Rape has been mistakenly called a sex crime. Nothing can be farther from the truth. Rape is a crime of power and violence in which sex is the weapon. P 139 Violent Crime
As has been stated time and time again, serial crime doesn’t evolve in a vacuum. The offender will begin to exhibit deviant behavior early in childhood. The purpose of this section isn’t to focus on childhood behaviors(that will be covered in another section), the purpose of this section is to focus on what is called the “arc or progression of violence” behaviors. That is some sort of criminal enterprise the offender will engage in prior to starting his killing career.
The two types of criminal behavior that will be our main focus is sexual assault and arson. Both areas have been shown to be precursor to serial crime. Offenders such as David Berkowitz(AKA The Son of Sam) admitted to setting fires while he was actively killing, Arthur Shawcross had served time for arson before he began killing. Richard Ramirez(AKA The Night stalker) began his career as a cat burglar and rapist.
Rape may be defined as the crime of having sexual intercourse with another person forcible and against his or her will
Rape is often viewed mistakenly as a sexually motivated act in reality it is a violent crime. Statutory rape is sexual intercourse that is unlawful because it involves a person younger than the age prescribed by the statute as the age of consent.
Forcible rape is sexual penetration without a person’s consent.
Rapists tend to be young with 80% under the age of 30 and 75% under the age of 25. Many come from lower class backgrounds and are members of minority groups. Most Choose victims of their own race.
Many rapists psychosexual backgrounds include histories of conflict and other trouble with women as well as marked inability to relate to women personally and sexually.
Rapists are usually unarmed in one case in 4 when a rapist is armed the weapon is usually a knife or other sharp instrument.
Most stranger rapists plan their attacks and most have histories of violence. 1 in 3 has a prior record for a violent crime and 25 % have been before the court for rape.
The mother of the rapists is usually described as having been in the rapists childhood, rejecting, excessively controlling, dominant, punitive, overprotective and seductive. The father is usually described as uninvolved, aloof, distant, absent or passive but occasionally punitive and cruel. Some researchers suggest that in the case of the sex offender parental cruelly inconsistency of discipline envy and sexual frustration as well as over stimulation or seduction are the principle factors that influence the rapist’s personality and criminal behavior.
The rapist may have experienced parental seductiveness in childhood. Usually from his mother this may have ranged from covert seductive behavior to actual sexual involvement. A history of early prolonged bed sharing with a sibling or parent may have sensitized the rapist unduly to sexual stimulation during childhood.
The professional literature suggests that parental rejection domination, cruelty and seductiveness are important factors in the early life of the rapists. During childhood mild to moderate social maladjustments of the future rapist may be evidenced in fighting temper tantrums, truancy and stealing.
A study of violent rapists being treated at the Atascadero State Hospital in California reported the following:
• The majority of the rapists demonstrated poor relations with women, lack self confidence and negative self-concepts.
• Of the sample of 51% indicated they were seeking power or dominance over their victims.
• The majority had planned to have sex on the day they committed rape and 92% said rape was their intention
None of the 75 subjects indicated a lack of sexual outlet as a reason for his crimes.
The word pedophile means a lover of children. The pedophile has developed a sexual interest in children that ranges from fondling to mutilation and murder.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association define pedophile as the acts or fantasy of engaging in sexual activity with prepubescent children as a repeatedly preferred or exclusive method of achieving sexual excitement. This is the classic definition that illustrate the action involved(sexual) the age of the child victim(prepubescent) and an indication of duration(repeatedly or exclusive). But another group of pedophiles termed hebephiles prefers children who are already into puberty. It is indicative of a type of child offender who makes a distinction regarding victimization solely on age.
The Situational Child Molester
The situational pedophile typically has fewer victims than the preferential type. This child molester dose not have a true sexual interest in children but will experiment with children when stress in introduced into his life. Also this type of sexual molester will not only molest children but will also abuse the elderly, the impaired or the sick. With in the situational type are several subtypes.
