A GUIDE TO
WITH NATURAL FARMING
REX A. RIVERA
Agronomist / Mango Specialist
SEED WORLD TRAINING CENTER
VGR Farm, National Highway, Lagao,
General Santos City, Philippines
Email: rarivera8@y ahoo.com
ORGANIC MANGO PRODUCTION
growing market demands both domestic and export for organically grown
fruits and vegetables compel us to learn to grow ORGANIC MANGO. This
is a simple and basic study to help mango growers produce naturally
grown mango free from toxic chemical residue, using both herbal organic
concentrates and biotechnology with integrated pest management. Let
us remember that in the 1950s and earlier, before Dr. Ramon Barba discovered
Potassium nitrate as a good mango flower inducers; mangoes in the Philippines
were not sprayed and cared the way we do today, yet they were producing
good quality fruits, growing the natural way.
Mango (Mangifera indica) is the national fruit of the Philippines.
It has a wide market potential both domestic and international exports.
It is a high value crop where mango grower can earn from P100, 000.00 to P500, 000.00 per hectare a year, provided planted at the right distance of 20x20 m+1, with a population of 50 hills per hectare and properly cared.
It is suitable on upland areas with abundant sunlight and adequate moisture.
Mango is a centennial crop that three or more family generation can benefit.
It is a good retirement insurance, tree crop where production increases, as trees grow bigger and older.
production 50 trees per hectare. (Planting distance: 20 x 20 +1)
Age Range of Trees in Years Estimated Production per Trees in Kilos Gross Sales per Hectare at 50 trees x P10 Cost of Production at P4.00 per kilo Gross Profit or Income per hectare with 50 trees 1 to 5 No production Juvenile Trees P50, 000.00 (P50, 000.00) 5 to 10 50 P25, 000.00 P10, 000.00 P15, 000.00 10 to 15 200 100,000.00 40,000.00 60,000.00 15 to 20 500 250,000.00 100,000.00 150,000.00 20 to 25 800 400,000.00 160,000.00 240,000.00 25 to 30 1,000 500,000.00 200,000.00 300,000.00 30 to 35 1,200 600,000.00 240,000.00 360,000.00 35 to 40 1,500 750,000.00 300,000.00 450,000.00 40 to 45 1,800 900,000.00 360,000.00 540,000.00 45 to 50 2,000 1,000,000.00 400,000.00 600,000.00
Mango is a high value and big earner crop, compared to traditional crops like rice, corn, coconut and sugarcane where income ranges only from P15, 000.00 to P60, 000.00 per hectare a year. This is why most farmers growing traditional crops remain poor. Mango can easily give P100, 000.00 to P500, 000.00 per hectare a year with trees 10 to 20 years old. Inter-cropping the mango orchard with seasonal or cash crops like grains and vegetables add more income to farm.
The following are primary commercial mango products:
Fresh table fruit, ripe and green.
Dried or dehydrated ripe mango fruit.
Puree, concentrate, nectar and juices.
Secondary mango products:
Mango fruit preserves in syrup, salted or fermented.
Chilled fresh mango fruits. (Frozen fresh halves)
Green mango pickle (Burong mangga)
Powdered mango (green and ripe)
and bakery additive.
Other mango products and by-products:
Mango seeds for nursery planting materials.
Mango seeds and shell for feeds
Mango peel. Seeds, leaves, branch for organic fertilizer.
Mango wood for lumber and furniture making and fruit boxes.
Specialize fruit, leaves and plant extract for drugs and medicine.
Mango seed shell as crafted key holder and coin pocket. (Guimaras)
Other products under development.
is a tropical tree. It can grow in most landmasses along and near the
equator/ Mango can be grown in almost all regions of the Philippines,
but they are found to be more productive if grown in the following environmental
Elevation within 600 meters from sea level up to 800 meters is still tolerable.
Mangoes need a dry period of 3 to 5 months to induce maturity of vegetative parts and flower. Fruit development also needs plenty of sunlight up to 120 -135 days after flower induction. Mango is biennial bearer, fruits every two years.
The ideal temperature for mango growing is 21degree C to 37degreeC.
Soils preferred are deep loamy, rich in organic matter, with balance content of macro and micro nutrient elements.
Water requirement: The land is slightly sloping, well drain but with good moisture holding capacity. Optimum moisture or water supply for mango is very important.
Soil pH of 6 to 7 is ideal for mango. It is at this level, nutrients are available.
Topography of the land ranges from flat to rolling not exceeding 45 degrees gradient. Stiff mountainsides are also planted to mango, but with difficulty in production management.
Mango needs plenty of sunlight. Fully-grown mango trees should have enough sunlight from morning to evening, at the top of its crown to base of trunk. Shading even partially will limit its productivity. Crowded branch and foliage reduce yield.
Moderate airflow or wind is needed by mango trees to allow aeration to prevent the buildup of pest and diseases within the tree crown. Avoid strong winds especially during flowering and fruiting stage by growing windbreaker trees.
A few pointers in
establishing a good productive mango orchard:
Look for the ideal site of a mango farm base on the cultural requirement ideal for mango. Most sunny areas with good soil moisture in the Philippines are suitable.
Select carefully your planting materials. Be sure you get the right variety and strain the market demands. Grafted seedlings are recommended to have uniform tree production. The Philippine Golden Mango (carabao – Lamao selection) is preferred.
The farm should be accessible with good roads and abundant water supply for irrigation and spraying.
Clear field of all trees and structure that will shed the trees to allow full sunshine and free airflow. Set rows at east-west orientation. Better plant them on triangle layout.
Layout the farm and trees with access in-farm roads, farmhouse, working shed, water system and other farm structures.
Recommended planting distance is 20 x 20 + 1 meters quincunx with 50 trees population per hectare. The center hill may be eliminated when trees become bigger and crowded at 20 to 30 years old.
Weed, cultivate, fertilize and irrigate your trees regularly every 3 months. Combine organic and chemical fertilizers for faster and healthy growth. Use farm compost.
For orchards devoted to grow organic fruits; natural farming practices using organic and biological farm practices, without chemical inputs may be adopted. There is a growing market demand for organically grown fruits including mango.
Sexual propagation with seeds. The trees grow big and productive in 7-15 years. However, fruits may not be the same with genetic variations.
Asexual propagation – grafting. Trees start bearing as early as 3–5 years. They produce more uniform true to type fruits, coming from the same mother tree.
Propagate and harden the seedlings or planting materials. Expose to direct sunlight at least one week before field planting. Spray or drench with herbal pesticide. (HOC)
Clear the field plows and harrows if possible.
Stake planting site 20 x 20 + 1m quincunx or 15 x 15m triangle to have 50 hills / ha.
Dig 1 cubic meter holes and replace the soil with rich/fertile topsoil and fully decomposed organic matter or organic fertilizer. Earthworm casting is ideal mix to topsoil. Fully decomposed animal and plant waste with beneficial bacteria and fungi.
Drench the seedling in plastic bag and press the soil to loosen it in the bag.
Make a hole and pour in water to drench the soil.
Gently remove seedling from plastic bag and place in hole, cover and press soil.
Place a stake firmly besides the seedling and if needed tie the seedling to it.
Helen G. Bignayan1
Bureau of Plant Industry
National Mango Research and Development Center
San Miguel, Jordan, Guimaras
Telex # (033) 237-1391
Mobiline #: (0918) 902-1942
care and management of young tree is necessary to ensure field establishment.
High mortality of newly planted tress usually occurs during the dry
months and they succumb to pest infestations if not properly monitored.
establishment period for young mango tree is about four to five years,
it is therefore important that the tree has attained the maximum canopy
size before this can be induced to flower.
Young trees are
seldom pruned unless insects and diseases affect these. However, to
‘dwarf’ the tree, it is suggested that tips should be cut after
reaching 1-meter height to encourage lateral branching. Otherwise, grafts
have tendency to grow tall before giving out lateral branches. This
is often referred to as “formative” pruning.
It is very important that grafts
be established in the field prior to fertilizer application. Fertilization
is recommended 3 to 4 months after field planting and should be done
before the end of rainy season. A practical guide for fertilizer application
is the development of young shoots, weeks after transplanting.
The following are
fertilizers requirements for non-bearing trees, if soil analysis is
One year old
- 100 g Urea and 1.0 kg decomposed manure.
old - 200 g Urea and 2.0 kg decomposed manure.
old - 300 g triple 14 and 3.0 kg decomposed manure.
old – 400 g triple 14 and 4.0 kg decomposed manure.
old - 500 g triple 14 and 5.0 kg decomposed manure.
should be placed 0.2 to 0.3 meters (1-2 feet) away from the stem of
young grafts and few inches below the ground level.
Weekly manual watering during the dry months by saturating the soil with enough water followed by mulching to conserve moisture. It also serves as source of organic matter.
if available could be incorporated with fertilizer.
legumes most adapted in the area with high market demands are recommended.
The practice not only provides additional income to growers but keeps
the area free from weeds and improve fertility of the soil.
trees (inter-fillers) such as citrus, papaya, pineapple, guava, cashew
and jackfruit are recommended as intercrops for mango with planting
distance 15 meters apart or farther.
be managed separately from the main crop and should not interfere with
regular activities intended for mango.
is recommended for young mango trees. This is done by scrapping or hoeing
the weeds around the base of the trunk. An area of about one meter radius
should be maintained weed free. Thick mulching will also prevent weed
using plow/tractor is necessary for big plantations. Avoid deep plowing
near the root system. Disk harrowing is recommended.
involves planting of leguminous and creeping crops like Tropical Kodzu,
Centrocema pubesence and Arakis pintoy to suppress the growth of weeds
provide soil protection, mulch and nitrogen organic fertilizer.. However,
cover crops should be cut or plow under as soon as these grow vigorously.
should be avoided as much as possible. During application, avoid
contact with the trunk or leaves to prevent phytoxicity. Herbicides
are not recommended even for large mango plantation rather cultivate
field with tractor and plant leguminous cover crops to replace weeds.
Herbicides do not only kill weeds, but also other plants and the microorganisms
in the soil. It kills soil life.
Scale insects (Aonidiella
orientales, A., inorrata, Aspidiotus destructor, Phenocapsis inday and
Hermiberlesia palmae)-These are small scale-like insects usually
found underneath the leaves and branches. Both adults and nymphs destroy
the plant by sucking the vital plant sap causing drying and falling
of leaves. Abnormal growth of branches are due to toxic substances injected
by the insects while feeding.
insects particularly the armored group are difficult to control with
insecticides because their bodies are covered with wax. When contact
insecticides are used, stickers are necessary. During heavy infestation,
pruning of affected parts should be done followed by spray application
of insecticide and fertilizers high in N. When infestation is minimal.
Brushing with soap and water can minimize the problem. Spray or drench
the whole tree from soil to trunk, branches and leaves with HOC-4n1
at weekly interval until scales and ants are eliminated. Home made lime
sulfur is very effective control of scale insects.
Tip borer (Chlumetia transversa) - The adult moth lays its egg on flushes. The eggs hatch into small larvae that bore into the shoots and stems, feeding on the vascular bundles. Since, water and food are prevented from going up the tree (due to destruction of the food bundles), the top most portion dies. When dissected, small, pinkish larvae are present inside.
minimal infestation, prune the damage parts and burn them. During severe
infestation, spray soil, trunk, branches and foliage with herbal organic
concentrate (HOC-4n1) at 7 days interval.
Corn silk beetle (Monolepta bifasciata) - The adults are small, yellow insects and are voracious leaf feeders. Newly formed leaves (flushes) are very attractive to the insect. Infested leaves produce several holes and under severe attack, the entire leaves are destroyed. Damage are easily infected with anthracnose.
Control: Timely application of
HOC-4n1 during flushing. Use any contact insecticides recommended
for mango. Spray with herbal organic concentrate (HOC-4n1) is a very
good prevention and repellant..
