Cosmologies

Interpreted by J.B.Waskul

The Japanese Spirit Realm

 The Japanese have many facinating tales involving ghosts, demons, and nature spirits which are known as yokai (youkai). The yokai have their origins in the ancient Shinto religion, with the veneration of nature spirits and the worship of ancestors. The practice of Shinto beleifs involves ritual offerings of food at a temple or shrine to keep the spirit world appeased. Many places are sacred to the yokai and violation of these spaces can lead to misfortune or death.

During the Edo Period (1603-1868) the popularity of yokai reached new heights with the practice of the Hyaku Monogatari (One-Hundred Stories). The Hyaku Monogatari was a gathering in a hall lit by one-hundred candles where storytellers would practice their skills at folklore and ghost stories. After the end of each story, one of the candles was put out, gradually making the room darker and darker. After the one-hundredth story was told, the final candle was snuffed out and a ghost was said to appear.

Adding further to the legacy of the yokai were the artistic talents Toriyama Sekien (1712-1788) and Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849) who created many of the images of spirits and beastiaries that are common references even today. Yokai have maintained their popularity in Japan through manga (Ge Ge Ge no Kitaro by Shigeru Mizuki), movies (The Great Yokai War by Takashi Miike), anime and video games (many Pokemon are designed after yokai).

Through the centuries the yokai have changed and grown through the telling and retelling of the stories. Much like Santa Claus and the Easter Bunny for western culture. However, the underlying characteristic of any of the yokai seem to be that they have a fixed sphere of influence on the world and have a set of rules they must live by. By learning the rules a human may gain control of or protect themselves from the yokai. There are hundreds or different types of yokai and their appearance can range from looking like an average person to a horrific monster. Many can disguise themselves with shapeshifting abilities and all of them have supernatural abilities of one sort or another. 

Here is a brief listing of some of the yokai:

Nature Spirits

The yokai nature spirits are shapeshifters and quite often take on a human form until they are discovered.

Kitsune

The fox woman is a benevolent yokai. Although she is known for being a trickster, she is also known for her loyalty as a friend, lover and wife. Tales often tell of her outwitting wrongdoers for the sake of those she loves. While in fox form she may have as many as nine tales.

Yuki-onna

The snow woman who appears during blizzards and brings death by freezing with her visitations. She is desribed as a tall beautiful maiden with pale white skin. Yuki-Onna may be clothed in a flowing white kimono or naked with only her face, long black hair and pubic hair visable against the snowy background. She moves ghostlike across the ground leaving no footprints behind her. 

Kappa

This water imp is known to have a turtle-like appearance with human-like appendages. The kappa has webbed hands and feet which have razor sharp claws that he uses as weapons. Although the kappa has been known to kill and eat people he has a reputation as a prankster as well. The top of the kappa's head is bowl-shaped and filled with water. If bowed to, the kappa out of courtesy will bow in return, and pour the water out of his head, causing him to loose his magical powers.

Tsuchigumo

These giant spiders are typically depicted as female with a hunger for human blood. They are predatory by nature and have the gift of illusion. They are known for lulling their victims into thinking the web they are in is a remote country cottage or shrine. While their unsuspecting guests are sleeping, the spider slowly poisons them to death.

 

Okami - Although all known indigenous wolf spieces are now concidered extinct on the island of Japan since the begining of the twentyth century, their spirits may still roam the open wilderness areas. They are known to be benevolent and protective spirits, much along the line of the Kitsune.

 

Bakeneko/Nekomata

According to folklore any cat may become a Bakeneko if it lives long enough. With time they grow quite large, gain the ability to walk on their hind legs and use their forepaws as hands. Eventually the Bakeneko will be able to take on human form. These cat-people will ultimately try to take over their masters household by any means. At first they will try to frightening their owner away by tricking them into thinking their house is haunted by creating strange sounds in the middle of the night and generating ghost fire (Hitodama). If this fails, the Bakeneko will attempt to arrange a fatal accident for their master or they may just devour their owner and take their place. The power of the Bakeneko lies in its tail and it will loose all of its magical abilities if it is cut off. The most powerful of these cat-people is the Nekomata, which has two tails.

 

Tengu

There are as many varieties of these bird-people as there are birds. They have shape-shifting abilities and of course the gift of flight. The Tengu are indifferent toward humans at best and malevolent at worst. They are vain creatures that are always seeking out gems, jewelry and treasures to add to their nests. A gift of such an item may gain their favor, if only breifly. Anyone foolish enough to steal from a Tengu may find themselves whisked off their feet and dropped from a great height or torn apart by razor sharp claws. 

 

 

 

Abura-sumashi

A goblin or earth spirit with a large potato-shaped head and wearing long grasses as clothing. He is known for stealing lamp oil which he drinks.