The Regressed Child Molester
This pedophile has a situational occurrence that impels him to turn to children as a temporary not permanent object for sexual gratification.
Something has occurred in the molester’s life that challenges his or her self-image and results in poor self-esteem. This type of molester may collect child pornography but is not likely as the fixated pedophile to do so. The regressed pedophile has been traditionally involved with adults in normal relationships certainly some interpersonal problems are extant but from an outward perspective no great problems exist in relating with adults in personal as well as sexual relationships.
Psychologically this type of child offender experiences the child as a pseudo adult because of some type of situational stress. Often this type of child molester is married and lives with his family but something happens in his life that propels him into a circumstance in whish he feels more comfortable in the presence of children which in turn results in the sexual victimization of children.
Holmes and Holmes report that the regressed type is more apt to sexually abuse children he does not know and the children are typically victims of opportunity. Also this adult is more apt to sexually abuse females. He is generally geographically stable, employed, married, may have some problems with alcohol abuse and may have low self-esteem.
The Morally Indiscriminate Molester
Is an abuser of all available persons. Children are just another category of victim it is not likely that children are preferred as sexual partners with this type of molester. The morally indiscriminate offender has a basic motivation toward sexual experimentation. He is a try sexual. He may be involved in a wide variety of sexual practices. He may involve his biological c children or children by marriage in these sexual practice. This type of child molester does not have a sexual preference for children they are simply there.
Naive or Inadequate Child Molester:
The molester include these persons who are suffering from some form of mental disorder that renders them unable to make the distinction between right and wrong in most areas including sexual practices with children. The people in the neighborhood will know this molester and he will have a reputation in the community for being strange or bizarre. They are loners usually not by choice by because they are not capable of establishing personal relationships with others. This type of sexual predator usually does not physically harm a child and his is more likely to experiment with children with sexual practices that include holding, fondling, kissing, licking and so on, but not sexual intercourse, oral or anal sex.
Children are non-threatening to the molester and he or she feels more in control of t his form of relationship as opposed to relationships that involve adults. If he has a collection of pornography it is typically not of the child porn genre.
Preferential child Molester
This group of abusers prefers children as the providers of personal and sexual gratification.
Mysoped Child Molester and Killer
One type has made the vital connection between sexual gratification and personal violence. This is the sadistic pedophile.
Some pedophiles are intent on molesting children with the express desire to harm their victims physically. This type of pedophile who is usually male has made vital connection between sexual arousal and fatal violence.
Typically, the child is a stranger to this aggressive and sadistic child offender. It appears also that this offender may stalk children rather than use any form of seduction.
The mysoped will often abduct a child from places where children gather. He will usually not attempt to seduce or otherwise induce the child to go with him he simple takes the child by force.
This type of child offender is not really developed past the point where he as a child found children attractive and desirable. He has become fixed and an early stage of psychosexual development. The fixated type of child molester’s pedophiliac interest started in adolescence unlike the case of regressed child offenders there is no precipitating cause in his c child abuse. His interest in children is persistent and compulsive. Male victims are the preferred targets of abuse.
Fixated Child Molester
Has little or no activity with people his own age usually is single and is considered to be immature and uncomfortable around other adults. This offender is often childlike in his lifestyle and behaviors. Burg found that may pedophiles select children as sexual objects because youths are less demanding, more easily dominated and less critical of their partner’s performance than are adults.
The fixated child offender is not interested in physically harming the child. He loves children and does not desire to do anything that might harm them. He courts a child, buys the child gifts as a seduction ploy and slowly becomes intimate with the child.
Oral-genital sex is the norm and actual intercourse develops only after a generous period of time has passed.
Has an aggressive and antisocial personality and is best considered to be a sociopath. Because of the sociopath and aggressive personality he may also possess a criminal record. The sadistic offender will have a sex preference. He will choose young boys.
The molester and fatal abuser often will mutilate the young victim even to the extent of decapitation and cutting off the penis that is inserted either into the victims mouth or anus.