Grubs (Lecopholis irrorata)/termites
(Macrotermes sp.) - These insects feed on the roots and
stems of the tree. Under heavy infestation, young mango trees die. Drench
the soil around the trunk with herbal insect repellant and insecticide
organic herbal compost and drenching the soil around the tree trunk
with HOC-4n1 will drive away grubs. It is important however, to expose
the adults prior to application of insecticides by destroying earthen
tunnels with cultivation and pressurized water sprayers.
(Collectorichchum gloesporioides) -This is the most
important disease of mango during rainy months. Leaves are susceptible
to the disease, especially the flushes. The common symptoms are black
spots and shot holes. Affected leaves dry and fall to the ground prematurely.
Flowers and young developing fruits turn dark and fall.
Control: Pruning of affected parts and spraying the remaining parts with HOC-4n1 is recommended at weekly interval during critical growth stage and immediately after the rain to wash off the fungus sticking on wet foliage, flowers or fruits. can minimize or prevent Anthracnose infection, The critical stages of growth are during flushing, flowering and early fruit development. Prevention is better than cure..
This is the removal
of flowers developed on young trees. De-blossoming allows vegetative
growth and proper establishment of trees in the field.
The health, vigor
and size of the mango trees determine its productivity. Even if the
Philippine Golden mango is biennial in nature, it can be made to bear
yearly or more often if the right cultural management is done.
Fence and secure
the area from stray animals and intruders that may damage the plants.
Security is most needed 30 days up to harvest.
Practice clean culture.
Cultivate and weed regularly. Remove all trees and shrubs that serve
as host to insect pest and diseases.
Grow plants and herbs
around the perimeter of the mango farm or orchard that are pest repellant,
with pesticide and fungicide property and can be used as herbal concentrate
spray. They can also serve as windbreakers in areas with prevalent strong
winds. Plants like Neem tree, Madre de Cacao, Curry, Acacia, etc. that
can also be shelter for diverse beneficial birds, insects and microorganism,
that will suppress insect pests.
The trees should
not shed one another. Prune off overcrowded branches. Mango is a terminal
bearer, so avoid pruning off healthy terminal fruiting shoot buds.
Irrigate and keep the soil moist most at all times. Less water or drier soil is preferred one month before flower induction and one month before harvest. Avoid water logging by providing suitable drainage.
with abundant organic fertilizer with macro and trace mineral elements.
The use of organic compost from pest repellant herbs like most legumes
will both increase plant food nutrient and protect the trees from pest
and diseases. Mango are perennial trees and organic fertilizers can
sustain their nutrition year after year as they contain beneficial microorganisms
that helps renew soil fertility. To keep the soil alive, avoid using
chemical based fertilizers, pesticides and herbicide that kill beneficial
fungi, bacteria and earthworms.
Spray herbal organic
concentrate fertilizer on leaves and fruits when growth and fruit development
needs supplemental nutrition. Herbal organic concentrate (HOC-4n1) with
foliar fertilizer, pest repellant, insecticide and fungicide. Fish Amino
Acid (FAA) with macro sand trace nutrient elements will insure health,
vigor and productivity of the mango trees. This is specially needed
during flowering and fruit development stages. It enlarges fruit weight
From water and air.
From soil and fertilizers
From soil and fertilizer
1. Carbon 1. Nitrogen 1. Zinc 2. Hydrogen 2. Phosphorous 2. Iron 3. Oxygen 3. Potash 3. Boron 4. Calcium 4. Molybdenum 5. Sulfur 5. Copper 6. Magnesium 6. Manganese 7. Chlorine
correct soil management. Kinds of Organic Fertilizers:
Foliar organic fertilizers derived from fermented animal of plants like fish and fruit amino acid.
Decomposed animal waste mixed with plant residues with beneficial microorganisms.
Vermin-compost or earthworm casting fed with decomposing organic materials. One of the rich forms of organic fertilizer with humic acid, a growth promoting and beneficial microorganisms.
Sludge or liquid organic waste materials rich in plant food nutrient with beneficial microorganisms.
Green manure. These are young plants usually legumes or beans that are plowed under and mixed with the soil during flowering stage.
Soil and seed
inoculate such as nitrogen fixing bacteria and other microorganisms
that help decompose organic materials.
Pest and disease prevention: Spray herbal organic concentrate (HOC) during:
Flushing of young leaves,
At bud break and flower elongation,
During fruit formation and development
Before bagging and
One month before
Spray the entire
tree, leaves, branches, stem and the ground surrounding the trunk. Note
that most pest and diseases come from the soil surrounding the tree
and stay at the bark of stem and branches during hibernation.
Use biological controls to control insect pest and diseases are preferred.
(Birds, animals, insects, bacteria, fungi and other living organisms that help control and reduce pests) Maintain a mini-forest adjacent to your mango orchard to shelter biodiversity in the ecosystem of your farm.
Insects vs. insects. Use of insect predators/parasites like trichogramma, braconids and pirate bugs to counter insect pests
Microbes vs. microbes. Use of microorganisms such as beneficial bacteria and fungi to counter diseases and insect pests.
Natural equilibrium and bio-diversity. Allow bio-diversity and balance ecosystem in the farm by maintaining green belts or mini forest to shelter and provide breeding and favorable environment for all types of living organisms that will balance and prevent the breakout of infestation of one or more pests.
Natural Flower induction:
Before 1974 when Dr. Ramon Barba discovered the use of Potassium Nitrate as mango flower-inducer, mangoes were flowering naturally.
Other ways of mango flowering and fruiting:
Seasonal fruiting. These occur when the trees are healthy and the season for flowering and fruiting comes usually from November to March at the start of dry season.
Smoking tree foliage (smudging) when they reach maturity.
Root pruning and partial girdling will also induce flowering and fruiting, as these are forms of stresses.
Application of high dosage of Phosphorous and Potash fertilizer with adequate nutrients will hasten maturity, flowering and fruiting.
Dr. Hernani Golez, Head of the National Mango Research and Development Center (NMRDC) of the Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI) explains that the mango tree is ready for reproduction when it has accumulated enough plant food nutrients specially carbohydrate usually every two years. When the Gibberelic acid (GA) growth hormone is lowered. It occurs when the tree grows older with mature foliage; is stressed like dry hot weather with sudden shower, mechanical or disease damage and exposure to flower inducing nutrients in gas or liquid forms.
Care and management of flowers and fruit development.
As soon as the fruiting buds start breaking (Bud Break) adult insect pests hibernating or just waiting for new vegetative growth will be attracted to the bud and start laying eggs on them and the growing inflorescence.
Some control measures:
Sanitize the tree by spray and drenching the whole tree (soil, trunk, branches and leaves) with Herbal Organic Concentrate (HOC-4n1) with four properties (Pest repellant, insecticide, fungicide and foliar fertilizer) on a weekly interval starting with flower induction to fruit development. Spray after the rain.
Remove all disease and infested parts of the tree, weeds and debris. Transport them to your composting area.
In a Farmers Field School (FFS) on mango conducted at Bry. Tucaual, Alabel, Sarangani Province, Trichogramma was used to suppress mango hoppers and borers effectively.
Spraying emerging flowers and developing fruits with organic fish amino acid (FAA) will greatly increase the development of healthy fruits, hold on to the panicle and mature into bigger and superior quality fruits.
Smudging the trees during fruit development will help drive away destructive insect pest and feed the leaves with gaseous nutrients.
SPRAY has been formulated for the easy and convenient use. Farmers’
who would like to produce organically grown food crops including fruits
and vegetables without resorting to synthetic toxic chemicals that post
danger to man and environment can use Herbal Organic Spray instead.
HOC (Herbal Organic
Concentrate) was specially prepared by chemist and developed through
research and efficacy test on farmer's field conditions. They were found
to be effective pest repellant, insecticide, fungicide and growth promoting
with a simultaneous and broad-spectrum effect.
The compound was
developed using several tropical herbs with repellant, insecticide and
fungicidal substances gathered from cultured and wild plants. Added
to the compound is fish/fruit amino acid (FAA), which provides plant
growth nutrients as a foliar fertilizer. It likewise contains trace
mineral substances essential to normal and healthy plant growth derived
from seaweed and other herbal and organic components.
per gallon of water (4 tbsp. per knapsack sprayer load) or 250-500 ml
per 100 liters water and one half to one liter HOC per 200 liter drum
of water. Complete spray coverage from soil, stem branches and leaves
for effective result.
Spray on weekly interval
during critical stages of growth, flushing, flowering and fruit development.
Monthly or as needed during growth and rejuvenation.
. Watering and drenching small plant may also be done at weekly interval.
HOC for MANGO:
Recommended HOC treatment
for mango: HOC-4n1+ HOC-GO with FAA (amino acid) besides repellant,
insecticide and fungicide properties. Spray one month before flower
induction to control adult insect pests to prevent them from laying
eggs during flushing or flowering upon treatment of flower Inducer like
nitrates. Be sure to have a total coverage by spraying or drenching
the soil surrounding the base of the tree, including its trunk and branches,
where pest and diseases harbor.
Immediately after harvest and pruning, to induce flushing and growth of young shoots. Spray or drench the tree with HOC-4n1+ HOC-GO w/ FAA. Cultivate the soil, apply Nitrogen and organic fertilizer, then irrigate or water.
During rejuvenation from harvesting to next flower induction: Cultivate the soil around the base of the tree every 3 months and drench with a 1-% HOC-4n1 solution to control soil born pest and diseases including termites.
Spray trees with HOC once a month up to one month during rejuvenation and one week before scheduled flower induction.
During flowering and fruit development, spray HOC at 7, 15, 20, 45, 60, 70 and 90 DAFI.
IMPROVE CULTURAL MANAGEMENT & REJUVINATION
SANITATION – PRUNING – WEEDING & CULTIVATION
SOIL FERTILIZATION (ORGANIC FERTILIZER)
IRRIGATION & DRAINAGE
LEAF INDUCTION - FLUSHING (HOC-4n1 + HOC-GO w/ FAA)
IPM (SANITATION, HOC & BIOCON)
FLOWER INDUCTION (KNO3 or Smoking)
IRRIGATION & DRAINAGE
FOLIAR FERTILIZATION (HOC-4n1 + HOC-GO w/ FAA)
ENHANCE POLLINATION (Attract Pollinators)
IRRIGATION & DRAINAGE
FOLIAR FERTILIZATION (HOC-4n1 + HOC-GO w/ FAA)
IPM (BIOCON + HOC-4n1 + Bagging)
PROPER POST HARVEST HANDLING & TREATMENT
PACKAGING & MARKETING
regular season for mango is flowering from November to February and
harvest from March to June. This is during the summer months. The Philippine
Golden carabao mango is a biennial bearer. This means that by it’s
nature it bears a good harvest every two years, but may bear every year
too if conditions are favorable such as the general health of the tree
and summer intensity of the weather condition.
Understanding the natural laws governing the growth and production of mango will help us growers maintain their health and productivity through the years. The rainy or wet season will allow the tree to grow, rejuvenate and store food nutrients for its fruiting stage. During the summer months a period of stress, dry hot weather, flowering and fruiting naturally occur. In the 1950s and earlier, mango trees were left to nature and fruit on their own just like most coconut plantations. Farmers just come to harvest when fruits are mature. This is still happening in hinterlands where mango trees are left abandoned to nature.
growers can produce mango fruits during the off-season especially in
Mindanao, being outside the typhoon belt. Other areas of the country
with less expected typhoon and heavy rains might venture into producing
off-season fruits as the supply is low, demand is high and price is
PERIOD or SCHEDULE FLOWER INDUCTION HARVEST Season Production November to February March to June Off Season Production March to October July to February
mango during off-season has its own unique challenges. Production falls
during the rainy season. This will require a special care and cultural
management. Be ready to spray herbal fungicide every after rain during
flowering and early fruit development to prevent fungal infection and
Follow a one-year cycle of eight (8) months rejuvenation (from harvest to flower induction) and four (4) months of production (from flower induction to harvest.) Remember, plants also need time to absorb plant nutrients from soil, water and atmosphere, carry them to the leaves for photosynthesis, then transport cooked nutrient to different parts of the plant for food storage and utilization for growth, flowering and fruiting.