 

 

 

 

 

Japanese Ghosts (Yurei)

The ghosts of Japan have many possible forms depending on who they were and how they died. One common appearance of ghosts as beings in white robes was established by Noh and Kabuki theatre. However, in prints they may be shown as floating spectors covered with blood, as twisted figures or faded misty spirits. These traditional images of ghosts have carried over into contemporary J-Horror (Ringu by Hideo Nakata, Chakushin Ari by Takashi Miike and Ju-on by Takashi Shimizu)

Onryo

Vengeful spirits that return to punish the ones that did them wrong in life. 

Ubume - The ghost of a mother that lingers in the world of the living to protect her child.

Goryo - A vengeful ghost from elite society usually of someone that has been martyred.

 

Funa-yurei

Spirits of sailors, fishermen or anyone that perished at sea. They are often seen walking on the surface of the water near the place they drown or as ghostly reflections.

Zashiki-warash - Ghosts of children who are commonly unaware that they have died. 

Warrior Ghosts - The spirit of soldiers that haunt the battlefield in which they died. 

Seductress Ghost - One story tells of how a man met a beautiful maiden one evening at the crossroads near his village and was envited to her home.  No one in his village knew her but when he told them where she lived, he found out that it was a cemetery and was warned to stay away from her. However, the maiden visited him at his home the next evening and enticed him to coming with her. The next day he was found dead in a tomb at the cemetery embracing the skeleton of a young woman that had died long ago. 

Gaki

A spirit cursed by greater powers for their greed or jelousy in life. Commonly said to be a Buddist monk who did not keep his vows, this creature is filled with self-loathing and is looked upon with pity.  The gaki must satiate their constant hunger with things they find repugnant (ie. human corpses, filth, dung). No matter how much they eat, the Gaki appear emaciated, like the victims of famine and are often depicted with small mouths or narrow throats that will not allow for the adequate passage of food to their starvation-bloated bellies. 

Jikininki - It may appear as a living human during the day but at night, like the Gaki, this spirit is cursed with eating corpses.

 

 

 

Hitodama - In the presence of ghosts, spirits and other supernatural activities a "ghost fire" will appear. It remains unclear as to whether the hitodama is a ghost unto itself or a bi-product of spiritual forces. They appear to be similar to the Will o' the wisp or ghostly orbs of western culture and are commonly seen floating around other Yurei.

 

Tsukumo-Gami (Living Artifacts) 

These creatures seem to be created from fragile household items that gain life on their one-hundredth birthday and go on to live out a mischievous existense.

Bakezouri

Straw sandals that have gained the ability to walk on their own. If they are put on, the wearer will find himself wandering aimlessly as if lost or walking into realms reserved for spiritual beings. If the bakezouri have a dislike for their wearer, they will lead them into perilous situations. 

Karakasa (Kasa Obake)

The parasol or umberella monster gains the ability to float or fly. As with all the living artifacts it takes great joy in startling mortals and playing tricks on them.

 

 

 

 

 

Chochinobake

The paper lantern monster has the ability to float about by carrying itself down lonely paths to lead mortals astray. It may also start fires to damage homes and property. The chochinobake also has the ability to colapse itself and suddenly pop up to surprise the unwary human.

Kameosa

The kameosa is a sake jar that gains the remarkable ability of never running dry. It takes great joy in getting mortals drunk and then further confusing them with a wide variety of pranks and illusions. Some kameosa have the ability to produce any liquid; from the finest sake to the vilest poisons. For many reasons the kameosa may be a mixed blessing to any household due to their influence on emotions by inducing love, hate, infidelity, foolish trust and blind rage.

Morinji-no-kama - The most famous story of a morinji-no-kam tells of how a tea kettle was purchaced by a buddist monk, but when he brought it to the monestary it tranformed back and forth from a tea kettle into a tanuki (raccoon dog). When it was prayed over the transformations ceased and it remained a tea kettle. A shrine was later created in the monestary to honor this magical artifact.

 

Human Transformations

The forces that tranform a human into a yokai remain enigmatic. Unlike the trasformation into ghosts, these creatures have a physical presence.

Rokuro-kubi 

This long neck yokai is often female and unaware of their own supernatual ability to stretch out their necks in a serpent-like fashion at night. They may learn of this unusual ability through dreams of seeing their bedroom from odd angles while they are sleeping. Once the gain knowlege of their power it becomes impossible for them to resist from using it to spy on or frighten people. They also suffer the need to show-off their ability, but will only expose themselves to drunkards, the blind or the village idiot in order to maintain some degree on deniability.

Hannya - This yokai is created by a supernatural forces and obsessive behavior. It is an affliction that most commonly affects women, transforming them into vicious demons due to excessive jealousy, suspicion, anger or hatred. The hannya's face has large glaring eyes and a long, narrow frown that stretches from ear to ear. Sharp bull-like horns sprout from her head which make it impossible to hide her true nature. 

Futakuchi-onna - The two-mouthed woman has mouth that magically appears on the back of her head. Her hair becomes animated and begins feeding the second mouth large quantities of food. The futakuchi-onna is a curse inflicted upon the greedy husband.  

Noppera-bo 

A faceless ghost or spirit that frightens the unwary traveler that comes up to them from behind. A haunting from the noppera-bo can cause the victim to see everyone around them as faceless and drive them to madness. 

