Agricultural Extension and Development

Agricultural Extension and Development in Iran and world

Natural resource management systems are core to sustainable development that are characterized by a high level of complexity, and shaped by unpredictable external and internal changes, these management systems aim to address sustainability conflicts, which are faced from global to local scales. These conflicts reflect the urgent need to change current modes of production, consumption patterns and technological choices to balance human well being with ecological and social resilience. Overexploitation of natural resources, devastation of environmental services and an increasing number of social conflicts following the unsustainable use of natural resources demonstrate the wide gap between the objectives of sustainability and current resource management practices (Carpenter et al., 2002, Rammel et al., 2007). therefore, Awareness of the need to improve natural resource management has been growing around the world, based on there is general agreement in development studies that sustainable development in rural areas requires a rethinking of how actor groups—including scientists— negotiate and organize natural resource use (Long and Villareal, 1994; Strigl, 2003, Rist., et al, 2007). Sustainable resource management must be an integrated and interdisciplinary process aiming at the interdependencies between institutions, environmental dynamics, economic processes, applied technologies and dominant cultures in managing and administrating natural resources.

On the other hand, Growing population and compulsions of poverty have exerted increasing pressure on common property Natural resources leading to their gradual degradation. This has led to a renewed interest in alternative resource management system as a viable option to the current pattern of natural resource utilization (Reddy 2002). Alternative systems which may be a mix of traditional and modern approaches can help to manage natural resources on a sustainable basis. This has led to a search for feasible and sustainable alternatives to meet the pressing needs of NRM perspectives.