The success and productivity
lies in proper rejuvenation of the trees immediately after harvest up
to induction and care of flowers and fruits to full maturity.
After harvest flushing is induced, by pruning, fertilization with high nitrogen and irrigating. Spray HOC-4n1 with FAA. After 3 months cultivate around the trunk to prune root and fertilize with high potash or wood ash to induce maturity and dormancy to prepare trees to flower and fruit in 4 to 6 months hence.
Mango trees naturally flower and fruit when it is healthy and ready
to fruit. Stress will help induce flowering during dry season for it’s
seasonal bearing. However, flowering can be induced; by smoking, partial
girdling branch stretching or other mechanical or chemical treatments.
Chemical flower induction by using Potassium nitrate (KNO3) was introduced
by Dr. Ramon Barba after his successful research in 1970 at UPLB, College,
Laguna, Philippines. Research on natural herbal organic base flower
inducers is now being conducted in Mindanao.
PREPARING THE TREES
FOR FLOWERING AND FRUITING.
is easy to induce the trees to flower, but if the tree is not well prepared,
the flowers will just fall off. The tree should be really healthy with
adequate nutrient storage to support and sustain flowering and fruit
development up to full maturity and harvest.
Here are a few pointers
to remember and adopt:
selecting trees for flower induction, take note of the following:
When not to use Use High Dosage Use Low Dosage
1. When the tree is too small, young or juvenile.
2. When the leaves and buds are young.
3. When the tree is weak and sickly.
4. During rainy weather.
5. Just after harvest or when the tree has fruits or flushing.
1. When Trees are just starting to mature.
2. Leaves and buds are maturing
3. The tree is healthy, with vigorous buds and leaves.
4. During cloudy weather.
5. Five to seven months after harvest after rejuvenation & mature.
1. When trees are big, old or fully mature.
2. When leaves and buds are fully mature.
3. The tree is healthy with dormant-buds.
4. During host sunny weather.
5. Eight to ten months after harvest after, rejuvenation & dormant.
Check on the fruiting buds’ readiness. The buds are slightly rounded and mature or dormant, ready to flower. There are two types of buds, the leaf and flower bud.
If the buds are flattening with small dormant buds at the sides, they are most likely new flushing buds for vegetative growth for next season’s fruiting.
The soil and the trees are dry. If it rained the previous days and the atmosphere is humid, induction may result to flushing or flowering with flushing.
Choose to induce during dry hot months or dry days. Flower induction up to 45 days during the early fruit formation are the most critical period where the flowers and young fruits are susceptible to infection and infestations.
As a general rule, the mango flower and fruit if the tree is healthy and has accumulated enough carbohydrate and other plant nutrients, and is stressed.
A mango tree needs enough time at least 8 to 10 months to accumulate and store food nutrients in its system to support flowering and fruiting.
Too much flowering as in 90 to 100% of foliage flower are dangerous, since too much energy is released by the plant, and there will not be enough left for fruit development. Usual result is massive dropping and only a few fruits remain or even total crop fall. A 40 to 60% foliage flowering would be ideal to insure full fruit development with bigger and better quality harvest with enough leaves to feed.
Water or moisture
is needed from bud emergence to one month before harvest to insure availability
of plant food nutrients. The tree needs dry and sunny days before and
during flowering’ and during fruit maturing to one month before harvest
to insure full maturing, so fruits do not crack or drop up to harvest.
PEST AND DISEASE CONTROL:
Natural farming methods of controlling
pest and diseases in growing organic mango: Integrated Pest Management
(IPM) is the use of different practical yet low cost methods:
Cultural practices that includes the right planting distance, periodic weeding and cultivation, irrigation and drainage, pruning, spraying, etc. See to it that the water source is not contaminated or carrier of pest and diseases.
The use of baits and insect traps (light traps, sweet juice tuba trap).
Spraying with herbal organic preparations with pest repellant, insecticide and fungicidal properties (HOC).
The use of beneficial microorganisms that control pest and diseases.
The use of insect predators, parasites like trichogramma, braconids, and pirate bug.
Crop rotation or inter-cropping with plants that will repel or reduce infestation.
Schedule and time production during least pest infestation and disease prevalence. There is less insect pest and diseases during summer months.
Cultivate and fertilize the soil around the base of the trunk periodically with organic fertilizer derived from herbs with pesticide and fungicidal properties as well as beneficial microorganisms.
Remove diseased or infested fruits
and vegetative parts of the tree and dispose of them properly such as
removing them from the field, burning, bury or composting them for fertilizer.
Practice clean culture.
Take note: When spraying trees
with herbal organic concentrate (HOC) start with the soil surrounding
the trunk, upward around the trunk, branches then the underside of the
leaves or foliage and last the top of leaves and crown. Insect pest
and diseases comes from the soil and stay in trunk and branch where
they hibernate and wait then wake or become active when new growth appears
such as flushing and flowering to fruiting.
that when God created the universe, the earth and nature, it was complete
and balanced. Man interfered with this balance in the environment and
ecosystem for the desire to produce more of their selected and preferred
crops, in the process destroying the equilibrium and disrupting natural
laws and life. Its ill effects of toxic synthetic chemicals are now
being manifested in making the land less productive and the life span
of man is shortening. Other life forms are disappearing. It is time
for us to learn natural laws and adopt Natural Farming System.
1950 even up to 1970 when Dr. Ramon Barba as an effective flower Inducer
for mango discovered potassium nitrate, the trees were left alone to
nature and bear fruits during season. Mango owners just harvested mango
fruits without caring for the trees, just like coconut farmers. Today,
as the prices of chemical inputs get too high, mango growers are starting
to leave the mango trees to the care of nature. Added to this is the
growing demand for chemical free mango or naturally grown fruits.
are now introducing the use of herbal organic pest and disease control
and biological measures. Our latest experience in growing organic mango
show that natural farming system is easier to learn by farmers and cost
Stage of Growth
Tree is ready for flower induction Sanitize tree Prune & Spray HOC 1
001 – 007
Mature buds – Flower Induction Spray flower Inducer KNO3 + HOC-4n1 2
008 – 014
Bud emergence Spray HOC-4n1 + HOC-GO 3
015 – 021
Post emergence Panicle elongation Monitor & spray HOC-4n1 + HOC-GO 4
022 – 023
Pre-emergence/bloom Monitor & Spray HOC if hoppers are still present. 4
024 – 026
(Insect pollinators are needed)
NO spray, unless it rains 4
027 – 028
(Insect pollinators are needed)
NO spray, unless it rains 5
029 – 035
(Insect pollinators are needed)
Monitor - spray herbal fungicide if it rains 6
036 – 042
Fruit set (bean size) Monitor/spray HOC-4n1 + FAA 7
043 – 049
Fruit set (corn size up) Fruit thinning if too crowded (shake) 8
049 – 055
Post fruit set (Pullet egg size) Monitor/spray HOC-4n1 + FAA 9
056 – 063
Fruit enlargement Spray HOC-4n1 & fruit bagging 10
064 – 070
Fruit enlargement 11
071 – 077
Fruit enlargement 12
078 – 084
Fruit enlargement 13
085 – 089
Fruit enlargement Weeding, Cultivation, Irrigate 13
090 – 091
Start of maturation (Fruit acidity decreases/ sugar content increases) 14
092 – 098
(Fruit fly are attracted to fruits)
099 – 105
(Pest and diseases increases)
Monitor/spray HOC-4n1 + FAA 16
106 – 112
Fruit maturation 17
113 – 119
Fruits reaching full maturity Early Harvest for hot dry areas where fruits mature and ripen earlier. 18
120 – 126
(Full Brix or sugar content)
Regular Harvesting, best time
HWT and Packaging
127 – 133
Natural ripening Late Harvesting for cool high altitude and humid areas. Processing and Marketing 20
134 – 140
Rejuvenation nutrient absorption, photosynthesis, energy storage Pruning, Weeding, Cultivation, Irrigate 21
141 – 147
Fertilize with organic compost and complete (14-14-14) fertilizer. 22
148 – 154
Flushing - Tender shoots and leaves are susceptible to pest and diseases Spraying HOC-4n1 23
155 – 161
162 – 168
Nutrient absorption, photosynthesis, food & energy storage 25
169 – 175
176 – 182
183 – 189
190 – 196
197 – 203
104 – 210
211 – 217
218 – 224
225 – 231
232 – 238
Weeding, Cultivation, Irrigate 35
239 – 245
Fertilize with organic compost and complete (14-14-14) fertilizer. 36
246 – 252
Nutrient absorption, photosynthesis, food & energy storage 37
253 – 259
260 – 266
267 – 273
274 – 280
281 – 287
288 – 294
295 – 301
302 – 308
309 – 315
316 – 322
323 – 329
330 – 336
337 – 343
Pruning, Weeding, Cultivation, Irrigate 50
344 – 350
Final stage of rejuvenation Fertilize with organic compost and complete (14-14-14) fertilizer. 51
351 – 357
Nutrient absorption, photosynthesis, food & energy storage 52
358 – 364
Ready for flowering and fruiting.
Final clearing and sanitation, preparation for flower induction. 365 Mature flower buds for bearing. Flower Induction
crucial stage of mango production is the attack of insect pests and
diseases at flowering and fruit development stages. Insecticides
and fungicides are commonly used, but to obtain good results, the recommended
usage and dosage must be followed and control must be directed during
the vulnerable stage of insect and disease development (not during the
height of destructive infestation and infection). Prevention is
better than cure. It is also less expensive and hence, more profitable.
Continues raining during flowering and early fruit development is the most critical condition as Anthracnose fungus disease is prevalent. It will rot the flowers and young fruits and they turn dark and fall off. Every time the rain stops or light drizzle, spray immediately HOC herbal fungicide to wash off the fungus from the flowers and fruit panicles. Do not postpone or delay as the fungus can do damage within a few hours. Shaking the branches to remove water droplets from flowers and young fruits will help for few small trees.
(7) Start of maturation (90-100 days).
Wrapping the individual fruit with newspaper should be done at about 53 to 60 days after induction or just after natural thinning or dropping when the mangoes are about the size of a pullet egg. New observation finds 70–80 DAFI is more practical period to bag, as there will be less fruit drops after bagging and only quality fruits may be bagged.
ADVANTAGES OF FRUIT BAGGING:
Bagging can reduce or eliminates the incidence of fruit fly and Capsid bug damage, sunburn and fungal infections.
Reduced incidence of mechanical damage while the fruit still hung on the tree and during harvesting and handling operations. It protects fruits from wind scars.
The paper serves as absorbent of latex flow during harvest.
The fruit skin is cleaner and more attractive light green color.
Bagging provides more or less an accurate estimate on the number of fruits per tree. This is important in cases where marketing is done on contract basis, or estimated on the total volume and weight of harvest.
is very important to keep in mind that the preservation of the superior
quality fruit, especially if it is intended for the fresh table
use that is critical during the harvest and post harvest period. Harvesting
and handling of fruits should be entrusted only to properly trained,
preferably experienced workers. It is also advisable for beginners to
first observe professional harvesters during harvest operations.
outmost care in harvesting and handling of mango should be emphasized.
Workers and harvesters should first be given a briefing before releasing
them to the field. It takes a one-year cycle of care and culture to
bring the fruits ready for harvest. It takes less than a second to drop
the fruits does and break or bruise does.
the right harvesting poles with soft nets to avoid bruising. Use wooden
or plastic harvesting crates with clean soft padding. Avoid using banana
leaves or other materials that may have fungus diseases that will infect
Do not remove fruit bags in the field, as they will serve as cushion and absorbent of latex. They may be removed during grading and classification before washing and hot water treatment.
Maturity of mango fruits ready for harvest.
Sorting and classifying occur at the following stages:
Fruits are classified according to size, weight and the general appearance.
KIND OF FRUIT DEFECTS:
Deformity – Abnormality in shape affecting fruit appearance.
Wind Scar – Dark streaks slightly elevated are attributed to abrasion due to wind.
Latex Burn – Brownish black streaks that may be sunken are attributed to aged latex stains.