Yamma-uba - The Mountain Crone is a creature that hungers for human flesh and preys upon travellers who have become lost in the wilderness. She has has many different schemes for luring her prey to their deaths and uses her ability to appear as a beautiful woman, a friend, or defensless old lady to gain the trust of her prey. Once she has her victim trapped, her hair becomes like tenticles that grab her victim and pull them into a huge toothy maw opens up on top of her head.

Dorotabo 

The dorotabo is a farmer who haunts his abused land as a walking corpse. According to some tales, after living a lifetime so closely with his land and maintaining it for so many years, he will act as its custodian even after death. The dorotabo makes its presence known only at night, crying out for the return of his land, Unlike a normal haunting by ghosts the dorotabo has the actual physical presence of a corpse, infused with the rocks, dirt, and plants that grew on his land.

 

 

 

For a more comprehensive listing of yokai visit the Obakemono Project at http://www.obakemono.com/

The Chinese Zodiac

The Chinese zodiac is familiar to most of us through the placemats we see in Asian restaurants. In the Far East however, it is used to track the twelve year cycle of Jupiter. The corresponding animals of their zodiac represent the constellations that lie in the ninety degree perimeter of the pole-star unlike the western zodiac which is defined by the consellations that fall within the path of the sun and planets (known as the ecliptic). The Big Dipper or Pei Tou is the most important consellation in Chinese astrology because all the other stars revolve around it.

As with the western zodiac the Chinese zodiac was used for divination.

This ninth-century Tang Dynasty concept describes the universe in five wheels (center to outer ring):

 

a) To the center is the symbol representing the opposing forces of yin/yang and the duality of nature. Common themes to this division are as follows:

Yin - feminine, negative, yielding/soft, follower

Yang - masculine, positive, resistant/hard, leader

b) Mystical beasts representing the four quarters of the world:

 

North - Tortoise

South - Phoenix

East - Dragon

West - White Tiger

 

c) Trigram symbols from the I Ching (the Book of Changes), defined as follows: 

||| Heaven, ||¦ The Marsh/Mist, |¦| Fire/Sun, |¦¦ Thunder, ¦|| Wind/Wood, ¦|¦ The Deep/Water, ¦¦| Mountain, and ¦¦¦ Earth

d) The twelve animals of the Chinese Zodiac are aligned with the 12-year Jupiter cycle. As part of the Chinese Calendar they are said to define the underlying character for anyone born in a given year.

 

According to one chinese legend, all the animals were invited to a party hosted by the Emperor of Heaven. As a gift the Emperor assigned the first twelve animals to the zodiac in the order that they arrived. However, in their race to get to the party the final obsticle was a great river which all the animals find a way to cross.

 

1) Rat

The rat and the cat were not strong enough swimmers to fight the current of the river and so convinced the ox to let them ride on his back to get across. Being too eager to reach the other side; the rat jumped from the shoulders of the ox and became the first to arrive at the party. But in doing so he knocked the cat into the river, whose strong current swept the cat far down stream. 

 

 

2) Ox

The ox was strong and big enough to ford the river, but being good-natured he lost his advantage to the cunning rat and so arrived in second place.

 

 

 

 

3) Tiger

Soon behind the ox came the tiger, whose great strength allowed him to swim against the treacherous current. 

 

 

 

 

 

4) Rabbit

The rabbit managed to find a series of rocks to hop on in order to cross the river but nearly drown when he slipped from one. Luckily he managed to climb onto a floating log which took him to shore.

 

 

 

5) Dragon

Having the power to fly, the dragon had no problem crossing the river. However, he was held back because he hade to make rain to help a village who was suffering a drought. Just as he was about to arrive he saw the rabbit floating on a log and decided to blow him toward the river bank.

 

 

 

6) Snake

As everyone saw the horse just about to reach the shore, it suddenly reared up when it saw a snake coiled up around its hoof. The snake was flung toward shore even as the horse fell back in surprise. 

 

 

 

7) Horse

The horse came in after the snake and to this day is still uneasy at his presence. 

 

 

 

 

 

8) Sheep

The sheep, monkey and rooster worked together to cross the river. The rooster spotted a small boat hidden in some tall reeds and led the monkey and sheep to it. The sheep cleared the reeds away from the boat and with the help of the monkey, pulled the boat across the river using a rope that was tied to a tree on the other side of the river. The emperor was very pleased with their colaboration and placed them in the zodiac.

 

9) Monkey

 

 

 

 

 

10) Rooster 

 

 

 

 

 

11) Dog

The dog was one of the best swimmers but became distracted from the task at hand. It was a hot day so the dog decided to frolic in the river and bathe before crossing.

 

 

 

 

12) Pig

The pig had decided to eat and take a nap before coming to the party and so was the last to arrive.

 

 

 

After being knocked of the back of the ox by the rat, the cat was washed too far down the river to make it to the party in time. To this day the cat has an ongoing vendetta with the rat for getting him excluded from the zodiac.

 

e) The 28 animals on the outer perimeter are the constellations of the sky equator.