The sadistic offender is more likely to be geographically transient. He is more likely to hold sporadic employment positions less likely to form long lasting personal relationships and is more likely to move on very quickly after a fatal victimization.
Has young boys as his preferred sexual target. It may be that the fixated pedophile selects children as sexual objects because youths are less demanding more easily dominated and less critical of their partner’s performance than are adults.
Immature and Regressed Child Offenders
More apt to be geographically stable. The fixated offender may move from one area of the country to another in his search for victims, taking some time in the area to cultivate and find the children to victimize.
The immature or naive offender does not have a sexual preference for the child victim. The regressed offender does have a sexual preference.
Two types of child abusers will use the computer is their search for child victims the sadistic and fixated.
Among violent sexual offenders, often the only logic to their crimes is internal to the criminal, they alone know why they committed their crimes.
The sexual component of a crime is not always self-evident. The behavior may be blatant, or it may be so subtle that it escapes detection. Then again, some crimes may only seem to be sexually motivated.(Hazelwood 3)
Some people preferentially act out their desires with prepubescent children(pedophiles) teenagers(hebephiles) or the elderly(gerontophiles). Others select age mates as their victims and a few will sexually assault victims of any age.(Hazelwood 4)
Certain offenders commit exclusive homosexual crimes, others limit themselves to offenses against heterosexuals, and others are attracted to either gender.(Hazelwood 4)
Some sexual crimes involve only the sense of sight(voyeurism and exhibitionism) only the sense of hearing(telephone) or only the sense of touch(frotteurism). However, most offenders will employ all of the available senses. Many offenders are aroused by a victim's suffering(sadists) while others are excited by their own pain(Masochists). Then there are sadomasochists, who may be aroused in either way simultaneously or in separate incidents.(Hazelwood 5)
Highly ritualistic behavior marks some types of sexual crimes. While others are characterized by impulsiveness at times. Strange mixes of both ritualism and spontaneity.(Hazelwood 5)
A victims torment may be heightened by extended captivity conversely, as in cases involving comatose patients, those under anesthesia or victims who have been given the date rape drug rohypenol, the target might be completely unaware of what is happening.
The rapist achieves his gratification, not from sexual release, but from the thrill of domination, control and power.
You might define fantasy as a mental rehearsal of a desired event. This mental rehearsal plays a center role in the enactment of sexual offenses. It serves as a kind of editing mechanism that allows the offender to focus on the details of the crime that are uniquely arousing to him.(Hazelwood 18)
Sexual crimes begin as fantasy, but fortunately only a small minority of fantasies lead to sexual crimes. According to mental health professionals everyone harbors hidden desires, if only feelingly. Yet for the vast majority, simply contemplating forbidden acts seems to suffice.
The sexual offender crosses the threshold where o others do not. No one knows exactly why an individual graduates from simply imagining his crimes to what serial killer, Ted Bundy called inappropriate acting out.(Hazelwood 39)
The Impulsive Offender
This is not an intelligent criminal. He is apt to be dull witted and foolish and is least successful at evading identification and apprehension.
He lacks discipline and self-control. He makes poor decisions and carries out his crimes in an unplanned unsophisticated manner.(Hazelwood 40)
The impulsive offender lacks clarity or definition and so do his fantasies. The victim appears to him in primitive terms: female available, vulnerable. She may be a stranger, his wife or girlfriend or a prostitute. He is not a discriminating criminal. Women to him serve a single function: They are disposable vessels for gratification.(Hazelwood 41).
The Ritualistic Offender
The ritualistic offender is a connoisseur of his crime. He is the thinking criminal a virtuoso of his own aberrant urges. He spends enormous amounts of time in fantasy, carefully working out the details before acting out the mechanics of his ritualized sexual offense.
