Andre, T. & Holland, A. (1987). Participation in Extracurricular Activities in Secondary School: What is known, what needs to be known? Review of Educational Research, 57 (4), 437-466.
Astin, A. (1999). Student Involvement: A Developmental Theory for Higher Education. Journal of College Student Development, 40 (5), 518-529.
Astin’s research differs from the traditional study on extracurricular activities because he discussed the benefits that extracurricular activities have on college students. He examined many aspects that encourage collegiate students to achieve academic success. The findings are encouraging because it illustrates that academic success goes beyond secondary schools.
Black, A. Doolittle, F. Grossman, J. Unterman, R. & Zhu, P. (2008). The Evaluation of Enhanced Academic Instruction in After-School Programs. Retrieved July 21, 2008, from: http://www.mdrc.org/publications/480/overview.html
The researchers reported their first year of findings after conducting studies on ways in which after school programs can enhance the achievement levels of students. The study will take place over the course of two years and the final report won’t be available until 2009. The researchers are attempting to figure out whether or not the impact is greater in the first or second year and what are the benefits of exposing students to the programs for two consecutive years. Thus far, researchers have found key findings in the areas of reading and math.
Broh, B. (2000). Linking Extracurricular Programming to Academic Achievement: Who Benefits and Why? Sociology of Education, 75 (1), 69-95.
In Broh’s article he presented the claim that particular extracurricular activities dictate whether or not students excel academically. He acknowledged that much of the research that is done in the field of study is of athletics, and came to the same conclusion of other researchers, athletic participation increases academic achievement. Broh examined other activities as well and presented his conclusions; he found that while most activities are advantageous to some degree to achievement, music is the only other activity that has results as high as athletics
Edweek. (2004). Afterschool Programs. Retrieved July 18, 2008, from: http://www.edweek.org/rc/issures/after-school-programs
Researchers from Edweek.com offered valuable information about afterschool programs and their effect on elementary and middle school students. They noted that most athletic programs, band, and other popular extracurricular activities aren’t available until students reach high school and after school programs are acceptable substitutes. Researchers discussed the many benefits that after school programs have on students in this age group, including, but not limited to academic achievement.
Everson, T. & Millsap, R. (2005). Everyone Gains: Extracurricular Activities in High School and Higher SAT scores.
Everson and Millsap used data collected from the SAT questionnaires to aid in their research. The examined whether or not participation in extracurricular activities yielded an increase score in the math and verbal sections of the SAT for a particular group of students. The majority of their study was minority students who came from an impoverished background; they were able to conclude that participation in extracurricular activities benefited these students more than their more privileged peers.
Durlak, J. Granger, R. Reisner, E. &Yohalem, N. (2007). Improving after-school program quality.
The authors researched two recent reports about the benefits of after school programs to figure out ways to improve the quality of the programs. The report supports the idea that after school programs are advantageous to the academic and social outcome of our students. The researchers focused on a number of questions to guide their research which included, Are after school programs effective on multiple goals? Also, what are the characteristics of programs and staff members that produce good youth outcomes?
Durlak, J. & Weissberg R. (2007). The Impact of After-School Programs that Promote Personal and Social Skills. Chicago, IL: Collaborative for Academic, Social, and
Durlak and Weissberg stated that there a considerable number of students who are not supervised during after school hours. These students are at risk for negative outcomes including low academic achievement and behavioral problems. However, the students who participate in after school programs have increased academic, social, personal, and recreational development. The researchers focused on three areas to guide their research of after school programs. The areas included school performance, behavioral adjustments and feelings and attitudes.
Fong, Y. & Wong, N. (1983). Involvement in Extracurricular Activities as Related to Academic Performance, Personality, and Peer Acceptance. Chinese University of Hong Kong Journal, 19 (2), 155-160.
Fong and Wong’s article is an international look at the effect that extracurricular activities have on students. Like other researchers, Fong and Wong issued questionnaires to their participants in an effort to gain data for their research. Although, the similarities and differences of the American and Chinese school curriculum isn’t mentioned, it is interesting that researchers have the same notions in another part of the world and draw similar conclusions.
Jordan, W. (1999). Black High School students’ participation in school sponsored activities: Effects on School Engagement and Achievement. The Journal of Negro Education, 68 (1), 54-71.
Jordan acknowledged the findings that extracurricular activities, particularly athletics, have encouraging effects on academic achievement, but focused his study on Black students. Jordan’s research specifically addressed the effects that school activities have on Black student athletes. Jordan stated that participation in sports has a slightly larger effect on Black students than other race and explained reasons that this is true.
Little, P. Weiss, H. & Wimer, C. (2008). After School Programs in the 21st Century: Their Potential and What it Takes to Achieve It. Retrieved July 19, 2008, from: http://www.hfrp.org/out-of-school-time/publications-resources/after-school-programs-in-the-21st-century-their-potential-and-what-it-takes-to-achieve-it
The researchers for the Harvard Family Research Project studied data that had been collected over the past ten years in an effort to figure out the type of impact after school programs have on the academic achievement of students. They found that after school programs have a positive effect on students’ scholarly achievement as well as other facets of their lives, including improved emotional stability and improved health. The former was examined through grades and standardized test scores of participants and non participants.
Lipscomb, S. (2007). Secondary school extracurricular involvement and academic achievement: a fixed approach. Economics of Education Review, 26 (4), 463-472
Lipscomb examined the benefits of participation in extracurricular activities on a larger scale than most researchers. He stated that participants have higher grades and higher standardized test scores. Also, their chances of matriculating on a collegiate level are increased, as well as the likelihood that participants will receive higher paying jobs. Lipscomb studied the participation of males, females, whites, and blacks for three years and recorded his findings.
McNeal, R. (1995). Extracurricular Activities and High School Dropouts. Sociology of Education, 68 (1), 62-80.
McNeal studied the effects that extracurricular activities can have on a student’s decision to drop out of school. McNeal stated that students have the opportunity to socialize while participating in extracurricular activities, which is the strongest aspect of their school environment and thus they are less likely to drop out of school. McNeal examined students based on gender and racial differences and concluded that there is an overall higher level of achievement among students who participate in extracurricular activities.
Shumow, L. (2001). Academic Effects of After-School Programs. Retrieved July 21, 2008, from: http://www.ericdigests.org/2002-2/after.htm
Shumow examined the different types of after school programs and their purposes. He stated that while initially after school programs began as “fun” safe places for students of working parents to gather, they eventually evolved into institutions that aid in the academic growth of students. He studied the research of others in the field and learned that students in low-income urban areas benefited the most from after school programs.
Spady, W. (1970). Lament for the Letterman: Effects of Peer Status and Extracurricular Activities on Goals and Achievement. The American Journal of Sociology, 75 (4), 680-702.
Spady researched the effects of extracurricular activities on students’ achievement almost forty years ago and his findings are still relevant in today’s academic environment. Spady stated that after school activities are more than just fun and games for students because they foster the students’ ability to excel academically as well. Like many of his colleagues, Spady research consisted of issuing questionnaires. His findings mirrored that of other researchers. Spady found that students who participate in after school activities have more leadership abilities, higher aspirations, and a better attitude toward their future and their school work.