Ugat – Netted appearance at the peel due to the prominent vascular bundles.
Insect Damage – Lesions (fresh or healed) due to insect attack.
Scab – Patches of fissured corky tissue on the peel.
Sooty Mold – Black powdery deposit (mold) concentrated on the shoulders.
Balat Kawayan – Unusually, the deep green color of the peel. The affected fruit fails to change color when ripe.
Mottling – Blotchy uneven green color, some of it remains even when the fruit is fully ripe.
PROCEDURES IN PRAPARING FRESH FRUITS FOR SHIPMENT:
See to it that the fruits remain dry in cool ventilated place. Avoid re-contamination of diseases or exposure to pests while in storage or transit.
Prior to packing for export, meticulous grading and sorting of mangoes are done based on the degree of cleanliness of the skin, size, weight of the fruit, as small, medium, large, and extra large. Mango exports are graded as either “Fancy” or “Standard” depending on the extent of superficial skin markings. All exports must comply with the strict requirement of sweetness (full maturity of 120 to 135 DAFI -15 – 18 brix), firmness and absence of infestation and infections.
(Based on the draft revision
of Standards for Mango of the Bureau of Product Standard)
WEIGHT IN GRAMS No. Of 2.5 kilo box No. Of 5.0 kilo box
No. Of 10
No. Of 12
X L 357 up 6 – 7 12 – 14 24 – 28 30 – 32 Large 290 – 356 8 16 31 41 – 43 Medium 241 – 289 10 20 40 44 – 50 Small 190 – 240 12 21 48 51 – 63 Super Small 160 – 189 14 – 16 28 – 32 56 – 64 65 – 75 Bioco 85 – 159
SOME QUALITY CRITERIA OF IMPORTERS:
Physiologically mature. (120-135 DAFI) Sugar content of 15% to 18% brix.
Beginning to ripen, with 30 to 50% yellow coloring for Philippine golden Mango or the carabao variety.
Significant area of red color on the fruit shoulder for varieties with reddish shine like Florida and some Indian mangoes.
Free from disease, decay, sunburn, cracks, bruises, latex stains, insect and mechanical damage. Relatively firm.
Conform to the weight and size specification
Contained in preferred or specified packing.
Underwent pytho-sanitary treatment and quarantine inspection with approval certification.
author designed and fabricated a simple HWT tank made out of one sheet
stainless steel plate heated by LPG. Dimension is 20 x 30 inches and
18 inches high. It has a capacity of 2 crates of 20 kilos per crate
per loading. The unit can easily be transported to the site of harvest.
It cost P8, 000 to P10, 000 per complete unit with stand, gas-stove
burner, LPG tank with hose, regulator and thermometer. A bigger
stainless steel tank with 6-crate capacity cost P20, 000.00 fabricated
by a machine shop in Gen. Santos City.
These treatments tend to control fruit born diseases like Anthracnose and Stem End Rot as well as kill insect eggs like Fruit Fly. Be sure to fully dry the fruits after treatment, before packing because wet and moist fruits are easily re-infected by fungal rot diseases.
The above operations should be done within 4 to 8 hours after harvest. It is even preferable for small quantity harvest to do the whole operation right in the field or farm. The best time is treat fruits within 4 hour of picking while latex is still wet.
Harvested mangoes should never be exposed to direct sunlight, wind, rain and other contaminants, either in the farm or during transport to the processing plant and packaging site. If this cannot be avoided, thorough washing and hot water treatment should be done and completely dried and packed avoiding re-contamination.
A packing house is basically a building with shed and open sides, preferably high roofing and elevated cement flooring with good drainage, aeration and lighting. It should have adequate floor area to accommodate the equipment, working space and storage space. There should also be a provision to shed vehicles loading and unloading fruits during rains and inclement weather. The perimeter area of the packinghouse should be well secured from stray animals and vandals.
HARVEST AND POST HARVEST FACILITIES:
Harvesting tools, equipment from farm to Packaging House
Buying Station with Packaging House
Storage facilities (dry or cold)
Transport and delivery vans
1. Plastic Fruit crates for field howling. 11. Dripping stand
2. Sorting area or tables. 12. Air drier or blower (fans)
3. Washing tanks or basin. 13. Grading and packing tables
4. Plastic Fruit crates for HWT 14. Weighing scales
5. Hot water tank: 15. Pack-Strapping equipment
6. Stainless steel water tank. 16. Fruit cartoons and/or boxes
7. Electric water heater 17. Hand carts
8. Thermostat and thermometer 18. Storage area
9. Gas stove with regulator and gas tank. 19. Loading area
and water pump with piping. 20. Conveyor system
Assuming one hectare
produces 50,000 kilos per season and packed in 10 kilo crates or boxes,
this will require 5,000 boxes per hectare every year.
BAMBOO AND RATTAN BASKETS – “Kaing or Bukag” with a load capacity of 30 to 70 kilos are commonly used by farmers and mango traders. Bruising and mechanical injuries can be minimized with the use of liners, wooden support planks on vehicles during transport.
Hard Plastic or Fiberboard Cartoons – These cartons have a capacity of 12 – 20 kilos. They are used for transporting mango from the field to the packinghouse.
Containers of Utility – Some traders and mango exporters provide contractors and farmers with returnable plastic crates. Others provide cartons that are use to pack fruits for direct market delivery.
Wooden crates – Commercial mango growers are also advised to grow fast growing trees like G’melina, Neem, Bagrass, Falcata and even big bamboo variety for fruit crates and box manufacture to provide packaging materials.
GRADING OF PHILIPPINE MANGO FOR EXPORT
SIZE WEIGHT in grams NUMBER per 2.5 kilos NUMBER per 5 kilos NUMBER per 10 kilos NUMBER per 12 kilos XL 357 – UP 6 – 7 12 – 14 24 – 28 30 – 32 LARGE 290 – 356 8 16 31 41 – 43 MEDIUM 241 – 289 10 20 40 44 – 50 SMALL 190 – 240 12 21 48 51 – 63 Super small 160 – 189 14 – 16 28 – 32 56 –64 65 – 75 BIOCO 085 – 159 18 – 20 34 -40 65 – 70 76 – 80
Newly harvested, washed and Hot Water Treated mangoes may be stored for 7 days at 15*C. Do not store mangoes below 12.5*C, as this will cause chilling injuries. Ripening mangoes can have another 14 days shelf life. Mangoes for processing may be stored for 21 days in temperature ranging from 1*C to 5*C. Buyers and contractors prefer to harvest green mangoes 100 to 110 days from flower induction as these have longer shelf life than those harvested at 115 to 120 DAFI. However mangoes harvested before 120 days have not reach full maturity, and their sugar content much lower, affecting quality of fruits when ripe. Mangoes harvested when they are fully mature are sweeter with superior eating quality but have a shorter shelf life.
Mango fruits may be ripening in the following manner:
The natural way. After the hot water treatment and air-drying, place fruits in clean plastic or wooden crates and store them in a ripening room well sealed so as not to allow entry of moisture and infection. Well mature fruits ripen in 4 to 6 days. The shelf life may extend from 5 to 12 days.
Use of carbide. Place a tablespoon of carbide wrap in paper at the bottom of the ripening basket or crate. The container is well padded with paper to be airtight. Place the fruits until filled and cover to secure the fruits is totally sealed. After four (4) days they may be open for aeration and display. Note that the shelf life of this method of ripening is only 3 to 4 days.
Use of ethylene. Fruits are sprayed or dip in ethylene solution, air dried and stored in the ripening room. Fruits ripen in 3 to 4 days.
mango with madre de cacao leaves. Pack the fruit in container with fresh
semi dried leaves and close airtight. After 4 to 5 days fruits can be
taken out and exposed to air and continue ripening.
is the last step in the mango industry. This is where the money is.
Most growers give little attention to this stage of the mango industry,
and the traders who come to them make the most profit. It is suggested
that mango growers form their own marketing group even only at their
community level, consolidating the fruits and deal with regular traders
and exporters on a more stable and long range agreements.
Wholesalers distribute to retailers, sell to exporters and fruit processors.
STAGES OF TRADING:
COMPANY BRAND (S) EXPORT MARKETS Diamond Star Diamond, Blue, Ruby Hong Kong, Japan Flying Horse (Eden) Flying Horse Hong Kong Fruitful Golden Harvest Fortune Hong Kong GHL Marketing, Inc. Golden Leon Hong Kong Inner town Enterprises Cal Fruits Hong Kong Jovin Jovin Hong Kong KS New Regency New Legend, Fortune View Hong Kong Sally Sally Hong Kong Succrex Golden Swallow Hong Kong Tadyason Tadyason Hong Kong Tricon Tricon, Flying Tiger Hong Kong Venvie International Prime, Bountiful Mango King, Gold Leaf Hong Kong Cindy Hong Kong ABC Fiesta Hong Kong Marsman-Drysdale La Nuvia, Luna, Sampaguita South Korea, Japan Pelican Agro Products La Nuvia, Luna, Sampaguita South Korea, Japan DHM and Dole Tropifresh Dole Japan Hi-Las Marketing, Inc. Tropical Star South Korea, Japan Del Monte Del Monte Japan Other Companies Hong Kong, Japan
The cost of production, productivity and profit vary from farm to farm as the situation and factors affecting the trees and the market change from time to time. Producing mango during off-season is more expensive since more protective spraying during rainy days is required to suppress pest and diseases. However, there are basic fixed costs of production and operational activities that can be fairly estimated on prevailing conditions.
It is very important for mango growers to have and keep record of every farm activity. Every year there should be prepared a farm plan and budget.
An accurate recording of all expenses and revenue are necessary to determine the profit or loss per season or year of farming. This will guide the farmer as to his next year’s operations and activities. To improve or change some of the practices such as the use of indigenous organic and renewable farm inputs as against the conventional farming using imported fertilizers and chemicals.
NURSERY (Seedling Production)
NURSERY ( Production cost of one seedling) a. Seeds P 0.50 b. Plastic bag 1.00 c. Garden soil and bagging 1.50 d. Watering 3.00 e. Scion material 2.00 f. Grafting work 5.00 g. Fertilizer and Chemicals 3.00 Total cost for grafted seedling 16.00 Price increase per added flushing and maturing 5.00 Selling price after 3 flushing and maturing 35.00 Price of Large Planting Material (LPM) 100.00 Ready for planting after 22 months nursery and hardening period.
FIELD PLANTING OF TREES
FIELD PLANTING (Per Tree) a. Land Preparation P30.00 b. Staking 5.00 c. Digging and soil refilling 20.00 d. Labor (Planting, fertilizing, watering, mulching) 15.00 e. Planting Material (LPM) 100.00 Tree guard or fencing 30.00 Total Planting Cost 200.00 Labor cost may vary depending on soil condition (Hard clay or Sandy loam)
COST OF FIELD CARE OF JUVENILE TREES
PER YEAR UP TO BEARING AGE (1 – 6 YEARS)
MAINTENANCE COST OF CARING JUVENIL TREES (1-6 years old) Cost per yr. of maintenance a. Labor and maintenance cost for cultivation, irrigation spraying, pruning, weeding, etc. P 60.00 b. Fertilizer and soil conditioners (organic compost) 30.00 c. Chemicals: Insecticide, fungicide and growth regulators 50.00 d. Water supply 20,00 e. Tools and equipment 20.00 f. Miscellaneous 20.00 Average yearly cost of maintenance (1 to 6 yr.) P 200.00 Total cost of maintenance for 6 years to bearing P1,200.00
PRODUCTION COST OF BEARING TREES.