The ritualistic offender is cunning methodical and usually invisible.(Hazelwood 42)
Dr. Warren and Roy Hazelwood have identified 5 specific components that are common to all ritualistic offenders/fantasies:
4. Victim Demographics
5. Self-Perceptional(Hazelwood 43)
The sexual offender is never fully inactive. He may not be acting out against a specific victim, but he will be making plans, selecting new targets, acting against other victims or gathering materials. He is never dormant(Hazelwood 56)
The sexual sadist is a meticulous planner. Spending inordinate amounts of time inside his own head. He may devote months or even years imagining his intended crime turning it over and over in his mind. He hates surprises and any kind of spontaneity. If possible he will rehearse every step of his crime repeatedly and do everything imaginable to reduce his chance of failure(Hazelwood 87)
1st the sexual sadist identifies a likely partner/victim.
2nd seduction the sexual sadist’s goal is to have the targeted woman fall in love with him
3rd the sexual sadist reshapes his compliant partner’s sexual norms using some basic behavior modification techniques.
4th often carried out in concert with step 3 is to socially isolate the woman from her family, friends and associates.
5th /final step punishment, once the relationship has reached this point all pretense of love and caring disappears(Hazelwood 112-114).
Criminal Enterprise rape or sexual assault involves sexual coercion, abuse or assault committed for material gain.(Douglas et al 199)(Girod 163)
Felony Rape involves sexual assault committed during the commission of a felony. Whether the rape was the p primary or secondary intent(Douglas et al 199)(Girod 164)
1. Primary Felony Rape is a nonsexual felony(robbery, burglary) in which the victim is at the scene and sexually assaulted as a 2nd offense.
Victimology–usually an adult female.
Crime Scene- Evidence of primary felony(robbery, burglary)
Forensic Findings- Forensic evidence of sexual assault.
Investigation-Look for similar felonies in the area including MO and similar stolen items(Douglas et al 199-200)(Girod 164)
2. Secondary Felony Rape involves a sexual assault accompanied by a 2nd planned felony(robbery, burglary)
The nonsexual secondary felony would occur if the victim was not present
Victimology- usually an adult female
Crime Scene-Evidence of burglary or robbery.
Forensic Findings sexual assault evidence and indicators that the offender knew the victim would be present.
Investigation the offender is likely to have been in the area before and probably has a history of robbery and rape in the area. The sexual offense is preferentially motivated(Douglas et al 201) (Girod 164)
3. Personal cause sexual assault results from interpersonal aggression and sexual victimization to person (s) who may or may not be known to the offender. The assault is motivated by an underlying emotional conflict or psychological issue.(Douglas et al 202-203)
4. Nuisance Offenses:
A) Isolated/Opportunistic Offenses in which the offender takes an opportunity or something that presents itself(wrong number, obscene phone calls).
B) Preferential offenses involving preferential sexual acts characterized by rigid ritualistic patterns of behavior(peeping, exposing repeated obscene phone calls.)
C) Transition offenses such as peeping may be a result of exploiting arousal patterns, building confidence, improving the ability to commit the offense, as an early step in criminal sexual development.
D)Preliminary offenses are nuisance offenses which are a preliminary component of a contact sexual offense e.g. a fetish burglar who cases a home prior to returning to commit a rape. This is a prelude to even more serious sexual offenses(Douglas et al 203-24)(Girod 165)
5. Domestic Sexual Assault involves a family household or former household member who sexual assaults another member. The assault may be spontaneous, situational and triggered by a real or imagined stressful event perceived by the offender as an injustice.
1. Adult Domestic Sexual Assault involves assault to a spouse or common law relationship and usually is characterized by a history of prior abuse or conflict.
Victimology familial or common law relationships.
Crime Scene usually one scene reflecting disorder, impetuousness, and/or the escalation of violence.
Forensic Findings alcohol or drugs may be involved. The sexual assault is preceded by violence including trauma to the face and body.
Investigation look for a history of conflict due to external sources e.g. financial, vocational, alcohol.
2. Child Domestic Sexual Abuse includes sexual assault on any household member under the age of majority.
Victimology familial or common law relationships usually associated with prior abuse or conflict.
Crime Scene usually the victim’s and/or offenders residence.
