OntarioBetta

Quality Betta Splendens

Betta Info

The following information covers some basic info as well as the more advanced features of betta keeping.

 

 


 

 

Sexing bettas

Male and female bettas are usually easily told apart. However, some people have trouble seeing the differences. And sometimes they can be very tricky. Here I will show you a couple good ways to tell male from female.

1. The first and most easiest way is that males have longer finnage. Females fins are usually much shorter then the males.

 

 Male

Female 

 
1new013.jpg image by ontariobetta
 

 


However, there is one problem with this. That is that Plakats also have short finnage, and thereby are often confused with females. Here is a female and a plakat, see if you can see the difference:

 

 ??

?? 

  
d9b6d0db.jpg marble female image by ontariobetta

 


Can you tell which is male and which is female? Well, I will tell you. The one on the left is male and the right is female. If you couldn't tell then keep on reading...

2. Another good way to tell is to look for the ovipositor. The ovipositor is the little white tube where eggs come out of the female. It looks like a little white dot just behind the ventrals. Sometimes young males will appear to have this but it usually goes away. Females will always have it, but some are less obvious than others.

  

 

3. A little less accurate way then the other two is to look at the body shapes. Males seem to have a more elongated body then females. Females tend to be a little chunky, mainly in the front. Females, like us, have more curves then males. Their bodies start out thick and then get thiner towards the tail. This is due to the females carrying eggs. Here are some examples:

 Male

Female 

  

 This female has a fair amount of eggs so it is easy to see the curve. Some females don't hold a lot of eggs so they may appear to have less of a curve.

 

4. Another good way to tell is that females get vertical bars/stripes. The only problem is that you can only see these on dark coloured females. Yellow, white, pastel, ect females will not show these. Males can get these stripes also, but only usually when scared. Females get them when they are displaying to males or females. They look like this:

  

 

Remember, its only the vertical stripes that mean female, NOT horizontal. Horizontal stripes are fear/stress stripes and both male and female get them.

 

 

5. This is the last way I can think of, and it has to do with ventrals and anal fins. (ventrals are the 2 skinny fins at the front). Males usually have long ventrals, whether they be longfinned or plakats. Females generally have shorter. As well, the anal fin in males tend to be longer and more pointed. Heres a couple pics to help illustrate:

 

 Male

Female 

  

 MaleFemale 
 
pastelpk3.jpg image by ontariobetta
 
0forsale20019.jpg steel plk femle image by ontariobetta

 



 

Genetics

Ok, so first of all I will explain a bit about this. It's that kind of stuff you learn in highschool so it's pretty easy. If I can understand it, anyone can:
 It's important to know about your bettas genetics in order to produce good offspring. You can't just pick 2 random bettas and hope they produce a trait you want. If you want double tail for example you have to have parents that carry that trait. When a trait is dominant it will show up over the recessive one, they can still have a recessive trait but it wont show. The only way for a recessive trait to show up is if both parents shows/had the recessive trait. There are 3 different combinations:
1. DD= This means the fish shows the dominant trait, and only carries the dominant trait
2. rr=This mean the fish shows the recessive trait and only carries the recessive trait
3. Dr= This means the fish shows the dominat trait, but it also carries the recessive trait
.


Here's some punnet squares to help illustrate. The coloured in squares are the results possible from those parents- the parents are the non coloured squares. Each parent and offspring has 2 alleles (the letters), which determine what traits they will display. Here's an example:

 

   D  D
 r

 Dr

 Dr

 r

 Dr

 Dr

 

In this case parent1 was DD meaning they carried the dominant trait only, parent2 was rr meaning they carried the recessive trait only. The result from this cross was that all offspring will show the dominant trail but carry the recessive. If you were to cross 2 Dr fish you would get:

 

   D  r
 D

 DD

 Dr

 r

 Dr

 rr

 

In this case you would get fish that showed the dominant trail, the recessive trait and fish that showed dominant but carried the recessive.

Ok so what if you crossed 2 fish that both had a different dominant traits? Well then you would either get a blending or both would show up. For example, if you crossed a red betta with a blue betta. Both colours are dominant so you would get fish that had red and blue.