Production and maintenance cost of bearing trees with average estimated production of 2,000 fruits / 4 = 500 kilograms. Gross Sales (500 kgs. x P15.00 = P7.500.00) P7,500.00 Cost of production and maintenance of tree a. Labor: Weeding and cultivation 20.00 Pruning and Sanitation 20.00 Fertilization and Soil Conditioning 20.00 Irrigation and Drainage 20.00 Spraying 50.00 Wrapping (2,000 x P0.20) 400.00 Harvesting (2,000 x P0.05) 200.00 Processing and Packaging (500 kgs x P2.00) 1,000.00 b. Fertilizer and Soil Conditioner 200.00 c. Chemicals: Insecticides, Fungicide, Inducer 300.00 d. Packaging Materials (50 x P30.00) 1,500.00 Total Cost of Production P3,730.00 Profit before taxes P3,770.00 Prices and ex farm gate fluctuates. We base on average prevailing prices in year 2003 – 2004 Ex Farm Gate Prices (All in) P 15.00 Cost of production per kilo 7.46 Net income per kilo 5.54 Return on Investment 74.26 % 50 Trees per Hectare (20 x 20 +1 meters) Cost P3,730 x 50 = P186,500 and Profit P3,770 x 50 = P188,500 P186,500.00
MANGO PRODUCTION PER TREE
AGE RANGE YEARS
PRODUCTION IN KILOS
GROSS SALES at P10 per Kilo
PRODUCTION COST at P4 per Kilo
PROFIT BEFORE TAX
1 to 5 No production Juvenile trees P1,000.00 (P1,000.00) 6 to 7 50 P 500.00 200.00 300.00 8 to 9 100 1,000.00 400.00 600.00 10 to 11 200 2,000.00 800.00 1,200.00 12 to 13 300 3,000.00 1,200.00 1,800.00 14 to 15 400 4,000.00 1,600.00 2,400.00 16 to 17 500 5,000.00 2,000.00 3,000.00 18 to 19 600 6,000.00 2,400.00 3,600.00 20 to 21 700 7.000.00 2,800.00 4,200.00 22 to 23 800 8,000.00 3.200.00 4,800.00 24 to 25 1,000 10,000.00 4,000.00 6,000.00 26 to 30 1,500 15,000.00 6,000.00 9,000.00 31to 40 2,000 20,000.00 8,000.00 12,000.00
above production estimates are pre conditioned, that the planting distance
is 15 to 20 meters apart and the tree is allowed to grow to its natural
size with minimal pruning growth restrictions. The bigger the tree crown
supported by healthy root system penetrating deep and wide, the more
production capacity it has. The bigger the main trunk and branches,
the more plant food storage capacity the tree has to sustain its yearly
production. The more healthy leaves to cook the nutrients absorbed by
the roots through the process of photosynthesis, the more food nutrients
are stored for vegetative growth, flowering and fruiting.
is important to keep the soil rich in plant food nutrients with liberal
application of organic fertilizer and compost. Using herbal organic
concentrated and biological pest and disease control measures without
depending on synthetic toxic chemicals that harm the environment and
bio-ecosystem. The closer the mango trees are grown to its natural habitat,
the healthier and more productive it becomes.
herbal plants with pest repellant properties around and within the mango
orchard will greatly help reduce insect infestation. Plants that harbor
insect pests and diseases should be avoided.
Promoting the growth and multiplication of beneficial microorganism such as pro-biotic bacteria and fungi will greatly reduce pathogens causing diseases. Nitrogen fixing bacteria and decomposing microorganism will help maintain and enrich the soil fertility. Fungus that kills pathogens and cause sickness to insect pests, are also natural controls to balance life in the ecosystem of mango orchards. Spraying these microorganisms to the plant, soil and organic compost should be a part of organic mango cultural management.
MARKETING COST PER KILO
|Harvesting and handling||P2.00|
|Transport to packing house||0.50|
|Sorting, washing, treatment & packing||3.00|
|Cost of packaging materials||3.50|
|Transport to market or shipping point||1.00|
|SUB – TOTAL Cost up to packaging||P10.00|
|Sea transport (boat) Gensan to Manila||5.00|
|Air transport (plane) Gensan to Manila||18.00|
Price Buildup Quality
|Cost of production P8.00||P5.00|
|Profit base margin 8.00||5.00|
|Farm gate price 16.00||P10.00|
|Ex-farm gate price P16.00||P10.00|
|Marketing cost 5.00||5.00|
|Shipping cost 5.00||5.00|
|Mark-up (profit margin) 9.00||5.00|
|Whole sale price P35.00||P25.00|
|Whole sale price P35.00||P25.00|
|Marketing cost 5.00||5.00|
|Mark-up (Profit margin) 15.00||10.00|
To have a successful and productive mango orchard, the farm should be provided with the necessary facilities as farm structures, equipment and tools, such as the following:
organic, foliar and soil conditioner.
(Insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, growth regulators, rodenticides,
etc.) Chemicals can be replaced with herbal and organic fertilizers
(Plastic crates boxes, cartoon, paper, fruit caps, etc.)
clothing and disposable gadgets, gloves, rubber boots, etc.
PROCESSING AND UTILIZATION
major purpose for processing mangoes is to preserve them against chemical
and microbiological deterioration. The high temperature, high humidity
and intense sunlight during the harvest season accelerated the metabolic
processes in fresh fruits. This makes them susceptible to microbial
the physical and chemical changes that occur during the ripening of
mango lead to fruit deterioration. By processing mango however, the
uniform quality and sufficient supply of the commodity are assured through
out the year. Processing of mango also makes available convenient food
items for those who cannot convert them from the fresh fruits to new
one of the significant effects of mango processing is the improved distribution
of mango products. Farmers are also encouraged to plant more and grow
better quality produce because of the ready market, which offers fair
are usually eaten fresh as dessert or as relish depending on their maturity.
Due to their perishable and seasonal nature, however, they are only
available 3 or 4 months a year. During the peak of the harvest season,
moreover, the fruit supply increases, thus, depressing the price to
the detriment of the mango growers. Hence, mango is often processed
into a more stable form to facilitate better distribution and stabilize
prices, as well.
demand for processed mango is increasing. This is shown by the influx
of mango preparations in supermarkets and grocery stores. Among the
popularly known mango products are dehydrated mango, candied mango,
puree, mango juice drinks, nectar, jam, chutney, pickles and mango scoops,
halves or cubes in light syrup.
ripe mango is likewise used as tropical fruit salad. It can also be
used for flavoring confectioneries, ice cream, sherbet, and bakery products.
processing, most of these products, ordinary stainless steel or enameled
cookware can be used. Specially, a regular kitchen blender is used for
making mango puree from which mango juice is drink, nectar, and jam
may be prepared. The production of dehydrated mango and candied mango,
on the other hand, needs a forced draft oven or drier for fast drying
and for hygienic reasons.
For large scale, set-up, however, a boiler, weighing scales, steam jacketed kettle, can seamier, exhaust box, and a small retort are needed for a more efficient operation.
We encourage mango growers to start learning and processing mango products in their homes or farms to save and utilize left over of fresh fruit market. This is additional income.
2 large half-ripe (manibalang) mangoes peeled and sliced.
½ bottle beer
Dissolve the sugar in the beer.
Add the sliced mangoes and toss lightly
Marinate overnight in a cool place
To serve, add sliced tomatoes and shallots (sibuyas Tagalog)
Garnish with fresh coriander (wansuy) or chopped green onions.
Ready to serve.
Half-ripe mango (Manibalang).
Refined sugar, preferably white
Stainless steel knife
Slice in pieces thinly at desired size
Place in clean plastic basin
Place refined sugar enough to cover and mix slightly
After 12 hours, drain off liquid.
Air and sun dry mango slices on plastic screen
When moisture content goes down to 10% pack and seal in thick .003 plastic bags of uniform weight.
Store or distribute
for sale or serve.
Freshly harvested mature green mangoes are classified, sized and graded removing diseased and damaged fruits.
Fruits as subjected to Hot Water Treatment (HWT) then air-dried.
Ripening is done placing 20 grams pack calcium carbide (kalburo) wrapped in paper and placed strategically among the fruits, placed in Kaing lined with newspaper and filled with 60 to 100 pieces of mangoes and covered airtight for 3 days.
After 4 days, the fruits are removed and sorted for ripeness and size. Those still with fungal infection upon ripening are discarded. Those still hard and green are separated and allowed to ripen fully.
The fruits are sliced at the lateral axis from both sides at the middle seed section, following the contour of the seed to maximize recovery.
The pulpy flesh is scooped from the peel using stainless steel spoon to avoid acid reaction. Aluminum should not be used, as it will cause discoloration.
The cheeks are cut lengthwise into two to three pieces depending on the size of the fruit.
Mango slice are then blanched in syrup, as 2 to 3 hours delay will cause discoloration. 50 Brix syrup is prepared by boiling 60 kilos sugar in 40 liters water.
When the slices become translucent, they are removed from the fire and allowed to cool. 1-% metabisulfite is dissolved in the syrup. Mango slices are then added to the syrup and soaked overnight.
Mango slices are removed, drained and rinsed in clean water to remove excess sugar that may crystallize when dried.
The slices are spread on trays lined with cheesecloth, properly spaced to allow maximum load.
Trays are placed in cabinet drier with 50 to 60 degrees centigrade temperature for one to two hours.
Immediately after drying they are loosely packed in plastic bags and stored at ambient (room) condition for 24 hours to allow equilibration of moisture among pieces.
The slices are rolled in confectioner’s sugar and the excess coating is brushed off.
They are then
weighed, then packed in boxes and shipped to market outlets.
ANOTHER PROCEDURE IN DEHYDRATING
Aluminum pouch or laminated plastic bags of suitable thickness.
Quality of Raw Materials:
Firm and ripe mangoes.
(Over ripe fruits will give a dark colored product with shorter shelf life).
200 grams or less.
ANOTHER WAY OF PROCESSING
Glass jars with PVC lined closures or C enamel cans.
materials: Fully ripe and firm mangoes.
Wash fruits thoroughly and drain out water.
Slice and scoop the pulp.
Pass through a pulpier or blender.
Add 0.3% citric acid and 0.1 sodium metabisulfite. Base on the weight of the scoop.
Heat the pulp to 90’C in a steam jacket kettle or stockpot with constant stirring.
Pack immediately in pre sterilized enameled cans or glass jars.
Exhaust jars to remove bubbles trapped inside the liquid.
If the hot
mango is added to container, there is no need for exhausting.
MANGO LEATHER FROM MANGO
is also called Mango Roll Toffees is prepared from the mango puree,
dried to form glossy sheets and cut into desired size and shape. It
is 1 mm thick, deep orange in color with characteristic mango flavor.
The product is leathery but chewable, pliable and can be cut into pieces.
It is eaten as snack or desert or used in pie fillings. It can be stores for years in freezer, for months in refrigeration and 7 months in ambient (room) condition.
Its composition is:
15 – 17% moisture
1.3 – 3 % Titrable acidity
80 – 82% soluble solid
acid Aw=0.56-0.64 water activity (Highly stable)
SALTED MANGO (Burong Mangga)
Young unripe mangoes (Murang mangga).
Salt and water or boiled sea water.
plastic or glass jar container.
Boil water and place salt until saturation point.
Cool and place salted water in a jar or plastic container.
Wash and slice young mango with peel in quarter lengthwise.
Remove the seeds.
Place sliced mangoes in the salt solution.
Keep them submerged for 15 to 18 days.
Remove salted mango slice and rinse with clean heated water.
Dry to 12 - 14% moisture.
Pack and seal
in thick polyethylene bags (.003) for storage and sale.
Glass jar or C-enamel cans.
Firm and fully
ripe mango fruits
Glass jar with PVC-lined closures.
of raw materials: Fully ripe mangoes (Carabao or Pico varieties)
Wash mangoes to remove surface dirt.
Slice and scoop off the pulp.
Pass through a blender or fruit pulpier.
Weigh the pulp or puree.
Add 1 ½ part
sugar per two parts of pulp.
Heat over low fire with constant stirring.
When almost thick, add 0.3% citric acid base on the weight of the pulp or adjust the pH to 3-4 with citric acid.
until temperature is 105’C (221’F) or until the mixture can be spooned
out when lifted from the pan.
Fill into sterilized
jars while hot and seal at once. Air-cool, label and store.
Glass or Enamel Cans.
of materials: Ripe and firm mangoes.