Forensic Findings vaginal or anal scarring. Lack of medical corroboration does not preclude victimization.(Douglas et al 205-207)(Girod 165)
Entitlement Rape involves the offender forcing the victim into sexual activity. Issues of power and control are underlying psychological conflicts.
A. Social Acquaintance Rape involves prior knowledge or a relationship between the victim and offender e.g. date rape, student/teacher or athlete/coach relationships with children it might involve a neighbor or family friend. Subcategories include:
B. Subordinate Rape involves a status imbalance in which one person has power over another by employment education or age:
C. Power Reassurance Rape involves the goal of developing a relationship with an adolescent with sexual activity being secondary to the interpersonal intent. The victim is seen as an appropriate social and sexual companion and the offender perceives it as mutually satisfying. This is usually not violent in nature. Subcategories include:
D. Exploitative Rape or opportunistic rape is an expression of low aggression not exceeding the force necessary to gain compliance callous indifference to the victim is evident. Subcategories include:
4. Anger rape is characterized by highly expressive unprovoked physical and verbal aggression or force in excess of that necessary to gain victim compliance. Rage is evident and may be manifested by punishment rather than sexual gratification. Subcategories include:
A) Anger Rape Gender(woman hating) which is intended to hurt, demean, humiliate or punish the victim.
B) Anger Rape(age) which is motivated by expressing anger toward a specific group(usually the young or elderly). Subcategories include:
1) Anger Rape Elderly Victim
2) Anger Rape Child Victim
C) Anger Rape(Racial) is racially motivated and victims are usually of different race than the offender.
D) Anger Rape(Global) involves an offender who is angry at the world and expresses a history of fighting men. This offender is impulsive, exhibits behavior problems and beings his encounters with the law at an early age. Offenses are usually not planned.(Douglas et al 219-225)(Girod 167)
5) Sadistic Rape involves the offender’s sexual arousal as a result of the victims pain fear or discomfort. Behavioral evidence may include whipping, bondage, violence against erogenous parts of the victims body insertion of foreign objects intercourse after the victim is unconscious and the use of urine and/or feces. Subcategories include:
A) Sadistic Rape, Adult
B) Sadistic Rape, Adolescent
C) Sadistic Rape, Child(Douglas et al 227-229)(Girod 167)
6) Child/Adolescent pornography involves collectors who collect, maintain and prize child pornography. They are classified as:
A) Closet Collectors who keep secret their interest in pornography and deny involvement with children.
B) Isolated Collectors choose sexual activity with one child at a time and may be involved with their own children, children of neighbors, nephews etc. They may also seek out children not know to them by traveling.
C)Cottage Collectors are pedophiles who sexually exploit children in a group. The intent is to create a relationship with other pedophile collectors and as a method of communication.(Douglas et al 230-231)(Girod 167)
7) Historical Child/Adolescent sex rings use children to create obscene materials(photos, movies and videos for private and commercial uses.)
A) Solo child Sex Rings involve several children in sexual activities with an adult(usually male) who recruits them.
B) Transitional child Sex Rings involve multiple offenders and victims. The offenders are known to each other and collect and share victims.