Here's a list of some of the dominant and recessive colours and tail types
: (to a certain degree)

Dominant= Red, turquoise, steel, royal, butterfly, marble, Veil tail, crowntail
Recessive=
Black, yellow, orange, Halfmoon, double tail, plakat.

Doubletail Genetics:

DoubleTail is recessive, so it will only show up if both parents carry/show the trait. Here are some examples of crosses:
S=single tail
d=double tail
Sd= single tail carries doubletail


1
. Both parents are Double tail- dd

 

   d  d
 d

 dd

 dd

 d

 dd

 dd

 

You will get 100% doubletails.
This is not really a good cross because most of the offspring will have shorter stubbier bodies, and will be prone to deformities.

2. both parents = Sd

 

   S  d
 S

 SS

 Sd

 d

 Sd

 dd

 

You will get 50% singletail that carry DT, 25% true single tail and 25% DT.
Its hard to tell which singletails carry DT or not. But a good hint is if the dorsal fin (the one on top) is wider than normal, then they may carry it.

3. Parent 1= Sd, parent 2= dd

 

   S  d
 d

 Sd

 dd

 d

 Sd

 dd

 

You will get 50% singletail that carry DT, and 50% DT

3. parent1= SS, parent 2= dd

 

   S  S
 d

 Sd

 Sd

 d

 Sd

 Sd

 

You will get 100% single tail that carry DT

Short Fin Genetics:

Short fin, aka plakat, is recessive to the long fin forms. So if you want to figure out crosses from short fins and long fins just look at the doubletail stats and replace doubletail with shortfin and single tail with long fin.

Colour Crosses:

These crosses are just probabilities, there are sometimes some surprises that come up. These are also just a few of the many colour combos you can do. Usually with any out cross to a different line/colour you will get multies the first generation and then better colours the next generation.

 

 Red  Red x any colour= red or lots of red wash   
 Royal blue  Royal x royal= 50% royal, 25% steel, 25% turq
Royal x steel= 50% royal, 50% steel
royal x turq= 50% royal, 50% turq
 Turquoise

 turq x turq= 100% turq
turq x royal= 50% royal, 50% turq
turq x steel= 100% royal

 Steel blue steel x steel= 100% steel
steel x turq= 100% royal
steel x royal=50% royal, 50% steel
 Black  Black x steel= 50% black, 50% steel
Black x Black= Most true black, aka melano, females are infertile. However if they are black lace then you will get 100% black lace.
 Opaque  Opaque x opaque= 100% opaque, some may have red wash
Opaque x steel/turq/royal= steel, turq, or royal opaques. All will have some degree of opaque, but some may have more bluish then opaque
 Yellow  Yellow x Yellow= 100% yellow
Yellow x opaque= 100% dirty opaque, not a good cross
Yellow x turq/blue= no you wont get green. they will be multies
 Chocolate  Chocolate x chocolate= 100% chocolate
Chocolate x yellow= chocolate, with maybe a few yellows.
 Orange  Orange x orange= orange, possibly yellow
 Marble

 marble x marble= Solids, butterflys, cellos and marbles
marble x solid= Solids, marbles, butterflys, cellos

 

 

Betta Species

You did know there are more then 20 species of betta didn't you? When I say species, I don't mean colour or finnage- those are just variation of one species. The name Betta refers to the genus, and the name Splenden for example refers to the species. The bettas you see in petstores and most commonly bred are Splendens. Most other betta species are referred to as wild bettas. Some betta species are mouthbrooders, meaning they raise the fry in their mouths instead of a bubble nest. Some betta species are also vulnerable or endangered, such as Betta Macrostoma, betta Simplex, betta Chini and others. Because some are so rare they are sold for crazy high prices, like B. Macrostoma sometimes go for around $300USD a pair!!!

To learn more about wild bettas visit the IBC Species Maintenance Program for a complete species list and also tons of info.
To chat about wild betta visits
WildBettas group.

To learn more about the wilds I currently keep, click on Wild Bettas tab above