Wash mango fruits thoroughly and drain to dry excess moisture.
Peel and remove the pulp from the seed stone.
Macerate the pulp using pulpier or blender.
Add 0.3% citric acid and 0.1% sodium metebisulfite base on pulp weight.
In four parts pulp, add one part sugar and 20 parts water.
Mix or blend
Heat the mixture at 80’C for 5 minutes.
Fill in sterilized bottles and exhaust until nectar temperature is 80’C.
and pasteurize, at 100’ C for ten minutes. Air-cool and store in clean
dray and dark place at ambient temperature.
CANDIED AND GLAZED MANGO
Aluminum pouch, cellophane paper, or laminated plastic bags of suitable
thickness (substance .005).
of raw material: Fully ripe and firm fruits. (Over ripe fruits will
give dark colored product with a shorter shelf life.)
Wash the fruit to be processed thoroughly.
Slice the cheeks with a sharp stainless steel knife.
Cut the cheeks into two equal halves.
Scoop the flesh
from the skin with a stainless scupper.
Heat the prepared mango in 90’C light syrup (30-35’C) with 1-% sodium metabisulfite (Na2S2O3) and 0.5% acetic acid.
Steep for 6 hours.
Keep the fruit completely submerged in the syrup at all times.
Remove the mango strips from the syrup and increase the concentration to 40’Brix by adding sugar.
Steep for 6 to 12 hours again.
Drain the fruit.
Make the syrup to 50’ Brix and set aside at 12 to 24 hour’s interval.
Increase the sugar to the final concentration of 60’B to 70’B.
Drain and rinse in hot water.
Arrange the materials in drying trays and dehydrate at 40’C to 50’C.
If glazed finish is desired, coat the candied fruits with corn syrup.
Place in a
dryer to give a transparent glaze to the surface.
Allow the glazed fruit to cool at room temperature.
Wrap in cellophane or pack in the desired containers and seal.
Store in cool,
dark, clean and dry place.
paper, wax paper, or laminated plastic bags (4 mil. Thickness)
Quality of Raw Material:
prepared from fully ripe and firm mango fruits.
½ cup powdered milk, into all-purpose flour and 1 ½ refined sugar
into a mixing bowl.
Cool mixture over with constant stirring mixture until it no longer sticks to cooking pan.
Turn into board sprinkled with sugar or to a cookie sheet.
Let it stand until cool and slightly stiff.
Cut into strips
and roll in powdered or confectioner’s sugar.
Wrap, in cellophane
paper lined with wax paper. Pack in plastic bag. Then store or deliver
paper, wax paper, or laminated plastic bags (4-mil thickness).
Quality of raw materials:
prepared from fully ripe and firm fruits.
Weigh 1 kg. Of mango puree.
Adjust total solids to 25’C Brix by adding sugar to the puree.
Add two grams of citric acid (or 20 ml of Calamansi juice) to inhibit the possible growth of microorganisms during drying.
Heat the mixture for two minutes at 80’C and partially cool.
Add 2 grams of potassium or sodium metabisulfite to the mixture.
Transfer the mixture to stainless steel trays preciously smeared with glycerin (40 ml/m2).
Plastic sheets may be substituted for stainless steel tray.
Load tray in the drier and dry for ten hours at 55’C and 16 hours at 70’C.
At the end of the drying operation, the moisture content should be between 15 and 20%.
trays and cut the leather into suitable shape and size.
Wrap in cellophane paper. . Pack in cartons, and store at ambient temperature.
Pieces of unsuitable shape and size.
May be further cut into small pieces.
Use them to prepare along peanuts, cashew, and similarly prepared fruits – a variety of “finger foods”.
Excess liquid sugar on the surface of the dried product may be eliminated; by sprinkling it with confectioner’s sugar.
SUMMARY ON GROWING
Why grow organic
There is a growing market demand for organic fruits.
For safety and health of growers and consumers.
Cost of imported chemical inputs is getting too high.
Natural organic farming can make farmers self-reliant.
can cost less and environment friendly.
What is Natural
is growing and caring for plants to be more productive using the laws
of nature to better advantage. Farmers need to know and understand natural
laws governing plants and their environment.
Know more about
the nature of mango.
The Philippine mangoes are big trees that can grow up to 30 meters high, 30 meters radius and root system are as expanded as the crown. Close planting makes roots compete for soil nutrients.
The Philippine carabao mango is a biennial bearer (fruit every two years) but can be made to fruit more often with certain interventions. It needs time to rejuvenate and gather enough nutrients for next bearing season.
The mango tree needs full sunlight from sunrise to sunset and do not favor crowding or partial shedding. Close planting 10 meters or closer will make the trees compete for space, sunlight and soil nutrients.
It needs time to accumulate enough nutrients for bearing, at least a year
It needs natural and artificial stress to flowers and fruits like summer heat and shower, natural maturity of fruiting buds, disease, root pruning, girdling, smudging, spraying chemical flower inducers and application of growth regulators.
Mango grows well and productive in areas where there are distinct dry and wet seasons.
Mango trees produce better quality fruits where pest and diseases are naturally controlled or nil. Mangoes growing in natural condition, with balance ecosystem and biodiversity have less pest and diseases. Beneficial insects counter balance the population of insect pests.
Bigger and older trees properly distanced produce more per unit area than smaller and crowded trees.
Juvenile trees up to 15 years have upward branches and crowded crown and less productive; while trees 20 year and older tend to spread and bend branches allowing more aeration and sunlight penetration, more fruiting branches and buds, resulting in better and higher production.
Most mango trees 50 years ago were left to nature yet they are very healthy and productive, fruiting on season than today’s intensive culture.
Agriculture is a living science. We find changes and the need for innovation as we progress on our farming venture.
We encourage every mango grower to join Mango Associations in your area, and if possible form your own marketing firm (cooperative, association or corporations) to insure a good market linkage with processors and reputable traders. Attending, seminars, gathering and reading printed mango technology, visiting farms, and conducting your own trials and researches will be very helpful.
Keep a farm record.
This will guide you on the status and progress of your trees.
also encourage grower to complete and improve their farm facilities.
special attention and time in harvesting. It is during this critical
stage where you gain or lose your investments.
your plantation is bigger than ten (10) hectares, start learning and
processing left over (LO) fruits and fruit drops. If you are observant,
about 20 % to 30% of the developing fruits drop off, and you can process
these into mango pickle and preserves. 10 to 20% of mature harvested
fruits are considered leaf over (LO) or rejects by fruit buyers. You
can process them to dried, puree, concentrates, powder, candies, preserved
Department of Science and Technology will be glad to train interested
growers how to process their fruits into dried mango, puree, concentrates,
chilled halves, candies, preserves, powder, etc. Through your Mango
Association DA and DOST including DTI can be invited to help you in
your processing, packaging and marketing requirements.
No one is more interested and concern than the owner. So farm owners should take more time in caring, supervising, monitoring and being in the farm.
best fertilizers are the footprints of the owner around his trees and
PHILIPPINE GOLDEN MANGO IS A GIFT OF GOD TO THE FILIPINOS. IT IS TRULY
A TREE OF LIFE. THOSE THAT GROW AND CARE FOR IT SHALL BE REWARDED WITH
ECONOMIC PROSPERITY IN THEIR LIFETIME AND THE GENERATIONS THAT COME
If you need more information, contact:
Agronomist / Mango Specialist
30 Lapu-Lapu Street, Gen. Santos City, 9500 Philippines
To understand natural
farming we need to know the cycle of life and matter. Natural farming
as we envision is learning nature’s laws, and using them with care.
Take note: Natural Laws are the laws of God who created Nature.
Natural farming is a
culture where plants are grown in 100% natural environment with the
least human interference and no harmful chemicals or synthetic products
used. It is practically leaving the crops grow and produce in their
natural environment, and man comes enhances the natural conditions to
improve productivity. Then, harvest or gather its products for man’s
use. However, in the context of our discussion, we will be introducing
farming systems that will employ and apply more and more organic and
biological farm practices.
Dr. Saturnina Halos,
an agricultural scientist says: “Strictly speaking, farming interferes
with nature. There are a lot of human interventions in farming.” This
is very true, and if we are not careful enough, we may totally lost
natures’ resources and capacity to produce the food that our growing
population needs. We seek to learn natural organic and biological farming
to safeguard the environment and sustain its productive capability.
While there is a growing
demand for organically grown fruits and vegetables, it is difficult
and almost impossible not to use chemical products to increase the production
per unit area in a shorter period of time to meet the growing food demand
of the increasing population. Besides plant roots and leaves can only
absorb nutrients in their chemical form. Organic materials have first
to be broken down into its basic chemical component to be utilized by
plants. Synthetic chemical products being used in Agriculture were processed
and synthesized from organic and/or mineral materials.
Before life was created,
matter first existed. In the beginning we have water, rocks, gases,
light, solar energy, the earth and atmosphere. There was yet no life.
(Read the Holy Scriptures ‘The Holy Bible’ Genesis on Creation).
When the environment became ready, life began to appear in many forms
from single cell to the complex form of plants and animals. We learn
that evolution is God’s continuing process of creation.
Matter on the other hand
is never lost, it just change in form and substance from solid to liquid
and gas and back to solid. From its mineral chemical form to organic
compound and back to mineral and chemical. (Remember man that thou
art dust and unto dust thou shall return.). Roots absorb nutrient
in simple chemical form decomposed organic compounds have to be converted
to chemical form and are absorbed by plants.
Evolution as science
discovers, life started in the waters in single cell microorganisms
in animal and plant form. In ages and millennium the seed of life developed
into higher forms as we see them today. Together with life or biological
progression, weathering of the environment prepared the development
of ecological diversity. So even at our time, we witness the continuing
process of creation and evolution of new varieties and forms of life.
Man with his God given
intellect is an instrument in the development through the science of
breeding and lately genetic engineering and cloning. Man’s technological
advances are still following natural laws, which without that, it will
If we observe the growth and vegetation of natural forests, we will notice the healthy growth of trees, shrubs, grass and other forest vegetation. The soil is fertile, rich in organic humus and there is very limited pest and disease damage. Animal life, also abound from microorganisms like bacteria, fungus to worms, reptiles, birds and mammals.
The plants and animals
have grown in their natural environment without interference of man.
They may not be as productive as we wish them to be, but we can learn
from their growth, survival and production in their natural habitat.
Ecological and biological diversity can be observed existing and living
soil is kept fertile with the leaves, branches and other plant parts
that mature and drop to the soil surface are decomposed with the aid
of bacteria, fungi and other minute organisms that eat and digest them
up with moisture (water). This results to the buildup of humus and organic
fertilizer, which break down into simple chemical form rich in readily
available plant nutrients for roots to absorb.
microorganisms abound in the fertile organic rich soil that help both
in the decomposition of organic materials and suppress or control the
spread and multiplication of pests and diseases. Probiotics or beneficial
microorganisms help suppress and control the growth of disease causing
microbes (bacteria, fungus and virus) and even soil born pests like
nematodes and insects.
pests are kept down as both destructive and friendly insects are balancing
their population in their natural habitat. This control the buildup
of insect infestation is a continued process when left to their natural
estate. Example of these are: the use of Trichogramma ostriniae
against corn corer and Braconidae
or Braconid Wasps which parasitize other arthropods. Braconid wasps
can be endo- or ecto-parasite, solitary or living in groups as primary
or secondary parasites. Different species may attack every stage of
an insect development; there are braconids that are egg parasites, larval
parasites, and parasites of pupae and adult insects. Many parasites
are valuable as biological control of pests.
and tall trees protect the soil and other living organisms beneath from
too much heat and inclement weather conditions. Soil erosion and depletion
is minimized or totally prevented. Trees serve as umbrella in forest
and natural habitat. Tree planting in certain sections of the farm is
advisable and encouraged. Keep and grow spots of mini forest in your
farm to preserve and protect the environment and eco system for the
habitation of bio diversity.
environment is preserved as bio-diversity is protected in natural forest
vegetation where man has not set its foot on. All of creation and living
things have a purpose and role. Herbal and medicinal plants have been
destroyed and eliminated with the past century of clearing and cultivating
lands for agriculture and crop production.
tillage is propagating plants without the artificial means of cultivation.