C) Syndicated Child Sex rings are well structured organizations involved in the recruitment of children. The production of pornography, the delivery of sexual services and the establishment of an extensive network or customers.(Douglas et al 232-237)(Girod 167)
8) Multidimensional Sex Rings involve multiple young offenders. Multiple offenders, fear as a control tactic and bizarre or ritualistic activity(Douglas et al 240-241)(Gird 168)
A) Adult Survivor Sex Rings (almost always women) of almost any age in therapy and often diagnosed with MPD. Adult survivors reveal childhood victimization that includes multiple victims and offenders fear as a control tactic and bizarre and/or ritualistic activities. Offenders are described as members of satanic or cult groups with civic leaders, police officers or persons wearing police uniforms present during the exploitation. The offenders may still harass or threaten the victims and in several cases women claim t have had babies taken for human sacrifice.(Douglas et al 241)(Gird 168)
B) Day Care Sex Rings involve multiple victims and offenders fear and bizarre or ritualistic activity. Prescriptions of strange games of killing animals or photographing activities of wearing costumers are common(Douglas et al 241)(Gird 168)
C) Family/Isolated Neighborhood Sex Rings are described by children in which their victimization is with in their family or extended family. The group is often defined by geographic boundaries. Offenders are usually male and victims tend to be more than 6 years of age, custody or visitation disputes are often involved(Douglas et al 241)(Gird 168)
D) Custody/Visitation Dispute Sex Rings involve the same dynamics as other multidimensional sex rings but also involve the taking of the child victim into hiding by a parent during a custody or visitation dispute(Douglas et al 242)(Gird 168)
9) Abduction Rape involves forcibly removing a person from one location to another and committing a sexual assault at a second location. Subcategories include:
C) Child(Douglas et al 242)(Gird 169)
10) Group Cause Sexual Assault involves multiple(3 or more) offenders. Group Dynamics contagion effects, defusing or responsibility etc) and social dynamics(developed gang cultures) foster gang rape yet motivations may vary(Douglas et al 244)(Gird 169)
A) Formal Gang Sexual Assault is characterized by some international organizational structure and a gang with a name and identifying features(colors, insignias, dress patterns) the gang must have a mission or purpose other than the assault. Subcategories include:
1) Single Victim
2) Multiple Victim(Douglas et al 244)(Gird 169)
B) Informal Gang Sexual Assault involves a loosely structured group that congregates, perhaps on the spur of the moment, for antisocial purpose. There is no formal organizational structure or evidence that group constitutes a formal gang. Subcategories include:
1) Single Victim
2) Multiple Victims(Douglas et al 245)(Gird 169)
1) The Power Reassurance Rapist who expresses his rape fantasies.
2) The Exploitative Rapist w ho expresses impulsive predatory sexual behavior
3) The anger Rapist who expresses sexual behavior as anger and rage.
4) The sadistic rapist who expresses sexual behavior through sexually aggressive sadistic fantasies.(Douglas et al 194-195)(Gird 169)
Stephen Michaud and Roy Hazelwood divide rapists into six(6) groups(Gird 170)
1) The power reassurance rapist who tries to reassure himself of his own masculinity by expressing physical control over women(Michaud and Hazelwood 71)(Gird 170)
2) The power Assertive Rapist who assaults to assert his masculinity and his macho self image(Michaud and Hazelwood 72-73)(Gird 170)
3) The Anger Retaliatory Rapist who is angry at woman for real or imagined wrongs. His is impulsive spends little time with victims often experiencing sexual dysfunction and uses excessive force(Michaud and Hazelwood 73)
4) The Anger Excitation Rapist who is the most dangerous and is a sexual sadist who is stimulated by his victims suffering(Michaud and Hazelwood 74)
5) The opportunistic Rapist who is the only type who commits sexual assault for sexual desire usually while committing another crime.(Michaud and Hazelwood 76)
6) The Gang Rapist who participates in pathological group behavior in which the victim is almost always seriously injured. “There is always a leader and a reluctant participant who often makes himself know to the victim.”(Michaud and Hazelwood 76)(Gird 170)
Source Information: Dark Dreams; Roy Hazelwood, Stephen G. Michaud. St. Martin Press. 2001
Source Information: Obsession, John Douglas and Mark Olshanker. 1998 Simon and Schuster Inc.
I have Lived In the Monster. Robert K. Ressler and Tom Shachtman. 1997. St. Martin Press.
Profiling Violent Crimes An Investigative Tool Third Edition by Ronald M. Holmes and Stephen T. Holmes 2002 Sage Publications
Profiling The Criminal Mind by Dr. Robert J. Girod Sr. 2004 Iuniverse Inc.
Crime Classification Manual by John Douglas, Ann W. Burgess, Allen G. Burgess and Robert K. Ressler 1992 Jossey- Bass Inc.