Megan Arkenberg

Speculative fiction writer, poet, and editor

Literary Devices in English Haiku  

           
Most readers and writers of modern haiku are familiar with the form’s traditional literary techniques; the subtleties of juxtaposition, the emotions of wabi and sabi[1], the irony and hyperbole found in senryu
[2]. Other literary devices, such as metaphor and personification, have a rich history in English-language poetry but are neglected—even discouraged—in modern English haiku. But to ignore these and other unusual haiku devices, such as allusion and visual poetry, is to ignore much of the form’s history and literary potential.

Metaphor and personification have been most frequently argued against on the grounds that haiku are meant to be an objective record of things experienced, rather than an opportunity for the poet to display his or her technique. What this fails to take into account is that we do not all experience reality with perfect objectivity—everyone, haiku writers included, perceives certain experiences in illogical and improbable ways. This is particularly true for first impressions.

     heaped
in the buttercup
    blue sky

~Carl Patrick, The Haiku Anthology

strawberry
another red tongue
on mine

~Jane Reichhold, Writing and Enjoying Haiku

The use of metaphor in haiku stretches from deliberate comparison:

under cherry trees
soup, salad, fish and all…
seasoned with petals

~Basho

…to extremely close juxtaposition, in which one of the haiku’s images may be seen as renaming the other image:

on a bare branch
a crow lands
autumn dusk

~Basho

freshly fallen snow
opening a new package
of typing paper

~Nick Avis, The Haiku Anthology

Other haiku show strong figurative sensibilities, but do not make a specific comparison. In the following example, Christopher Herold presents an image that would be impossible to take literally, but does not rename it in concrete terms:

returning quail
  call to us from the moment
of which he speaks

~Christopher Herold, The Haiku Anthology

Another figurative haiku device involves presenting a distorted but readily understandable perception of the world—for example, by confusing cause and effect. Sense-switching, the gathering of sensory information through multiple senses simultaneously, is another example of this:

calling home--
the color of mother’s voice
before her words

~Hilary Tann, dust of summers

twilight…
his voice
deep purple

~Ludmila Balabanova, dust of summers

Personification, the assigning of human traits to nonhuman things, seems less prevalent than metaphor in haiku. The most likely reason for this is personification’s inherent lack of subtlety—it is difficult for the haiku’s author to “vanish” when he or she has intentionally distorted the reader’s vision. Well-done personification in haiku allows the poem to speak for itself; it comes from an instantaneous connection in the poet’s mind, rather than deliberate ingenuity.  

song birds
at the train yard’s edge
two cars coupling

~Jeffrey Winke, Thirds

In combining the traits of human and nonhuman things, personification can emphasize the “oneness” of the world and promote a sense of compassion:

don’t swat the fly!
see how he wrings his hands,
wrings his feet!

~Issa

A step up from personification in forging a deliberate bond between writer and reader is the technique of allusion. Japanese poetry uses a device called honkadori, in which a modern poem references and builds on an older one through quotes or the names of famous places and characters. In modern English haiku, allusion can be as simple as mentioning the title or author of a famous work in order to build a similar atmosphere:

    A page of Shelley
brightens and dims
      with passing clouds

~Rod Willmot, The Haiku Anthology

reading Basho,
the mournful strains
of Coltrane’s horn

~Charles Rossiter, Thirds

lighting the path
to Walden Pond--
  my bedside lamp

~Ebba Story, The Haiku Anthology

In this last example, the allusion also functions as a riddle; the last line shows that the speaker is not physically near Walden Pond, but reading Thoreau’s work.

There is a sort of sub-genre of allusion in English haiku which consists of references to specifically Japanese culture:

flea…
that you
Issa?

~Raymond Roseliep, The Haiku Anthology

Haiku has a unique relationship with allusion, in that it is easy for a reader to quickly compose a response to a favorite poem. The same images may occur in dozens of haiku, each containing the poet’s personal and unique perception. Consider the following haiku and Basho’s furu ike[3]:

frog pond--
a leaf falls in
without a sound

~Bernard Lionel Einbond, The Haiku Anthology

old pond a frog rises belly up

~Marlene Mountain, The Haiku Anthology

Some allusions are culturally specific; for example, the two following haiku may be harder to grasp for non-Catholics and those unacquainted with Martin Buber’s Ich and Du, respectively. This detracts somewhat from the haiku’s universality, but it pays off in the closer bond initiated readers experience with the poem.

Ash wednesday--
the joints between the cobbles
lined with confetti

~Max Verhart, dust of summers

downpour:
my “I-Thou”
T-shirt

~Raymond Roseliep, The Haiku Anthology

Finally, allusion may consist of phrases and ideas from general literature:

Lying--
I tell him I’m not looking
for a prince.

~Alexis Rotella, The Haiku Anthology

One literary device distinctive to modern English haiku is visual or concrete poetry. While concrete poetry has existed almost as long as the printing press[4], Marlene Mountain introduced the concept of “unaloud haiku” with her 1977 poem “Labium.” Typically, the goal of concrete haiku is blend visual shapes with verbal images:

 
~Marlene Mountain, marlenemountain.org


~Jeffrey Winke, Thirds

Other concrete haiku give a sense of action and change, such as a frog’s leap or a rooster’s hop:


~Marlene Mountain, The Haiku Anthology


~Marlene Mountain, The Haiku Anthology

What all these literary devices have in common is the goal of transferring an experience or perception from the haiku writer to the reader. The English language’s rich literary tradition makes it difficult for many poets to express an experience without incorporating literary devices—and that is perfectly acceptable. However objective the genre attempts to be, haiku is a form of poetry, and poetry is the communication of one human mind to another—complete with its attendant visualizations, comparisons, and improbable images.

 

Works Cited

Huevel, Cor van den, ed. The Haiku Anthology 3rd edition. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc, 1999.

Kacien, Jim, ed. Dust of summers: the Red Moon Anthology of English-Language Haiku. Winchester, VA: Red Moon P, 2007.

Mountain, Marlene. "Unaloud Haiku." Mar. 1978. Oct. 2008 <http://www.marlenemountain.org/essays/essay_unaloud.html>.

Reichhold, Jane. Writing and Enjoying Haiku. Tokyo: Kodansha International, 2002.

Rossiter, Charles, William Schmidtkunz, and Jeffrey Winke. Thirds. Madison, WI: Distant Thunder P, 1985.

Footnotes

[1] Wabi, the "loneliness" of living in nature: sabi, "lean" or "withered." Leonard Koren defined wabi-sabi as an aesthetic recognizing the beauty of the "imperfect, impermanent, and incomplete."

[2] A humorous or satirical haiku

[3] Furu ike ya / kawazu tobikomu / mizu no oto: most frequently translated as old pond / a frog jumps into / the sound of water

[4] "Anagram" appeared in the 1633 edition of George Herbert's The Temple.

About


Megan Arkenberg is an award-winning writer, poet, and editor of speculative fiction. Her work has appeared in Asimov's, Lightspeed, Strange Horizons, and dozens of other places. She blogs sporadically at Bitter Irony.

Megan's new website is www.meganarkenberg.com

Contact