Plants and seeds are spread by growth of rhizomes, vines, carried by
wind, water and birds. Modern natural farming systems can learn much
from nature’s way of propagating and preserving its species even without
the usual land clearing and land preparation involving digging, plowing
is a farming practice by ancient farmers up to the 50s where the land
is made to rest for a year or two to allow nature to rejuvenate it and
enrich the soil fertility and productive capacity. Resting the soil
for one year after six years of crop production. Today, this is less
practiced due to the limited farming areas. Farmlands are chopped down
by CARP into small lots 3 hectares and smaller. Farmers need to make
them produce continually without resting, so artificial methods are
done to keep it producing using chemical and organic fertilizers.
To adopt natural farming system, we have to understand how the ecosystem responds to man’s interventions. The moment we clear the land, remove the protective trees and cultivate the soil, we have destroyed the natural environment and the existing eco-system and bio-diversity. The lesser we destroy or remove the natural environment; the closer we get into natural farming.
However, we can gradually
return to natural ways by learning the natural laws governing plant
and animal propagation, growth and production.
NATURAL FARMING PRACTICES:
Zero cultivation and following, allowing the soil to rest and rejuvenate.
Integrated Pest Management (IPM).
Insect traps, lure and attractants.
Use of Biological pest control (natural enemies of pest)
Use of Organic Compost fertilizer and bio micro inoculates.
Use of Organic Pest and Disease control materials.
Use of indigenous resistant plant varieties and strain.
Practice crop rotation and following (resting the soil for some time).
Growing and inter-cropping of pest repellant and herbal plants.
Integrated cropping pattern to prevent growth of toxic weeds.
Growing the right crop
on the right soil, climate and at the right time.
While the above practices
are good and desirable, they have to be done in combination with modern
agricultural technology to increase productivity per unit area at shorter
possible time. This is because the farming and food production areas
do not increase, while population continues to increase. Feeding the
growing world population needs the ingenuity of man, his talent and
ability to invent and innovate as his Creator endowed in him
following and allowing the soil to rest and rejuvenate.
Zero cultivation has
been a long and original practice of man in its first attempt to grow
crops. Even today, kaingineros (slash and burn), those who clear the
forest or trees to grow seasonal crops do not cultivate the soil, since
it is soft, friable and very fertile.
They just make small
holes with pointed stick and drop seeds of rice, corn, vegetable or
any crop they wish to grow. After one or two seasons as the earth is
exposed to the elements and weathering, the soil hardens. It becomes
hard to work on because of exposure to sunlight, necessitating soil
cultivation, as the humus and organic content of the soil is reduced.
Then the farmer starts depending on commercial chemical fertilizers
to replace nutrient loss. Unless organic compost materials are augmented
to the soil, it will continue deteriorating.
To remedy the situation,
following, or resting the field for one year, allowing all vegetation
including weeds to grow, to bring back the natural fertility and bio-organic
life into the soil. The use of organic fertilizer in combination to
commercial chemical fertilizer will help preserve and sustain the productivity
of the land. This has been the practice of ancient farming in Egypt,
Babylon and Israel.
Tilling on the other
hand promotes healthy soil in cultivated agricultural lands. It exposes
the pest and soil born diseases, increases soil aeration and oxygen
supply to microorganisms and promotes root growth and penetrates better
as the soil is loose. This is done after destroying the natural soil
environment through tillage.
In orchard farms (fruit
tree plantations) where permanent trees are growing, zero tillage can
be done, by growing low creeping leguminous cover crops like Arakis
pintoy or Australian peanut weed (mani-mani) around and in between tree
Practice clean culture.
Keeping the field clean will help in preventing the growth and multiplication of pest and diseases. All plant waste and droppings should be gathered in one place to be composted and converted into organic fertilizer. Before using the composted organic materials for fertilizer, sanitize them first by exposing them to direct sunlight and dried to eliminate any diseases and eggs of insect pests. Defoliate over mature and diseased and infested leaves. Allow sunlight and aeration to penetrate between plants and within the foliage of trees. It will promote the growth of normal and healthy branches and eliminate abnormalities.
Cultivation and weed control will also help not only in soil aeration and softening of soil mass but will also reduce or disturb the breeding place of insect pests and fungal diseases.
To bring back the natural
organic matter, these materials have to be incorporated with the soil
as organic fertilizer and manure.
Integrated Pest Management
Integrated Pest Management
(IPM) is a pest control program using combination of all practices to
reduce or eliminate pest damage. This includes natural, biological and
mechanical practices as well as bio and chemical pesticide application.
Among these practices
include the following:
Planting resistant or
tolerant plant varieties. Growing indigenous crop varieties with reasonably
high productivity should be encouraged. New breeds and genetically modified
plants are being developed like Bt Corn which are resistant to corn
borer infestation. New pest and disease resistant with high nutrient
food value varieties are being bred and produced through genetic engineering
(GM) and natural cross breeding.
Timing planting so as
the growing and fruiting stages does not coincide with inclement weather
conditions and high incidence of pest population.
Growing boarder or inter-crops
that are repellant to insect pests.
Practice clean culture,
proper pruning and removal of diseases or infested plant parts especially
with fruit trees. Remove all breeding places of insect pests and infected
debris rotting near plants and field.
Use organic fertilizer
in combination with chemical fertilizer and supplement the field with
compost and pro-biotic (bacteria, yeast & fungus). Sanitize compost
and organic materials by exposing them to direct sunlight before applying
it as fertilizer.
Learn to prepare and
use bio-organic pesticides and fungicides as substitute for toxic chemicals.
may also include the following:
Keep the garden small
and the plants varied to prevent insect pests infestation. Solo or mono
cropping tends to encourage the multiplication and outbreak of insect
pest that feed on the particular plant grown. Multiple cropping or maintaining
a green belt in the farm where vegetation is allowed to grow naturally
will be a shelter and home to beneficial organisms, plants and animals
including variety of insects that will check and control any outbreak
of pests. This will be a natural check and balance.
A basic principle in
pest management: Plant the right crop on the right soil at the right
time. Plant crops at a time when its particular pest is inactive.
Plant indigenous cultivars
or plant varieties native to the place. They are resistant to the pests
and adapt very well to the local environment. The introduction of hi-breeds
and high yielding commercial seeds have the tendency of eliminating
indigenous varieties that are adopted to the environment as they have
survive decades and century of adjustments.
Healthy organic soil,
grow healthy plants that resist pests and diseases. In soils applied
with organic matter or humus, animal manure and compost, the soil host
a wide variety of micro organisms that are harmful to nematodes and
cause diseases to some insect pests thereby allowing the increase in
population of beneficial organisms and insects.
Crop rotation dissociates
microorganism buildup around the plant roots as each crop has a characteristic
microbial association. (Example is pro biotic and nitrogen fixing bacteria
for legumes). New microbes are being developed to inoculate the seeds
just before planting to introduce them into the soil and help in nitrogen
fixation that enriches the soil.
Aromatic herbs like mint,
garlic, marigold, oregano, onion, control nematodes and repel insects,
and should thus be grown as companion crop to your garden or farm.
Tilling promotes healthy soil as it allows aeration bringing supply of oxygen promoting root growth and permit better root penetration breaking soil compaction. It exposes pest and soil born diseases to sunlight and disturbs their growth and multiplication. Sunlight is a very good and free sanitizing agent.
Crop combination such
as legumes and potatoes, control nematodes. Learn and find out the best
crop partners and combinations. Planting tomatoes in between rows of
eggplant will reduce fruit fly infestation on eggplant fruits. Growing
marigold at the border of vegetable plots will also help repel some
Insect traps, lure
There are many practical
and inexpensive ways of controlling and managing the population of insects
pests in your garden and fields. Here are some of them that you may
Light Traps -
This practice have been found effective in unlighted areas. Light is
provided with a basin of water. As the nocturnal insects are attracted
to the light, they fly and dip into the water, or the flame of the firelight
singes their wings.
Lure with attractants
– The lures derived from molasses and flower scent (odor) tantalize
both male and female moths (the caterpillar adult stage) with the promise
of nectar. The insects fly into the opening of a lure-dispensing trap,
never to return.
Chemical sex attractant
– The use of PHEROMONE
a chemical with female insect odor that confuses the male and attracts
them to bait treated with toxic insecticide or they fail to mate with
the female insects.
Blue electric lamp
surrounded with electrically charged mess wire that electrocutes insects
– Most insect pests are attracted to bright yellow color. Yellow
pad with grease or paste, attract insects during the day and sticks
to the pad as they come in contact. The pad may also be treated with
molasses and pesticide to give added attractant and killing potential.
Use of Biological
Pest and Disease Control.
The use of living plant
and animals or living organisms to control pest and diseases are called
Biological Control. They may be microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi,
virus or bigger life forms like insects, worms, reptiles, mammal and
birds. You can learn to increase the beneficial insects, microorganisms
and other animal and plant life in your farms to counter pests and diseases
harming your crops. Let us protect and increase these beneficial enemies
Use of Organic Fertilizer
Fertilizers coming from
fermented and decomposed organic materials are very nutritious safe
fertilizer materials. They are both enrich the soil plant food nutrients,
improves the texture for easier root growth and preserve the soil life
such as beneficial bacteria and fungi. We have several recommended formula
in preparing organic fertilizer both liquid and solid form in this handbook.
These natural fertilizers carry both plant food nutrients and microorganisms
with pesticide, fungicide and nitrogen fixing property.
Used of Herbal Organic
Pest and Disease Control
Herbal preparations to
control pest and diseases can easily be made by farmers themselves since
we have abundant plants in the Philippines that are suitable ingredient.
We offer you several formulations and methods of preparing Botanical
or Herbal pest and diseases concoctions in this handbook to guide you
make your own. For farmers who would not have the time and facilities
to prepare herbal organic pesticides and fungicides, there are now ready
prepared and tested herbal organic concentrates (HOC-4n1) with four
properties as foliar fertilizer, pest repellant, insecticide and fungicide.
of such drastic health problems from exposure to an age-old organic
preparation should act as a wake-up call to organic growers. It is a
reminder that many natural plant products can be toxic when they are
extracted and concentrated. It is a reminder that the philosophy of
organic growing is not that of replacing synthetic chemicals with natural
chemicals. Rather it is to strive for balance in an Agro-ecosystem,
or home garden, in which the grower works with nature as much as possible
rather than trying to control it. Pesticide preparations, even those
of natural occurring substances, should be the last port of call not
the first remedy. They may control the pest at that moment in time,
but they do not encourage a balanced system that looks after itself.
Derris Dust also kills valuable biological control insects like ladybirds.
This is counterproductive. In our city garden, we have fed the birds
to encourage their presence for many years. We have no problem with
white cabbage butterfly, or any other insect pests. After dining on
the birdseed and left over bread crusts, the birds make a beeline to
the garden and clean up any insects they can find. Mind you they are
also partial to lettuce and silver beet - these we net. If your bird
populations are not sufficient for natural control, try squashing the
caterpillars with your fingers. It may be messy, but it is preferable
to Parkinson's disease. Or use Bt.
Use of indigenous
resistant plant varieties and strain.
There are several plant
varieties and species that are found resistant or tolerant to certain
prevalent pest and diseases. It will be wise for farmers to know them
and grow these types of plants especially during months or season that
certain pest and diseases are abundant.
Practice crop rotation
and following (resting the soil for some time).
Crop rotation or changing
crops grown in certain areas to avoid the buildup of certain pest or
disease affecting certain crops. Example, rotating onions with pepper
or cassava. Resting the soil for one to two years to allow natural vegetation
and the growth of natural enemies to introduce balance of nature, while
enriching your soil environment for future crop production.
Growing and inter-cropping
of pest repellant and herbal plants.
