles - Special doubles calling for a specific lead, some new thoughts on the topic.

When partner bid a suit - Should you nearly always lead that suit.

Leads against suit contracts

Short suit leads - When to lead singletons or doubletons.

Trump leads - Specific auctions where trump leads are effective.