There are crops that
repel certain insect pests. Inter-cropping tomato and marigold with
cabbages and cauliflower will help reduce the diamondback moth attacking
cabbages. Learn what these crop combinations. You will not only reduce
your cost of pest and disease control but may even increase your income
per unit area with the crop combination.
pattern to prevent growth of toxic weeds.
Certain weeds are difficult
to remove or control, like grasses. Planting vines and crawling crops
like sweet potato and cover crops will help suppress weeds. Replacing
the weeds with other beneficial creeping plants like Arakis pintoy (mani-mani)
that covers the spaces between fruit trees and help supply nitrogen
to the soil. Cover crops also help prevent soil erosion and protect
the beneficial microorganisms in the soil and other soil life.
Growing the right
crop on the right soil, climate and at the right time.
There are suitable crops
that are ideal for certain season of the year and suitable soils for
their healthy and productive growth. Learn the nature of the plants
and their preferences before deciding what to grow in your farm. The
Philippines is a located in the tropical zone, so ideal for tropical
crops and not much for temperate crops. Let us learn the advantages
we have by growing the right crops best suited to our land with good
Herbal Organic Concentrate
Pride product of Mindanao, Philippines
Natural Organic Farming
ORGANIC SPRAY has been formulated by chemist for easy use of farmers
practicing organic farming without using synthetic toxic chemicals that
pose danger to man and environment.
HOC, is environment
friendly, safe to use and not harmful to man and animals.
HOC (Herbal Organic Concentrate)
is prepared from 100% herbal organic extracts and marine products for
Total Plant Care. It is use for Natural Organic and Biological
Farming and improves crop production. We have several formulations
to meet specific requirements and need of plants. These are: (HOC
– GO, - ST, - 3n1 and 4n1)
The solution contains the essential plant food nutrients both macro and micro elements.
HOC is basically a foliar fertilizer with
added properties as pest repellent, insecticide
and fungicide. It can also be applied as drench on soil at the
base of plants and root zone. It helps control nematodes and other soil
borne pests and diseases.
Another added feature of HOC is it also contains amino acid that enhances plant growth and beneficial microorganism that helps enrich the soil and fight pests and diseases.
- can replace
many toxic chemicals used in conventional farming. It is environment
Plants found to respond well with HOC are rice, corn, vegetables, banana, papaya,
fruit trees, mango, durian, orchids, ornamental flowering plants and
Mix 1-2 tablespoon per gallon of clean water or 4-8 tablespoon per 16
liters knapsack sprayer, or 1 liter per 200 liter dram. One liter is
enough to cover one hectare of rice, corn, vegetables and short row
Intervals of 3-7 days during critical stage of growth (flushing, flowering,
fruiting), 15-30 days for maintenance, vegetative growth and rejuvenation.
Shake well HOC before mixing with water.
Adjust your spray nuzzle to fine mist for leaves, flower and fruits
and fine for trunk, branches and the soil surrounding the base or root
zone.. It is advisable to spray the soil, trunk, branches and foliage
of the crop for total coverage and maximum efficacy.
STORAGE AND HANDLING: HOC
is an organic compound with live beneficial microorganism. It is best
to store it in clean, dry, dark and cool place away form exposure to
heat and light. Keep cap loose in storage and tighten in handling and
transport. Keep away from reach of children.
REX A. RIVERA
11 Magsaysay Avenue, General Santos City
Tel. No. 083-301-0117
Schedule of HOC Spraying
(Shake well HOC
before mixing with water)
ORNAMENTAL GARDEN PLANTS
ROOT CROPS – PEANUTES, POTATO
COFFEE - CACAO
DURIAN – MANGOSTEEN – LANZONES - RAMBUTAN
POMELO – CALAMANSI
HERBAL TEA PREPARATIONS FOR PLANT PROTECTION
TEA preparation for plant protection can be made by the farmers
right in their own farm without depending too much on commercial chemical
pesticides and fungicides. The following procedures are simple and low
MATERIALS NEEDED: MGA HALAMANG GAMIT OTHER BERBS
200 liters capacity plastic drum. (200 litrong dram na platik) IBANG HALAMAN
Grinder / chopper and mortar & pestle (lusong pambayo) Tobacco (Tabako)
Strainer/screen/cloth (salaan) (Kamantigui )
Dipper (tabo). Marigold (Bulaklak)
Wooden ladle / paddle (Kahoy na panghalo) Guava (Bayabas)
Fresh clean water (tubig na malinis) Wild Tea (Tsanggubat)
Herbal materials ( Halamang panghalo): Tamarind (Sampalok)
10 kilos Ginger (Luya) Oregano (Origano)
5 kilos Garlic (Bawang) Black pepper(Paminta)
5 kilos Aloe vera (Sabila) (Dulao)
10 kilos Hot pepper ( Siling labuyo) Mimosa p. (Makahiya)
10 kilos Curry leaves (kari) (Hagunoy)
10 kilos Ipil-Ipil leaves (Ipil-Ipil) Acasia (Akasya)
20 kilos Neem tree leaves (Dahon ng Neem Tree) Legumes and beans
20 kilos Madre de Cacao leaves (Dahon ng Kakawati) Papaya (Papaya)
5 kilos Derris (Tubli) Coco juice (Tuba)
5 kilos Bitter vine (Panyawan//Makabuhay)
herbs with insecticide, fungicide and pest repellant properties.
PROCEDURE: MGA HAKBANG:
1. Prepare the above materials.
I-handa and mga gamit.
Grind or pond the herbs separately.
Durugin at bayuhin and mga halaman na magkakahiwalay.
Place all ground and pounded herbs in the plastic drum.
Ilagay ang lahat ng dinurog at binayong halaman sa dram na plastik.
Fill the drum with fresh clean water.
Punuin ng malinis na tubig ang dram.
Mix the materials with a wooden ladle
Haluin ang tubig at dinurog na halaman gamit ang kahoy na panghalo.
Stay overnight or one day to allow the herb juice to mix with water. Herbal tea..
Pabayaan magdamag upang katas ng halaman ay mahalo sa tubig magiging tsaa.
Get herbal tea from drum pass through screen strainer
Kunin ang tubig o tsaa sa dram paraanin sa screen na salaan.
Add equal amount of fresh clean water to the herbal tea.
Dagdagan ng preskong tubig ang tsaa na kasing dami.
Place in sprayer or sprinkler.
Ilagay sa sprayer o sa rigadera.
Spray on plants, drench from soil base, trunk, branches, leaves flowers and fruits..
Spray o diligin ang halaman, mula lupa, puno, sanga, dahonbulaklak at bunga
Repeat spraying 3 or 7 days interval as the need arises.
ang pag spray o pagbibisbis tuwing 3 o 7 araw ayon sa pangangailangan.
TO MAKE ORGANIC COMPOST FERTILIZER
The sandwich method:
Organic materials such as animal waste, plant waste and topsoil are placed in layers one on top of the other until they reach a high of 3 feet.
The material is watered moist and covered with coconut leaves or plastic sheet in order that moisture will be retained.
Mix the compost pill after two weeks, moist and cover again.
Repeat mixing once a week, until the compost materials are totally decompose with the appearance of soil.
Dry in direct sunlight to kill or eliminate unwanted microorganisms such as fungus and bacteria.
The material is now ready
for use or placed in sacks for storage or shipment.
Biological fast composting:
After harvest and just before plowing and land preparation, gather the organic materials, chop or hammer mill.
Spread the materials evenly in the field. In case the plant waste residues are in the field, then step a. will not be necessary.
Spray the organic material in the field with pro-biotic microorganism.
Plow and disk-harrow the field to mix the organic material with the soil.
If possible do the above
operation just before an expected rain or irrigate the field after the
plowing of cultivation. This will allow the microorganism to work fast,
and multiply. In the process, digesting the organic material into organic
fertilizer or soil amendment.
Planting beans and other legumes and plow under when they flower to enrich the soil. Tender plant parts, will easily be eaten up by microorganisms when plowed into the soil.
Note that the pro-biotic
organisms will continue working in the soil, as long as favorable conditions
like adequate soil moisture and presence of organic materials
Soil and Seed inoculants:
Microorganism nitrogen fixing bacteria are incorporated on seeds, seedlings
and soil during land preparation and planting. One product is Bio-N
developed by Dr. Garcia of UPLB and passed her discovery to the government
for nationwide production and ready use of farmers.
BUSINESSES IN MANGO
is interesting to note that the foremost and first intention of people
who involve themselves into the mango industry is to make or earn money.
Others say they are preparing for their retirement years with rustic
living and comfortable income. But where do a mango stake holder make
money out of mango?
Land banking. Acquiring lands
planted or to be planted to mango.
are people with savings or extra money they wish to invest with the
least risk and be sure to gain as the years go by. Some buy blue chips
from stable companies. One sure way of earning is investing on real
property, the land. Rarely do land valuation depreciate, in most cases
it appreciate as population increases and infrastructure development
along and around the property are in place.
the land with fruit trees like mangoes will surely add improvement and
value to the land as the trees grow bigger, older and more productive
as years go by. If ever you sell or use the property as collateral,
it will have higher valuation with your healthy productive mango trees.
A farmer said, its better to plant mango than build houses for rent,
the mangoes will surely pay for their stay.
mango seedlings and planting materials is a multi-million business.
Former nursery workers of BPI stations in Mindanao are now earning
more after retirement than when they were employed by the government
agency. The great source of fruit tree planting materials are mostly
found outside and around the vicinity of the Bureau of Plant Industry
field Offices and Nursery.
Mango growing and production.
growing mango for domestic and export market has gain the interest of
many farm owners because of the big income the crop can give every year
of production. With proper care and cultural management, mango is a
high value crop where a hectare can earn P100,000 to P350,000 yearly
compared to corn and rice where P20,000 to P40,000 is the optimum income.
Service and input
are vertical and horizontal money making activities for services and
production input providers. Skilled and unskilled labor are needed in
mango planting, caring up to harvesting and packaging. Transport and
marketing fresh and processed mango products are related businesses.
pest and disease control materials, packaging materials are some of
the inputs needed. We propose and encourage investors to provide these
materials from indigenous and renewable materials such as herbal organic
and biological sprays to replace toxic synthetic chemicals and wooden
fruit boxes made from lumber grown by farmers themselves.
growers who planted mango trees were not prepared for the growing fund
requirement as their trees grow bigger. Mango contractor who provide
capital, labor and management are commonly seen operating mango orchards.
It has been a sad culture of farmers preferring to sit and just wait
for their share on production with the contractors.
sharing of gross harvest is 70% to contractor and 30% to farm owner.
As the trees grow bigger and more productive, the share percentage of
the farm owner grows bigger and the contractor’s become smaller.
is in trading with lesser risk than growing and producing. It takes
less time to trade, takes 1 - 7 days, while growing and producing takes
months and years. So time risk factor is lesser for the trader than
is the stage in the industry where the real money is. Marketing from
farm harvest consolidation, distribution, wholesaling, retailing, door
to door deliveries and exporting have their respective profit markup
to insure income for their different stage of market services.
Value adding and extending shelf life is one process that is a good source of increased income. Even fresh fruits for the table market can be processed to preserve and enhance the good quality, protect fruits from pest and diseases,
And help extend shelf life.
Processing mango into different finish product like dehydrated, puree,
preserves, etc. are sources of additional income and profit. All waste
material in mango processing may be utilized as seedling material, animal
freed and converted into organic compost fertilizer.
In all activities, financing or funding
is needed. Cost of money collected in interest or percentage in production
output and trading commission are sources of income. In many instances,
especially when the grower digs from his own pocket the funding required
for operations often forget to assign an amount for the use of the fund.
finance farmers who know how to budget and allocate their money are
most likely the progressive and successful growers and producers. When
ever they make sales, they immediately separate and reserve the production
cost, taxes and fees for succeeding operations and farm activities before
spending their income in many other things they need and want.
and other sources of loans would clearly segregate the interest cost
for the use of money. Mango Contractors get back their money in terms
of lower ex-farm price when they market the harvest.
Buyers especially exporters and processors, are starting to go into grower marketing contract and supplying production inputs, just to be assured of sure regular volume of fruits.